8 IIT JEE CHEMISTRY M 8

July 21, 2017 | Author: Dianne Thomas | Category: Coordination Complex, Ligand, Valence (Chemistry), Ion, Isomer
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IIT JEE CHEMISTRY M 8...

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• COORDINATION COMPOUND • METALLURGY • D-BLOCK • SALT ANALYSIS

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THEORY AND EXERCISE BOOKLET CONTENTS S.NO.

TOPIC

PAGE NO.

COORDINATION COMPOUND 

THEORY WITH SOLVED EXAMPLES ............................................................. 5 – 23



EXERCISE - I (JEE Main) ................................................................................ 24 – 32



EXERCISE - II (JEE Advanced – Objective) .................................................... 33 – 38



EXERCISE - III (JEE Advanced) ...................................................................... 39 – 44



EXERCISE - IV (JEE Advanced – Previous Years)................ ......................... 45 – 51



ANSWER KEY................................................................................................. 52 – 54

METALLURGY 

THEORY WITH SOLVED EXAMPLES ............................................................ 55 – 79



EXERCISE - I (JEE Main) ................................................................................ 80 – 88



EXERCISE - II (JEE Advanced – Objective) .................................................... 89 – 93



EXERCISE - III (JEE Advanced) ...................................................................... 94 – 96



EXERCISE - IV (JEE Main & JEE Advanced – Previous Years) ..................... 97 – 102



ANSWER KEY............................................................................................... 103 – 104

d-BLOCK 

THEORY WITH SOLVED EXAMPLES .......................................................... 105 – 116



EXERCISE - I (JEE Main) ...............................................................................117 – 119



EXERCISE - II (JEE Advanced – Objective) .................................................. 120 – 123



EXERCISE - III (JEE Advanced) .................................................................... 124 – 126



EXERCISE - IV (JEE Main & JEE Advanced – Previous Years) .................... 127 – 129



ANSWER KEY.................................................................................................... 130

SALT ANALYSIS 

THEORY WITH SOLVED EXAMPLES .......................................................... 131 – 151



EXERCISE - I (JEE Main) .............................................................................. 152 – 159



EXERCISE - II (JEE Advanced – Objective) .................................................. 160 – 164



EXERCISE - III (JEE Advanced) .................................................................... 165 – 166



EXERCISE - IV (JEE Main & JEE Advanced – Previous Years) .................... 167 – 173



ANSWER KEY............................................................................................... 174 – 176

Chemistry ( Booklet-1 )

Page # 4

JEE SYLLABUS

• COORDINATION COMPOUND . JEE - ADVANCED Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

• METALLURGY JEE - ADVANCED Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral). • d-BLOCK JEE - ADVANCED Transition elements (3d series): Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin and lead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate, potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate, silver thiosulphate. • SALT ANALYSIS JEE - ADVANCED Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate, sulphide and sulphite.

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Page # 5

COORDINATION COMPOUND

COORDINATION COMPOUND KEY CONCEPTS Molecular / Addition Compound : Molecular / Addition compounds are formed when stoichiometric amounts of two or more simple compounds join together. Molecular / Addition compounds are of two types. Double salts : Those which retain their identity in solutions are called double salts. For example. KCl + MgCl2 + 6H2O KCl.MgCl2. 6H2O carnallite K2SO4 + Al2(SO4)3 + 24 H2O K2SO4.Al2(SO4)3.24H2O potash alum Complex compounds : Those which loose their identity in solution (complexes). For example. CuSO4 + 4 NH3 CuSO4.4 NH3 or [ Cu(NH3)4]SO4 tetrammine copper (II) sulphate Fe(CN2) + 4 KCN Fe (CN2). 4KCN or K4[Fe(CN)6] potassium ferryocyanide When crystals of carnallite are dissolved in water, the solution shows properties of K+, Mg2+ and Cl– ions. In a similar way, a solution of potassium alum shows the properties of K+, Al3+ and SO42– ions. These are both examples of double salts which exist only in the crystalline state. When the other two examples of coordination compounds are dissolved they do not form simple ions, Cu2+ / Fe2+ and CN–, but instead their complex ions are formed. Representation of Complex Ion :

ML x n  when M = Central Metal atom /ion (usually of d-block) L = Ligand x = No. of ligands = charge on coordination n Outside region apart from coordination sphere is called ionisation sphere. 1.

Central metal atom/ion : Central ion acts as an acceptor (Lewis acid) and has to accommodate electron pairs donated by the donor atom of the ligand, it must have empty orbitals. This explains why the transition metals having empty d-orbitals form co-ordination compounds readily. Thus, in complexes [Ni(NH3)6]2+ and [Fe(CN)6]3–, Ni2+ and Fe3+ respectively are the central metal ions.

2.

Ligands : Species which are directly linked with the central metal atom/ ion in a complex ion are called ligands. The ligands are attached to the central metal atom /ion through co-ordinate or dative bond free ligands have at least one lone pair.

H – O: H

– N: :C=

– :C: : :

H

:

:

H–N–H

The lignads are thus Lewis bases and the central metal ions / natoms are Lewis acids. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 6

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Ligands can be of following types depending on the number of donor atoms pesent in them. (i)

Mono / Unidentate Ligands They have one donor atom, i.e., they can donate only one electron pair to the central metal atom /ion eg., F–, Cl–, Br–, H2O, NH3, CN–,NO2–, OH–, CO etc.

(ii)

Bidentate Ligands Ligands which have two donor atoms and have the ability to link with the central metal atom /ion at two position are called bidentate ligands e.g.

H H CH2 – N

N O



O

N



C–C

CH2 – N H H ethylenediamine (en)

O

O

oxalate (ox) 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)

H H CH 2 – N

N

N

O– – C – O –

C – O–

O

O glycinate (Gly)

carbonate

2,2-dipyridine (dipy)

(iii) Tridentate Ligands Ligands having three donor atoms are called tridentate ligands. Exmplaes are H

H H–N

N–H

H2C H 2C

N

CH2 N

N N

CH2

H 2,2'2"-terpyridine (terpy)

diethylene triamine (dien)

(iv) Tetradentate Ligands These ligands possess four donor atoms. Examples are

H

Nitriloacetate

2

N (C H

C)

N CH2COO–

H (CH2)2

2

(H

CH2COO– CH2COO–

N

H

2

N

N

H

H

)2

H

Triethylene tetramine (trien)

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Page # 7

COORDINATION COMPOUND

(v)

Pentadentate Ligands They have five donor atoms. For example, ethylenediamine triacetate ion.

O– –

O

O– – C – CH2

O = C – O– CH2

C=O

N

(CH2)2

N

CH2

H ethylendiamine triacetate ion

(vi) Hexadentate Ligands They have six donor atoms. The most important example is ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion. N

CH2

CH2

N

CH2 H2C

CH2

O=C–O C–O O







O –C=O

CH2



O –C O

ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA)

(Vii) Ambidentate ligands : There are cerain ligands which have two or more donor atoms but in forming complexes, only one donor atom is attached to the metal / ion. Such ligands are called ambidentate ligands. Some examples of such ligands are M M  NO2–  ONO– nitrite – N nitrite –O M M  CN–  NC– cyanide isocyanide M M  SCN–  NCS– thiocyanide isothiocyanide (Viii) Ligands having more than two donor atoms are called polydentate or multidentate ligands. Multidentate ligands are known as a chelating ligands, it results in the formation of a stable cyclic ring thus, the complexes formed are also called chelates. Chelating ligands are usually organic compounds. 3.

Co-ordination sphere The central metal atom and the ligands directly attached to it are collectively termed as the co-ordination sphere. Co-ordination sphere is written inside square brackets, for examples, [Co(NH3)6]3+. Remember that the central metal atom and the ligands inside the square brackets, behave as a single entity.

4.

Co-ordination number (CN) The co-ordination number (CN) of a metal atom /ion in a complex is the total number of e– pairs accetpted by central metal atom /ion from ligands through coordinate bond. Some common co-ordination numbers of metal ions are summarised in the following Table (1) and examples of complexes of various co-ordination number are given in Table (2).

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Page # 8

COORDINATION COMPOUND Table (1) Co-ordination number of metal ion

Metal ion

Co-ordinaton number

+

2,4

Cu

+

2,4

Cu

2+

4,6

Au

+

2,4

Ca

2+

4,6

Ag

Fe

2+

4,6

Fe

3+

6

Co

2+

4,6

Co

3+

6 4,6

2+

Ni

Zn

4

2+

4,6

3+

Al

6

3+

Sc Cr

6

3+ 2+

Pd ,Pt 4+

2+ 4+

Pd , Pt

4 6

Table (2) Examples of complexes of various co-ordination numbers

Complex

Co-ordinaton number

[Ag(NH3)2]+ [HgI3]



2 3

PtCl42–, Ni(CO)4

4

Fe(CO)5, [Ni(CN)5]3–

5

[Co(NH3)6] , W(CO) 6

6

[Mo(CN)7]

3–

7

[Mo(CN)8]

4–

8

3+

5.

Oxidation number/oxidation state (O.S.) of central metal ion It is a number(numerical value) which represents the electric charge on the central metal atom of a complex ion. for example the oxidation number of Fe, CO and Ni in [Fe(CN)6]4–, [Co(NH3)6]3+ and Ni(CO)4 are +2, +3 and zero, respectively. Let us take a few examples to illustrate this.

(i)

Potassium Ferrocyanide, K4[Fe(CN)6] Since the complex has four monovalent cations outside the coordination sphere, the complex ion must carry four negative charges, i.e., it is [Fe(CN)6]4–. The number of CN– ion (univalent ion), that is 6 represents the co-ordination number of Fe cation. The oxidation state of iron can be determined easily as below, knowing that cyanids ions is unidentate and the complex on the whole carries –4 charge. [Fe(CN)6]–4 x + (–6) = –4  x = +2 2+ Thus, here iron is present as Fe or Fe(II). Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 9

COORDINATION COMPOUND (ii)

[Cr(C2O4)3]3– Note that here the oxalate ligand is denegative ion, that is it is bidentate. THerefore three oxalate ligands carry a total charges of –6 and co-ordination number of Cr is 6. Now since the complex carries –3 charge, therefore the oxidation state of Cr is +3.

(iii) Ni(CO)4 Here the co-ordination number of Ni is 4 since carbonyl group is unidentate. Further since the complex as well as the ligands has no charge, nickel atom must also be neutral ,that is it is in zero oxidation state. 6.

Effective atomic number -EAN (Sidgwick Theory and EAN Rule) : Total no. of electrons present on central metal atom /ion. after accepting electron pairs from donar atom of ligands through coordinate bond is called E.A.N. of central metal atom /ion.

E.A.N = Z – O.S. + 2 × C.N. Sidgwick also suggested that the metal ion will continue accepting electron pairs till the total number of electrons in the metal ion and those donated by ligands is equal to that of nearest noble gas. This total number of electrons is called effective atomic number (EAN) of the metal /ion. This will become clear by taking the example of hexamminecobalt (III) ion [Co(NH3)6]3+ Atomic number of cobalt = 27 In the present comlex, cobalt is present in the oxidation state of +3.  E.A.N. of Co3+ = Z – O.S. + 2 × C.N. = 27 – 3 + 2 × 6 = 36 In the above example since the number 36 corresponds to the atomic number of krypton, according to Sidgwick, the complex will be stable. Though EAN rule (which states that those complexes are stable whose EAN is the same as the atomic number of the next noble gas) is applicable in many metal carbonyl complexes, however there are several examples in which EAN rule is not obeyed. IUPAC NOMENCLATURE OF COMPLEXES : The rules for the systematic naming of co-ordination compounds are as follows. (i)

The positive part is named first followed by the negative part, whether it is simple or complex.

(ii)

In naming of a complex ion, the ligands are named first in alphabetical order, followed by naming of central metal atom /ion.

(iii)

When there are several monodentate ligands of the same kind, then we normally use the prefixes di, tri tetra, penta and hexa to show the number of ligands of that type. If ligand’s name already contain any of these prefix , then to avoid confusion in such cases, bis, tris and tetrakis are used instead of di, tri and tetra and name of the ligand is placed in parenthesis. For example, bis(ethylene diamine) for two en-ligands.

(iv)

Negative ligands have suffix-o, positive ligands have suffix -ium, where as neutral ligands have no specific suffix. The names of negative ligands ending with -ide are changed to ‘o’. For example, F– fluoro /fluorido H– hydrido HS– mercapto Cl– chloro /chlorido OH– hydroxo/hydroxido S2– sulphido Br– bromo / bromido O2– oxo / oxido CN– cyano / Cyanido I– iodo / iodido O22– peroxo / Peroxido Ligands ending with -ate/-ite are changed to -ato/-ito. For example, SO42– (sulphato), SO32– (sulphito) etc. Positive groups end with -ium. For example, NH2 – NH3+ (hydrazinium) NO+ (nitrosonium) : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 10

COORDINATION COMPOUND

(v)

Neutral ligands have No special ending and usually common ligands are provided to neutral ligands except NH3 (ammine) H2O (aqua) CO (carbonyl), NO(Nitrosyl).

(vi)

The oxidation state of the central metal ion is shown by Roman numeral in brackets immediately following its name.

(vii) Complex positive ions and neutral molecules have no special ending but complex negative ions end with ate. suffix. Table (3) Complex ions

Example

Negative complex

Positive /neutral complex

Ni

nickelate

nickel

Pb

plumbate

lead

Sn

stannate

tin

Fe

ferrate

iron

(viii) If the complex compound contains two or more metal atoms, then it is termed as polynuclear Complex compound. The bridging ligand which link the two metal atoms together are indicated by the prefix –. If there are two or more bridging groups of the same kind, this is indicated by di– –, tri – – and so on. If a bridging group bridges more than two metal atoms, it is shown as 3, 4, 5 or 6 to indicate how many atoms it is bonded. (ix)

Ambidentate ligands may be attached through different atoms. Thus, M–NO2 is called nitro and M–ONO is called nitrito. Similarly M–SCN (thiocyanato) or M–NCS (Isothiocyanato). These may be named systematically, thiocyanato–S and thiocyanate –N respectively to indicate which atom is bonded to the metal. This convention may be extended to other cases where the mode of linkage is ambiguous.

(x)

If any lattice component such as water or solvent of crystallisation are present, these follow their name, and are preceded by the number of these groups in Arabic numericals. These rules are illustrated by the following examples.

(a)

Complex cations

IUPAC name

[Co(NH3)6]Cl3 [CoCl(NH3)5]2+ [CoSO4(NH3)4]NO3 [Co(NO2)3(NH3)3] [CoCl.CN.NO2.(NH3)3] [Zn(NCS)4]2+ [Cd(SCN)4]2+

Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride Pentaamminechloridocobalt(III) ion Tetraamminesulphatocobalt(III) nitrate Triamminetrinitrito-N-cobalt(III) Triammine-chloro-cyano-nitro-N-cobalt(III) Tetrathiocyannato-N-zinc(II) ion. Tetrathiocyanato-S-cadmium(II) ion.

(b)

Complex anions Li[AlH4] Na[ZnCl4] K4[Fe(CN)6] Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] K2[OsCl5N] Na3[Ag(S2O3)2] K2[Cr(CN)2O2(O2)NH3]

Lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III) Sodium tetrachloridozincate(II) Potassium hexacyanidoferrate(II) Sodium pentacyanidonitrosyliumferrate(II) Potassium pentachloridonitridoosmate(VI) Sodium bis(thiosulphato)argentate(I) Potassium amminedicyanidodioxidoperoxidochromate(VI)

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Page # 11

COORDINATION COMPOUND (c)

Organic groups [Pt(py)4] [PtCl4] [Cr(en)3]Cl3 [CuCl2(CH3NH2)2] Fe(C5H5)2 [Cr(C6H6)2]

(d)

tetrapyridineplatinum(II) tetrachloridoplatinate(II) d or  Tris(ethylenediamine) chromium(III)chloride Dichloridodimethylaminecopper(II) Bis(5–cyclopentadienyl)iron(II) Bis(6-benzene)chromium(0)

Bridging groups [(NH3)5Co.NH2.Co(NH3)5](NO3)5 [(CO)3Fe(CO)3Fe(CO)3] [Be4O(CH3COO)6]

(e)

-amidobis[pentaamminecobalt(III) nitrate Tri--carbonyl-bis [tricarbonyliron(0)] Hexa-- acetato(O,O')--oxidotetraberyllium(II) (basic baryllium acetate)

Hydrates AlK(SO4)2. 12H2O

Aluminium potassium sulphate 12-water

Writing the formula of a coordination compound : When writing the formula of complexes, the complex ion should be enclosed by square brackets. The metal is named first, then the coordinated groups are listed in the order : negative ligands, neutral ligands, positive ligands (and alphabetically according to the first symbol within each group). [M negativeligands, Neutral ligands, positive ligands] n  ISOMERISM IN COMPLEXES : Complex compounds that have the same molecular formula but have different structural /spacial arrangements of ligands are called isomers. These are of two types, namely structural and stereo isomers.

Type of isomerism

Structural isomerism

Space / stereo isomerism

–Ionisation isomerism –Hydrate isomerism –Linkage isomerism

–Geometrical isomerism –Optical isomerism

–Coordination isomerism –Coordination position isomerism

Structural Isomerism (i)

Ionisation Isomerism This type of isomerism is due to the exchange of groups between the complex ion and ions outside it. [Co(NH3)5Br]SO4 is red -violet. An aqueous solution of it gives a white precipitate of BaSO4 with BaCl2 solution, thus confirming the presence of free SO42– ions. In contrast [Co(NH3)5SO4]Br is red. A solution of this complex does not give a positive sulphate test with BaCl2. It does give a creamcoloured precipitate of AgBr with AgNO3, thus confirming the presence of free Br– ions. Other examples of ionisation isomerism are [Pt(NH3)4Cl2]Br2 and [Pt(NH3)4Br 2]Cl2 and [Co(en)2NO2.Cl]SCN, [Co(en)2NO2.SCN]Cl and [Co(en)2Cl.SCN]NO2. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 12 (ii)

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Hydrate isomerism These isomers arise by the exchange of groups in the complex ion with water. Three isomers of CrCl3.6 H2O are known. From conductivity measurements and quantitative precipitation of the ionised Cl–, they have been given the following [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3 [Cr(H2O)5Cl]Cl2.H2O [Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl.2H2O

(iii) Linkage Isomerism This type of isomersim arises when the ligand attached to the central metal ion of a complex in different ways. Such ligands are called ambidient ligands. Nitrite ion has electron pairs available for co-ordination both on N and O atoms. :

N

: :

O

:O:

Examples (a)

[Co(NH3)5 ONO]Cl2 and pentaamminenitrito-o-cobalt(III) chloride (red)

[Co(NH3)5 NO2] Cl2 pentaamminenitrito-N-cobalt-(III)-chloride (yellow)

(b)

[Mn(CO5).SCN]+ and pentacarbonylthiocyanto –S-manganese (II) ion

[Mn(CO5) (NCS]+ pentacarbonylthiocyanato –N-manganese (II) ion

(iv) Co-ordination Isomerism When both the cation and anion are complex ions, then isomerism may be caused by the interchange of ligands between the anion and cation. For example [Pt(NH3)4] [PtCl4] and [PtCl(NH3)3] [PtCl3(NH3)]. These isomers are called co-ordination isomers. (v)

Co-ordination Position Isomerism In polynuclear complexes, an interchange of ligands between the metal nuclei gives rise to co-ordinaton position isomerism, for example. NH2 (NH3)4.Co

Co(NH3) 4.Cl2 Cl2 O2 NH2

Cl(NH3)3Co

Co(NH3) 3Cl

Cl2

O2 Co-ordination position isomers

Polymerisation Isomerism : This is not true type of isomerism because it occurs among compounds having the same empirical formula, but different molecular formula. Thus, [Pt(NH3)2Cl2],[Pt(NH3)4][PtCl4], [Pt(NH3)4][Pt(NH3)Cl3]2 and [Pt(NH3)3Cl]2[PtCl4] all have the same empirical formula. Stereo Isomerism These are the isomers in which ligands have different spacial arrangements around central metal atom / ion in 3-D space. Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 13

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Geometrical is Isomerism Geometrical isomers are the isomers in which the atoms are joined to one another in the same way but differ in space because some ligands occupy different relative positions in space. Geometrical Isomerism in complex compound having C.N. = 4 Tetrahedron complexes (sp3 hydrididation) never exhibit geometry isomerism, however, it is very common in square planer complexes (dsp2 hybridisationn). For Example (a)

[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] can exist as two geometrical isomers.

Cl Pt

+2

Cl

NH 3

Cl

NH 3

H3 N

cis form (orange yellow) (b)

NH3

Pt+2

Cl

trans form (pale yellow)

[Pt(Gly)2] also exist in two geometrical isomers.

CH2 NH2 Pt+2 CO

O

NH2

CH2

CO

O

CO

CH 2 NH2

O Pt+2

cis form

NH2

CH 2

O

CO

trans- form

Geometrcial Isomerism in Complex compound having co-ordination number 6

(a)

[Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ can exist as

H3N

Cl

H3N

Cl Co

H3N

NH3 Co

H3N

NH3 NH3

NH3 Cl

cis form (violet)

(b)

Cl

trans form (green)

[Pt(NH3)2Cl2Br2] can exist as

Br

Cl

H3N

Cl Pt

Br

NH3 NH3

Cl Br Pt

Br

cis There are many more trans arrangements. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

(ii)

Optical Isomerism If a molecule is asymmetric then it cannot be superimposed on its mirror image. These forms are called optical isomers. They are called either dextro or laevo compounds depending on the direction in which they rotate the plane polarised light in polarimeter.

(iii)

Optical isomerism is common in octahedral complexes involving bidentate ligand.

(iv)

[Co(en)2Cl2+] exist as cis-and trans-isomers. But only cis-isomer can have d and  optical isomers.

Cl en

Co3+

en

Cl trans form (optically inactive) mirror Cl en

Cl

Cl

Cl

Co

Co

en

en

en cis-d-form

cis-dichlorobis (ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) ion (v)

Optical isomers of [Co(en)3]3+ are

mirror Cl en en

Co en

3+

en

3+

Cl Co

en

en

BONDING IN COMPLEXES Werner’s Co-ordination Theory : Alfred Werner put forward his concept of secondary valency for advancing a correct explanation for the characteristics of the coordination compounds. The fundamental postulates of Werner’s theory are as follows. (i) Metal possess two types of valencies, namely, primary (principal or ionisable) valency and secondary (auxillary or non-ioisable) valency. In modern terminology, the primary valency corresponds to oxidation number and secondary valency to coordination number. According to werner primary valencies are shown by dotted lines and secondary valencies by thick lines.

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Page # 15

COORDINATION COMPOUND (ii)

Every metal cation in complex compound has a fixed number of secondary valencies for example Pt4+ cationhas its six secondary valency.

(iii)

Primary valency is satisfied by negative ions, whereas secondary valency is satisfied either by negative ions or by neutral molecules.

(iv)

Primary valency has non-directional character, where as secondary valency has directional character, there fore a complex ion has its definite geometry eg. [Co(NH3)6]3+ – octahedron.

(v)

It is the directional nature of secondary valency due to which co-ordination compound exhibits the phenomenon of isomerism.

Werner’s Representation of Complexes Consider the case of CoCl3.xNH3 where primary valency = +3 and seconary valency = 6. Various structures are summarised in Table -4.

Werner complexes

* *

Modern formula

Ionisation

Secondary valency satisfied by

3+



(A) (B)

CoCl3.6NH3 CoCl3.5NH3

[Co(NH3)6]Cl3 [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2

[Co(NH 3)6] + 3Cl [Co(NH3)5Cl]2++2Cl –

(C)

CoCl3.4NH3

[Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl

[Co(NH3)4Cl 2] +Cl

(D)

CoCl3.3NH5

[Co(NH3)3Cl3]

[Co(NH3)3]Cl3

+



Primary valency staisfied by –

six (NH3) five (NH3) – and one (Cl )

three (Cl ) three (Cl–) – including one (Cl ) with dual nature

four (NH3) and two (Cl–)

three (Cl ) – including two (Cl ) with dual nature



three (NH3) – and three (Cl )

From Table 4, It is clear that conduction of the complexes will be in the order D < C < B < A. They are represented as

NH3

NH3

Co Cl H3N NH3

Cl NH3 NH3 Cl

(A)

Cl H3N NH3 Co Cl NH3 H3N NH 3 Cl (B)

Cl H3N Co Cl H3N Cl

Cl NH3 NH3

(C)

H3N Co Cl

NH3 NH3

Cl (D)

Valence Bond Theory : It was developed by Pauling. The salient features of the theory are summerised below : (i) Under the influence of a strong field ligands, the electrons of central metal ion can be forced to pair up against the Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity. (ii) Under the influence of weak field ligands, electronic configuration of central metal atom / ion remains same. (iii) If the complex contains unpaired electrons, it is paramagnetic in nature, whereas if it does not contain unpaired electrons, then it is diamagnetic in nature and magnetic moment is calculated by spin only formula. Magnetic moment    n(n  2) BM

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COORDINATION COMPOUND Table 5 Relation between unpaired electrons and magnetic moment Magnetic moment (Bohr magnetons) 0 1.73 2.83 3.87 4.90 5.92 Number of unpaired electrons 0 1 2 3 4 5

Thus, the knowledge of the magnetic moment can be of great help in ascertaining the type of complex. (iv)

When ligands are arranged in increasing order of their splitting power then an experimentally determind series is obtained named as spectrochemical series. –



2–

I < Br < S











< SCN < Cl < NO3 < F < OH < EtOH < CH3COO



2–

C2O4

< H 2O

Weak field ligands < EDTA < NH3





py < en < dipy < phen < NO2 CN < CO Strong field ligands

(v)

The central metal ion has a number of empty orbitals for accommodating electrons donated by the ligands. The number of empty orbitals is equal to the co-ordination number of the metal ion for a particular complex.

(vi)

The atomic orbital (s, p or d) of the metal ion hybridise to form hybrid orbitals with definite directional properties. These hybrid orbitals now accept e– pairs from ligands to form coordination bonds.

(vii) The d-orbitals involved in the hybridisation may be either inner (n – 1) d orbitals or outer n d-orbitals. The complexes formed in these two ways are referred to as inner orbital complexes and outer orbial complexes, respectively. Limitations of valence bond theory (i)

Correct magnetic moment of complex compounds can not be theoritically measured by Valence bond theory.

(ii)

The theory does not offer any explanation about the spectra of complex (i.e., why most of the complexes are coloured).

(iii)

Theory does not offer any explanation for the existence of inner -orbital and outer -orbital complexes.

(iv)

In the formation of [Cu(NH3)4]2+, one electron is shifted from 3d to 4p orbital. The theory is silent about the energy availability for shifting such an electron. Such an electron can be easily lost then why does not [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex show reducing properties ?

Crystal Field Theory (CFT) : Crystal field theory is now much more widely accepted than the valence bond theory. It is assumed that the attraction between the central metal and ligands in a complex is purely electrostatic. The transition metal which forms the central atom cation in the complex is regarded as a positive ion of charge equal to the oxidation state. It is surrounded by negative ligands or neutral molecules which have a lone pair of electrons If the ligand is a neutral molecule such as NH3, the negative end of the dipole in the moelcule is directed toward the metal cation. The electrons on the central metal are under repulsive forces from those on the ligands. Thus, the electrons occupy the d orbital remain away from the direction of approach of ligands. In the crystal field theory, the following assumptions are made.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND (i)

Ligands are treated as point charges.

(ii)

There is no interaction between metal orbitals and ligands orbitals.

(iii)

All the d orbitals on the metal have the same energy (that, is degenerate) in the free atom. However, when a complex, is formed, the ligands destroy the degeneracy of these orbitals, that is , the orbitals now have different energies. In an isolated gaseous metal ion, all five d orbitals have the same energy and are termed degenerate. If a spherically symmetrical field of ligands surrounds the metal ion, the d orbitals remain degenerate. However, the energy of the orbitals is raised because of repulsion between the field of ligands and electrons on the metal. In most transition metal complexes, either six or four ligands surround the metal, giving octahedral or tetrahedral structures. In both these cases, the field produced by the ligands is not spherically symmetrical. Thus, the d orbitals are not all affected equally by the ligand field. In the an octahedral complex, the metal is at the centre of the octahedron and the ligands are at the six corners. The direction x, y and z point to three adjacent corners of the octahedron as shown fig. The iobes of the eg orbitals (dx2–y2 and dz2) point along the axes x,y and z. The lobes of the t2g orbitals (dxy, dxz and dyz) point in betwen the axes. If follows that the approach of six ligands along the x,y,z, – x, –y, and –z directons will increase the energy of the dx2 – y2 and dz2 orbitals (which point along the axes) than it increses the energy of the dxy, dxz and dyz orbitals (which points between the axes). Thus, under the influence of an octahedral ligand field the d orbitals split into two groups of different energies. Rather than referring to the energy level of a isolated metal atom. The difference in energy between the two d levels is given by the symbols 0 or 10 Dq.

eg

t2g

Fig. The directions in an octahedral complex

Free metal ion (five degenerate d orbitals) Fig Crystal field spliting of energy levels in an octahedral field

metal ion in octahedral field

It follows that the eg orbitals are +0.6 0 above the average level, and the t2g orbitals –0.4 0 below the average level. eg +0.6

Energy

average energy level (Bari centre) Average energy of metal ion in spherical field

t2g Metal ion in octahedral field

Fig. Diagram of the energy levels of d -orbitals in a octahedralfield

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

Tetrahedral Complexes A regular tetrahedron is related to a cube. One atom is at the centre of the cube, and four of the eight corners of the cube are occupied by ligands as shown in Fig. The direction x,y and z point to the centres of the faces of the cube. The eg orbitals point along x,y and z (that is , to centres of the faces.) y x z

Fig. Relation of tetrahedron to a cube The approach of the ligands raised the energy of both sets of orbitals. The energy of the t2g orbital raised most because they are closest to the ligands. This crystals field splitting is opposite to that in octahedral complexes. The t2g orbitals are 0.4 t above the average energy of the two groups (the Bari centre) and the eg orbitals are 0.6 t below the average level. t2g

d orbitals are split into two groups

energy

eg

Metal ion in a tetrahedral field

Free metal ion (five degenerate d orbitals) Fig Crystal fleld splitting of energy levels in a tetrahedral field Stability of complexes A co-ordination compound is formed in solution by the stepwise addition of ligands to a metal ion. Thus, the formation of the complex, MLn (M = central metal cation, L = monodentate ligand and n=co-ordination number of metal ion) supposed to take place by the following n cosecutive steps. [ML] M+L

ML; K1 =

M+L

ML2; K2 =

[M][L]

[ML2] [ML][L] [ML3]

ML2 + L

ML3; K3 =

[ML2][L]

.................................................................... .................................................................... MLn–1 + L

MLn; Kn =

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

K1, K2, K3........Kn are called stepwise stability constants. With a few exceptions, the values of successive stability constants decrease regularly from K1 to Kn. The overall stability constant K is given as MLn; M + nL

K = K 1K 2K3....K n =

The higher the overall stability constant value of the complex, the more stable it is. Alternatively, 1/K values called instability constant explain the dissociation of the complex into metal ion and ligands in the solution. The value of the stability constant for some of the complexes are given in Table. Table : Stability constants of complexes

Complex

Stability constant

[Cu(NH 3)4] 2+ [Ag(NH 3)2] + [Co(NH 3)6] 2+ [Co(NH 3)6] + [AgCl 2]– [AgBr 2]– [Ag(CN)2] – [Cu(CN)4] 2– [Fe(CN)6]3– Factors affecting stability of complex compounds : (i)

The values of stability constant differ widely depending on the nature of the metal ion and the ligand In general higher the charge density on the central ion. The greater the stability of its complexes.

(ii)

the more basic a ligands, the greater is the ease with which it can donate its lone pairs of electrons and therefore, greater is the stability of the complexes formed by it.

eg.

The cyano and ammine complexes are far more stable than those formed by halide ions. This is due to the fact that NH3 and CN– are strong Lewis bases.

(iii)

The higher the oxidation state of the metal, the more stable is the complex. The charge density of Co3+ ion is more than Co2+ ion and thus, [Co(NH3)6]3+ is more stable than [Co(NH3)6]2+ . Similarly, [Fe(CN)6]3– is more stable than [Fe(CN)6]4–.

(iv)

Chelating ligands form more stable complexes as compared to mondentate ligands.

Application of complexes The complexes are of immense importance on account of their applications in various fields. During complex formation there are drastic changes in the properties of metal atom/ion these changes in properties are made use of in the application of metal complexes. (i)

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

O–

OH CH3 – C = NOH

NH4OH

NiCl2 + 2

CH3 – C = N

N = C – CH3 Ni

CH3 – C = N

CH3 – C = NOH

O

+ 2NH4Cl + 2H2O N = C – CH3 OH

H-bonding

(a)

Fe3+ is detected by formation of a blood red coloured complex with KSCN.

Fe 3   3KSCN  Fe(SCN)3  3K  blood red colour or [ Fe(H2O)5(SCN)]2  (b)

Many ligands (organic reagents) are used for the gravimetric estimation of number of metal ions.

Cu2+

Metal ion to be estimated Organic reagents used

Ni2+

Benzoin oxime

Fe3+

Dimethyl glyoxime

Al3+

Co2+

8-hydroxy quinoline

(c)

EDTA is used as a complexing agent in volumeter analysis of metal ions like Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+.

(d)

The co-ordination compounds of the transition metals exhibit a variety of colours. This property is utilised in colorimetric analysis for the estimation of many metals.

(ii) (a)

Metallurgical process : Silver and gold are extracted by the use of complex formation. Silver ore is treated with sodium cyanide solution with continuous passing of air through the solution. Silver dissolves as a cyanide complex and silver is precipitated by the addition of scrap zinc. Ag2S + 4NaCN

Air

argentine

2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Zn

2N[Ag(CN)2] + NaS

O2(Air)

Na2SO4 + S

sodium argentocyanide

Air

Na2[Zn(CN)4]+ 2Ag sodium tetracyanozincate(II)

(b)

Native Gold and Silver also dissolve in NaCN solution in presence of the oxygen (air). 4 Ag + 8 NaCN + O2 + 2H2O 3Na[Ag(CN)2] + 3NaOH Silver and Gold are precipitated by addition of scrap zinc. Nickel is extracted by converting it into a volatile complex, nickel carbonyl, by use of carbon monoxide (Mond's process). The complex decomposes on heating again into pure nickel and carbon monoxide. Ni + 4CO

(iii)

Ni(CO)4 heating

Ni + 4 CO

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Page # 21

COORDINATION COMPOUND (iv)

Electroplating Metal complexes release metal slowly and give a uniform coating of the metal on the desired object Cyano complexes of silver, gold copper and other metals are used for the electrodeposition of these metals,

(v)

Biological processes Metal complexes are of immense importance in biological processes. Haemoglobin, the red blood pigment, which acts as oxygen carrier to different parts of the body is a complex of iron (II). Vitamin B12 is a complex of cobalt metal. The green colouring matter of plants, called chlorophyll, is a complex of magnesium. It acts as a catalyst in photosynthesis. ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS INTRODUCTION Organometallic compounds are defined as those compounds in which the carbon atoms of organic (usually alkyl or aryl) groups are directly bonded to metal atoms. The compounds of elements such as boron, phosphorus, silicon, germanium and antimony with organic groups are also included in organometallics. Many organometallic compounds are important reagents which are used for the synthesis of organic compounds. Classification of Organometallic Compounds Organometallic compounds are classified in three classes. (i) Sigma bonded organometallic compounds: In these complexes, the metal atom and carbon atom of the ligand are joined together with a sigma bond, For Examples: (a) Grignard reagents, R – Mg – X where R is an alkyl or aryl group and X is a halogen. (b) Zinc compounds of the formula R2Zn such as (C2H5)2Zn. (isolated by Frankland). Other similar compound are (CH3)4Sn, (C2H5)4Pb, Al2(CH3)6, Al2(C2H5)6, Pb(CH3)4 etc.

CH3

H3C Al H3C

CH3 Al

CH3

CH3

Al2(CH3)6 is a dimeric compound and has a structure similar to diborane, (B2H6). It is an electron deficient compound and two methyl groups act as bridges between two aluminium atoms. (ii)Pi-bonded organometallic compounds : These are the compounds of metals with alkenes, alkynes, benzene and other ring compounds. In these complexes, the metal and ligand form a bond that involves the -electrons of the ligand. Three common examples are Zeise's salt, ferrocene and dibenzene chromium. These are shown below.

H

H C C

H

Cl Pt

H K

+

Fe

Cr

Cl Cl Zeise's Salt Cr The number of carbon atoms bonded to the metal in these compounds is indicated by the greek letter (eta) with a number. The prefixes 2, 5 and 6 indicate that 2, 5 and 6 carbon atoms are the metal in the compound.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

Sigma and Pi bonded organometallic compounds : Metal carbonyl compounds formed between metal and carbon monoxide, belong to this class. These compounds possess both -and -bonding. Generally oxidation state of metal atoms in these compounds is zero. Carbonyls may be mononuclear, bridged or polynuclear.

O O C

C

O C

Fe

CO Co

OC Fe

Ni OC

CO CO

CO

OC CO

CO

C O

O=C O=C

Cr

CO CO

OC

CO

Fe

CO C O

C

C O

O Tetracarbonyl nickel(0) Pentacarbonyl iron(0) Hexacarbonyl chromium(0) Fe(CO)9 Ni(CO)4 Fe(CO)5 Cr(CO)6 In a metal carbonyl, the metal-carbon bond possesses both the -and -character. A -bond between metal and carbon atom is formed when a vacant hybrid orbital of the metal atom overlap with an orbital on C atom of carbon monoxide containing a lone pair of electrons.



M

+ + +

C



M

C

O

Formation of p-bond is caused when a filled orbital of the metal atom overlaps with a vacant antibonding * orbital of C atom of carbon monoxide. This overlap is also called back donation of electrons by metal atom to carbon. _

O

M

C

O +

+

+

_

_

C

+ _

+

_

M

+

_

+

+

_

The -overlap is perpendicular to the nodal plane of -bond. In olefinic complexes, the bonding -orbital electrons are donated to the empty orbital of the metal atom and at the same time to the back bonding p-orbital of the olefin.

(i) (ii) (iii)

(iv)

Applications of Organometallic Compounds Tetra ethyl lead (TEL) is used as antiknock compound in gasoline. Wilkinson's catalyst [Rh(PPh3)3Cl] is use as homogeneous catalyst in the hydrogenation of alkenes. The extraction and purification of nickel is based on the formation of organometallic compound Ni(CO)4. The formation of Ni(CO)4 at 50-80ºC and its decomposition at 150-180ºC is used in the extraction of nickel by MONDS PROCESS. Zeigler Natta catalyst (trialkyl aluminium + titanium tetrachloride) acts as a heterogeneous catalyst in the polymerisation of ethylene in to polyethylene polymer.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND Points to be remembered: (i)

CH3B(OCH3) is an organometallic compound but B(OCH3) is not.

(ii)

The closed ring complexes formed by polydenatate ligands are called Chelates. Chelation leads to stability.

(iii)

Estimation of nickel (II) is done by complexing with dimethyl glyoxime (DMG) whereas that of Ca+2 and Mg2+ ions is done by titrating against EDTA.

(iv)

Complex in which ligands can be substituted by other ligands are called labile complexes. For example [Cu(NH3)4]2+ is a labile complex because NH3 ligands can be substituted by CN– ligands. [Cu(NH3)4]2+ + 4 CN–  [Cu(CN)4]2 + 4NH3 (less stable)

(v)

(more stable)

Another type of geometrical isomerism is also shown by octahedral complexes of the type Ma3b3. if each trio of donor atoms occupy adjacent positions at the corner of an octahedral face, then it is called facial (fac) isomer and when the position are around the meridian of the octahedron, then it is called meridional (mer) isomer. a b b a b a M b

a

b fac-form

(vi)

M a

a

b Mer-form

Haemoglobin is a complex of Fe, chlorophyll is a complex of Mg, vitamin B12 is a complex of Co.

(vii) -bond organometallic compounds generally contains a non-transition metal linked to carbon atom of alkyl group by  bond. For example eg. R-MgX. (viii) p-bonded organometallics are formed by donation of p-electrons of double bond to the metal atom. For example Zeise's salt K[PtCl32 C2H4] and Ferrocene Fe(5-C5H5)2 (ix)

Grignard's reagent is one of the most useful organometallic compounds. Due to the high polarity of (C– Mg+) bond, it can be used to synthesise many organic compounds.

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EXERCISE – I 1.

COORDINATION COMPOUND

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

The correct IUPAC name of the complex Fe(C5H5)2 is – (A) Cyclopentadienyl iron (II) (B) Bis (cyclopentadienyl) iron (II) (C) Dicyclopentadiency ferrate (II) (D) Ferrocene

5.

Which of the ligand can show linkage isomerism and acts as flexidentate ligand: (A) CNS– (B) NO2– – (C) CN (D) NO3–

Sol.

Sol.

6.

2.

Type of isomerism exhibited by [Cr(NCS)(NH3)5] [ZnCl4] : (A) Coordination isomerism (B) Linkage isomerism (C) Ionization isomerism (D) Both coordination and linkage isomerism

Sol.

Consider the following statements, “According the Werner’s theory. : (1) Ligands are connected to the metal ions by covalent bonds. (2) Secondary valencies have directional properties. (3) Secondary valencies are non-ionisable. (4) Secondary valencies are satisfied by either neutral or negative legands. Of these statements. (A) 2, 3 and 4 are correct (B) 2 and 3 are correct (C) 1 and 3 are correct (D) 1, 2 and 4 are correct

Sol. 3.

Whi ch compl ex i on has not tet rahedral geometry: (A) [AgF4]– (B) [HgI4]2– 2– (C) [NiCl4] (D) [Ni(CN)4]4–

Sol. 7.

4.

Sol.

Trioxalato aluminate (III) and tetrafluorido-borate (III) ions are respectively : (A) [Al(C2O4)3], [BF4]3– (B) [Al(C2O4)3]3+, [BF4]3+ (C) [Al(C2O4)3]3–, [BF4]– (D) [Al(C2O4)3]2–, [BF4]2–

From the stability constant (hypothetical values), given below, predict which is the strongest ligand: (A) Cu2+ + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4]2+, 11 K = 4.5 × 10 (B) Cu2+ + 4CN– [Cu(CN)4]2–, 27 K = 2.0 × 10 (C) Cu2+ + 2en [Cu(en)2] 2+, 15 K = 3.0 × 10 (D) Cu2+ + 4H2O [Cu(H2O)4]2+, 8 K = 9.5 × 10

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND 8.

The complexes given below show: Cl

Cl

Cl Pt

Pt Cl

(C2H5)3P

11.

P(C2H5)3

and (C2H5)3P Pt Cl

Cl

Cl Pt Cl

P(C2H5)3

(A) Optical isomerism (B) Co-ordination isomerism (C) Geometrical isomerism (D) Coordination position isomerism

For the complex ion dichlorido bis (ethylene diamine) cobalt (III), select the correct statement. (A) It has three isomers, two of them are optically active and one is optically inactive. (B) It has three isomers, all of them are optically active. (C) It has three isomers, all of them are optically inactive. (D) It has one optically active isomer and two geometrical isomers.

Sol.

Sol. 12.

Co(CO)4 follows EAN rule by : (A) Oxidizing character (B) Reduction (C) Dimerization (D) All of these

Sol. 9.

In which of the following complexes the nickel metal is in highest oxidation state. (A) Ni(CO)4 (B) [Cr(NH3)6]2[NiF6]3 (C) [Ni(NH3)6](BF4)2 (D) K4[Ni(CN)6]

Sol.

13.

Type of isomerism exhibited by [Ir(OCN)2(H2O)3] (A) Hydrate isomerism (B) Linkage isomerism (C) Polymerization isomerism (D) Both (B) and (C)

Sol.

10.

Sol.

An ion M2+, forms the complexes [M(H2O)6]2+, [M(en)3]2+ and [MBr6]4–, match the complex with the appropriate colour. (A) Green, blue and red (B) Blue, red and green (C) Green, red and blue (D) Red, blue and green

14.

Whi ch of the fol lowi ng complex exhibits geometrical isomerism: (A) [Zn(gly)2] (B) [Cu(en)(NH3)2]+ (C) [PtBrCl(NH3)(py)] (D) [Ni(CN)2(CO)2]2–

Sol.

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A complex of platinum, ammonia and chloride produces four ions per molecule in the solution. The structure consistent with the observation is : (A) [Pt(NH3)4]Cl4 (B) [Pt(NH3)2Cl4] (C) [Pt(NH3)5Cl]Cl3 (D) [Pt(NH3)4Cl2]Cl2

COORDINATION COMPOUND Sol.

Sol. 20.

The hybridisation and unpaired electrons in [Fe(H2O)6]2+ ion are : (A) sp3d2 ; 4 (B) d2sp3 ; 3 2 3 (C) d sp ; 4 (D) sp3d2 ; 2

Sol. 16.

The total number of possible isomers of the compound [Cu||(NH3)4] [Pt||Cl4] are : (A) 3 (B) 5 (C) 4 (D) 6

Sol. 21.

In which complex is the transition metal in zero oxidation state: (A) [Co(NH3)6Cl2] (B) [Fe(H2O)6]SO4 (C) H[Co(CO)4] (D) K4[Ni(CN)4]

Sol.

17.

In the complex Fe(CO)x, the value of x is : (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6

Sol. 22. Formula of ferrocene is : (A) [Fe(CN)6]4– (B) Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (C) [Fe(CO)5] (D) [Fe(C5H5)2] Sol.

18.

The complex which exhibits cis-trans isomerism as well as can be resolved into d and  forms: (A) [Be(acac)2 ] (B) [Ir(H2O)3(NH3)3]3+ 3+ (C) [Cr(en)3] (D) [Rh(H2O)2(en)2]3+

Sol.

23.

The hybrisation of Co in [Co(H2O)6]3+ is : (A) d2sp3 (B) dsp2 3 (C) sp (D) sp3d2

Sol.

19.

The oxidation state of Mo in its oxo-complex species [Mo2O4(C2H4)2(H2O)2]2– is : (A) +2 (B) +3 (C) +4 (D) +5 Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

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COORDINATION COMPOUND 24.

Which of the following is  complex : (A) Trimethyl aluminium (B) Ferrocene (C) Diethyl zinc (D) Nickel tetra carbonyl

28.

The structure of iron pentacarbonyl is : (A) Square pyramidal (B) Trigonal bipyramidal (C) Squrare planar (D) None of these

Sol.

Sol.

29. 25.

Which complex is likely to show optical activity (A) Trans-[CoCl2(NH3)4]+ (B) [Cr(H2O)6]3+ (C) Cis-[Co(NH3)2(en)2]3+ (D) Trans-[Co(NH3)2(en)2]3+

T he EAN of pl at i num i n hexachloroplatinate (IV) is : (A) 46 (B) 86 (C) 36 (D) 84

potass i um

Sol.

Sol.

30. 26.

Which one is the most likely structure of CrCl 3·6H2O if 1/3 of total chlorine of the compound is precipitated by adding AgNO3 to its aqueous solution : (A) CrCl3·6H2O (B) [CrCl3(H2O)3]·(H2O)3 (C) [CrCl2(H2O)4]·Cl·2H2O (D) [CrCl(H2O)5]Cl2·H2O

Sol.

Diethylene triamine is : (A) Chelating agent (B) Polydentate ligand (C) Tridentate ligand (D) All of these

Sol.

31.

How many moles of AgCl would be obtained, when 100ml of 0.1M CoCl3(NH3)5 is treated with excess of AgNO3? (A) 0.01 (B) 0.02 (C) 0.03 (D) None of these

Sol. 27.

Sol.

The two compounds [Co(SO4)(NH3)5]Br and [Co(SO4)(NH3)5]Cl represent : (A) Linkage isomerism (B) Ionisation isomerism (C) Co-ordination isomerism (D) No isomerism 32.

0.001 mol of Co(NH3)5(NO3)(SO4) was passed through a cation exchanger and the acid coming out of it required 20 ml of 0.1 M NaOH for neutralisation. Hence the complex is : (A) [CoSO4(NH3)5]NO3 (B) [CoNO3(NH3)5]SO4 (C) [Co(NH3)5]SO4NO3 (D) None of these

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Page # 28 Sol.

33.

COORDINATION COMPOUND 37.

Which of the following is non-ionizable – (A) [Co(NH3)3Cl3] (B) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]Cl (C) [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl3 (D) [Co(NH3)6]Cl2

The IUPAC name of the red coloured complex [Fe(C4H7O2N2)2] obtained from the reaction of Fe2+ and dimethyl glyoxime : (A) bis (dimethyl glyoxime) ferrate (II) (B) bis (dimethyl glyoximato) iron (II) (C) bis (2, 3-butanediol dioximato) iron (II) (D) bis (2,3-butanedione dioximato) iron (II)

Sol.

Sol.

38. 34.

Which of the following is not chelating agent? (A) Hydrazine (B) oxalato (C) glycinato (D) ethylene diamine

Sol.

The molar ionic conductances of the octahedral complexes. (I) PtCl4·5NH3 (II) PtCl4·4NH3 (III) PtCl4·3NH3 (IV) PtCl4·2NH3 (A) I < II < III < IV (B) IV < III < II < I (C) III < IV < II < I (D) IV < III < I < II

Sol.

35.

Whi ch of the fol l owi ng has fi ve donor (coordinating) sites and can act as flexidentate ligand? (A) Triethylene tetramine (B) Ethylenediamine tetracetate ion (C) Ethylenediamine triacetate ion (D) Tetraethylene penta amine

39.

Sol.

On treatment of 10ml of 1M solution of the complex CrCl3.6H2O with excess of AgNO3, 4.305g of AgCl was obtained. The complex is (A) [CrCl3(H2O)3]·3H2O (B) [CrCl2(H2O)4]Cl·2H2O (C) [CrCl(H2O)5]Cl2·H2O (D) [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3

Sol.

36.

Sol.

Among TiF62–, CoF63–, Cu2Cl2 and NiCl42– the colourless species are : (A) CoF63– and NiCl42– (B) TiF62– and CoF63– (C) NiCl42– and Cu2Cl2 (D) TiF62– and Cu2Cl2

40.

Which of the following species is not expected to be a ligand : (A) NO+ (B) NH4+ + (C) NH2–NH3 (D) NO2+

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND 41.

The number of donor sites in dimethyl glyoxime, glycinato, diethylene triamine and EDTA are respectively (A) 2, 2, 3 and 4 (B) 2, 2, 3 and 6 (C) 2, 2, 2 and 6 (D) 2, 3, 3 and 6

45.

Sol.

The IUPAC name for the coordination compound Ba[BrF4]2 is : (A) Barium tetrafluoridobromate (V) (B) Barium tetrafluoridobromate (III) (C) Barium bis (tetrafluoridobromate) (III) (D) None of these

Sol.

42.

EAN of the central metal in the complexes K2[Ni(CN4)], [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 and K2[PtCl6] are respectively. (A) 36, 35, 86 (B) 34, 35, 84 (C) 34, 35, 86 (D) 34, 36, 86

46.

Sol.

T he formul a of the comp l e x hydridotrimethoxidoborate (III) ion is : (A) [BH(OCH3)3]2– (B) [BH2(OCH3)3]2– – (C) [BH(OCH3)3] (D) [BH(OCH3)3]+

Sol.

43.

Which of the following pair of complexes have the same EAN of the central metal atoms/ions? (A) [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 and K3[Fe(CN)6] (B) K4[Fe(CN)6 and [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 (D) K3[Cr(C2O4)3 and [Cr(NH3)6]Cl(NO2)2 (D) all

Sol.

44.

The complex that violates the Sidgwicks’s rule of EAN is : (A) Potassium ferrocyanide (B) Hexamine cobalt (III) Chloride (C) Tetramine copper (II) sulphate (D) Potassium dichloridodioxalato cobaltate (III)

47.

The complex ion which has no ‘d’ electrons in the central metal atom is; (A) [Co(NH3)6]3+ (B) [Fe(CN)6]3– 3+ (C) [Cr(H2O)6] (D) [MnO4]–

Sol.

48.

Oxidation number of Fe in violet coloured complex Na4[Fe(CN)5(NOS)] is : (A) 0 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4

Sol.

Sol.

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Page # 30 49.

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Comp l e xe s [C o(SO 4 )(NH 3 ) 5 ]Br and [CoBr(NH3)5]SO4 can be distinguished by : (A) conductance measurement (B) using BaCl2 (C) using AgNO3 (D) All

Sol.

50.

53.

The geometry of [Ni(CO)4] and [Ni(PPh3)2Cl2] are : (A) both square planar (B) tetrahedral and square planar (C) both tetrahedral (D) square planar and tetrahedral

Sol.

Amongst the following ions, which one has the highest paramagnetism? (A) [Cr(H2O)6]3+ (B) [Fe(H2O)6]2+ (C) [Zn(H2O)6]2+ (D) [Cu(H2O)6]2+

54.

Of the following which is paramagnetic in nature? (A) H2[PbCl6] (B) [NiF6]2– – (C) [AgF4] (D) MnO42–

Sol.

Sol.

55. 51.

[Ni(NH3)4]2+

Ni(CO)4 and (A) Magnetic moment (C) Geometry

do not differ in : (B) Oxidation number of Ni (D) EAN

Sol.

52.

The [Fe(CN)6]3– complex ion (A) exhibits planar geometry (B) is diamagnetic (C) should be very stable (D) has 2 unpaired electrons

Sol.

Which of the following statements is not correct? (A) Ti(NO3)4 is a colourless compound. (B) [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3 is a coloured compound. (C) K3[VF6] is a colourless compound. (D) [Cu(NCCH3)4]BF4 is a colourless compound.

56.

Sol.

50ml of 0.2M Solution of a compound with empirical formula CoCl3.4NH3 on treatment with excess of AgNO3(aq) yields 1.435 g of AgCl. Ammonia is not removed by treatment with concentration H2SO4. The formula of the compound is : (A) CoCl3(NH3)4 (B) [CoCl2(NH3)4]Cl (C) [Co(NH3)4]Cl3 (D) [CoCl3(NH3)]NH3

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND 57.

Which of the following has conductance approximately equal to that of CaCl2. (A) CoCl3.6NH3 (B) CoCl3.5NH3 (C) CoCl3.4NH3 (D) CoCl3.3NH3

61.

Sol.

The disodium salt of ethylene diamine tetracetic acid can be used to estimate the following ion(s) in the aqueous solution : (A) Mg2+ ion (B) Ca2+ ion (C) Na+ ion (D) both Mg2+ and Ca2+

Sol.

58.

Aqueous solution of FeSO4 gives tests for both Fe2+ and SO42– but after addition of excess of KCN, solution ceases to give test for Fe2+. This is due to the formation of : (A) the double salt FeSO4.2KCN.6H2O (B) Fe(CN)3 (C) the complex ion [Fe(CN)6]4– (D) the complex ion [Fe(CN)6]3–

Sol.

59.

Sol.

The oxidation number of Co in the complex ion NH

[(en)2 Co

Co (en)2]3+ OH

(A) + 2 (C) + 4

(B) + 3 (D) + 6

Sol.

The values of ‘x’ in complex H x [Co(CO) 4 ], [Fe(CO)x.(-C5H5)]+ are respectively (A) 1,1 (B) 2,3 (C) 3,1 (D) 1,3

Sol.

60.

62.

63.

[Cu(NH3)4]2+ has hybridisation and magnetic moment (A) sp3, 1.73 B. M. (B) sp3d, 1.73 B. M. 2 (C) dsp , 2.83 B. M. (D) dsp2, 1.73 B. M.

Sol.

The number of sigma bond and equal Pt-Cl bond length in Zeise’s salt is : (A) 6,2 (B) 6,3 (C) 8,2 (D) 8,3

64.

[FeF6]3– has Fe atom ---- hybridised with unpaired -------electrons : (A) d2sp3, 4 (B) d2sp3, 5 (C) sp3d2, 5 (D) sp3d2, 3

Sol.

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Page # 32 65.

Which of the following statements about Fe(CO)5 is correct? (A) It is paramagnetic and high spin complex (B) It is diamagnetic and high spin complex (C) It is diamagnetic and low spin complex (D) It is paramagnetic and low spin complex

COORDINATION COMPOUND 68.

Which of the following complex will give white precipitate with barium chloride solution – (A) [Cr(NH3)5Cl]SO4 (B) [Cr(NH3)SO4]Cl (C) [Co(NH3)6]Br3 (D) None of these

Sol.

Sol.

69.

66.

Which of the following statements is not true? (A) MnCl42– ion has tetrahedral geometry and is paramagnetic (B) [Mn(CN)6]2– ion has octahedral geometry and is paramagnetic (C) [CuCl4]2– has square planar geometry and is paramagnetic (D) [NiBr2(Ph3P) 3] has trigonal bipyramidal geometry and two unpaired electron

[Co(en)3]3+ ion is expected to show : (A) two optically active isomers; d and l forms. (B) three optically active isomers; d, l and meso forms. (C) four optically active isomers; cis, d and l isomers and trans d and l isomers. (D) None of these

Sol.

Sol.

70.

The number of geometrical isomers for octahedral [CoCl 4(NH 3) 2] –, square planar [AuBr2Cl2]– and [PtCl2(en)] are : (A) 2, 2, 2 (B) 2, 2, no isomerism (C) 3, 2, 2 (D) 2, 3, no isomerism

Sol. 67.

Which of the following statements is incorrect? (A) Geometrical isomerism is not observed in complexes having tetrahedral geometry (B) Square planar complexes may show optical isomerism with ligands having chiral centre (C) Octahedral compolexes having two chelaing ligands in perpendicular plane always exhibit optical isomerism (D) Complex [Pt(Gly)2] does not show geometrical isomerism

Sol.

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Page # 33

COORDINATION COMPOUND

EXERCISE – II

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

One or More than One Option Correct 1.

5.

Which of the following will produce a white preciptiate upon reacting with AgNO3 ? (A) [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 (B) [Co(NH3)3Cl3] (C) K2[Pt(en)2Cl2] (D) [Fe(en)3]Cl3

Sol.

Which of the following is /are correct about [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 (A) It is square planar complex (B) It is paramagnetic with one unpaired electron in the d-subshell (C) It gives white ppt with BaCl2 (D) Its molar conductivity is approximately equal to that of [CrBr(NH3)5]SO4

Sol.

2.

Which isomer of CrCl3.6H2O is dark green in colour and forms one mole of AgCl with excess of AgNO3 solution – (A) [Cr(H2O)6]Cl3 (B) [Cr(H2O)5Cl]Cl2.H2O (C) [Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl.2H2O (D) [Cr(H2O)3Cl3].3H2O

6.

Which of the followng isomerism is /are shown by the complex [CoCl2(OH)2(NH3)2]Br ? (A) Ionization (B) Linkage (C) Geometrical (D) optical

Sol.

Sol.

3.

W hi ch of the fol l ow i ng are -bonde d organometallic compounds ? (A) Ferrocene (B) [Ni( – C5H5)2] (C) Ethylmagnesium iodide (D) Dibenzene chromium

7.

Sol.

Both geometrical and optical isomerism are shown by (A) [Co(en)2Cl2]+ (B) [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ (C) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ (D) [Cr(OX)3]3–

Sol.

4.

Which of the following is /are inner orbital complex (es) as well as diamagnetic in nature. (A) [Ir(H2O)6]3+ (B) [Ni(NH3)6]2+ 3+ (C) [Cr(NH3)6] (D) [Co(NH3)6]3+

8.

Sol.

WHi ch of the fol l ow i ng compl exes have tetrahedral shape ? (A) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (B) [Ni(CO)4] (C) [NiCl4]2– (D) [Zn(NH3)4]2+

Sol.

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Page # 34 9.

COORDINATION COMPOUND Sol.

Which of the following is /are paramagnetic (A) [Ru(H2O)6]3+ (B) [Mn(CO)5]– 2+ (C) [Fe(NH3)6] (D) Cr2O7– –

Sol.

13. 10.

Co-ordination number of Cr in CrCl3.5H2O is six. The volume of 0.1 N AgNO3 needed to ppt. the chlorine in outer sphere in 200 ml of 0.01 M solution of the complex is /are : (A) 140 ml (B) 40 ml (C) 80 ml (D) 20 ml

Correct statement is (A) [Co(ox)3]3– is more stable than [Co(H2O)6]3+ (B) In [Co(NH3)6]2+ and [Cu(NH3)4]2+ unpaired e– lies in valence d and p orbital respectively (C) Colour due to d-d transition is found to be more intense than charge transfer spectra (D)  -bond is found to be between metals in polynuclear metal carbonyl compounds

Sol.

Sol.

11.

Three arrangement are shown for the complex [Co(en)(NH3)2Cl2]+. Pick up the wrong statement. Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

NH3

H3N en Co

H3 N

Co

en

(I)

Co

en NH3

NH3 NH3

14.

Cl Cl (II)

(III)

(A) I and II are geometrical isomers (B) II and III are optical isomers (C) I and III are optical isomers (D) II and III are geometrical isomers

Which of the following statement(s) is (are) correct ? (A) The oxidation state of iron in sodium nitro prusside Na2[Fe(CN)5(NO))] is +2 (B) [Ag(NH3)2]+ is linear in shape (C) In [Fe(H2O)6]+3, Fe is d2 sp3 hybridized (D) In Ni(CO)4, the oxidation state of Ni is zero

Sol.

Sol.

15.

12.

Which of the following statement (s) is (are) correct ? (A) hexacyanidoferrate (II) ion has four unpaired electrons in 3d -orbital (B) tetracyanidonickelate (II) ion is square planner (C) IUPAc nam e of [Zn(OH) 4 ] – 2 i on i s tetrahydroxidozine (II) ion (D) t he c oord i nat i on numb er of Cr i n [Cr(NH3)2(en)2]+3 is 6

Which of the following compound(s) show(s) optical isomerism (A) [Pt(bn)2]2+ (B) [CrCl2(en)2]+ (C) [Co(en)3] [CoF6] (D) [Zn(gly)2]2+

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND 16.

Choose the correct IUPAC name(s) of the given compound 4+

OH (en)2CO

Sol.

CO(en)2 OH

(A) Bis(ethylenedi amine) cobal t(III) di-hydroxidobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) ion (B) Di--hydroxidotetrakis(ethylenediamine) dicobalt(III) ion (C) Di-hydroxidobis{bis (ethylenediamine)cobalt(III)}ion (D) Bi s-hy droxi d ob i s (et hyl ene di ami ne ) cobalt(III)}ion

19.

W hi ch of the fol l ow i ng wi l l hav e tw o stereoisomeric forms ? (A) [Cr(NO3)3(NH3)3] (B) K3[Fe(C2O4)3] (C) [CoCl2(en)2]+ (D) [CoBrCl(Ox)2]3–

Sol.

Sol.

20.

17.

Select incorrect statement(s) for [Cu(CN)4]3–, [Cd(CN)4]2– and [Cu(NH3)4]2+ complex ion. (A) Both [Cd(CN)4 ]2– and [Cu(NH3 )4 ] 2+ have square planar geometry (B) [Cu(CN)4]3– and [Cu(NH3)4]2+ have equal no. of unpaired electron (C) [Cu(CN)4]3– and [Cd(CN)4]2– can be separated from the mixture on passing H2S gas (D) all the three complexes have magnetic moment equal to zero

Select the correct statement(s) (A) Co(III) is stabilised in presence of weak field ligands, while Co(II) is stabilised in presence of strong field ligand (B) Four coordinated complexes of Pd(II) and Pt(II) are diamagnetic and square planar (C) [Ni(CN)4]4– ion and [Ni(CO)4] are diamagnetic tetrahedral complexes (D) Ni2+ ion does not form inner orbital octahedral complexes

Sol.

Sol. 21.

18.

Which of the following statement is not true about the complex ion [CrCl(NO2)(en)2]+ (en = ethylene diamine) (A) It has two geometrical isomers-cis and trans (B) cis and trans forms are not diastereomers to each other (C) Only the cis isomer displays optical activity (D) It has three optically active isomers d, l and meso form

Which of the following names is/are correct for the compound Na[CoCl2(NO2)(-C3H5) (NH3)2] (A) Sodium allyldiamminedichloronitrito-Ncobaltate(III) (B) Sodium diamminedichloroallylnitrito-Ncobaltate(III) (C) Sodium diamminedichlorocyclopropylnitrito-Ncobaltate(III) (D) Sodium di ammi necyclopropylnitrito-Ndichlorocobaltate(III)

Sol.

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Page # 36 22.

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Which of the following compound(s) show(s) optical isomerism (A) [Pt(bn)2]2+ (B) [CrCl2(en)2]+ (C) [Co(en)3]CoF6] (D) [Zn(gly)2]2+

24.

When AgN O 3 i s add ed to a s ol uti on of Co(NH3)5Cl3, the precipitate of AgCl shows two ionisable chloride ions. Select incorrect option(s) (A)Two chlorine atom satisfy primary valency and one secondary valency (B) One chlorine atom satisfies primary as well as secondary valency (C) Three chlorine atoms satisfy primary valency (D)Three chlorine atoms satisfy secondary valency

Sol.

Sol.

23.

25.

Sol.

In whi ch of the fol l ow i ng confi gurati on hybridisation and magnetic moment of octahedral complexes are independent of nature of ligands. (i) d3 configuration of any metal cation. (ii) d6 configuration of IIIrd transition series metal cation. (iii) d8 configuration of Ist transition series metal cation. (iv) d7 configuration of any metal cation Select the correct code : (A) III, IV (B) I, III, IV (C) I, II, IV (D) I, II, III

Which of the following electronic arrangement is /are possible for inner orbital oct complex. (I) t 32ge2g

(II) t 62ge1g

(III) t 32ge0g

(IV) t 24ge2g

Select the correct code : (A) I, IV (B) II, III (C) III only (D) III, IV Sol. COMPREHENSION TYPE Comprehension Q. No. 24 to 26 When a transition metal ion (usually) is involved in octahedral complex formation, the five degenerate dorbitals split into two set of degenerate orbitals (3 + 2). Three degenerate orbitals of lower energy (dxy, dyz, dzx) and a set of degenerate orbitals of higher energy (dx2 – y2 and dz2). The orbitals with lower energy are called t2g orbitals and those with higher energy are called eg orbitals. In octahedral complexes, positive metal ion may be considered to be present at the centre and negative ligands at the corner of a regular octahedron. As lobes of dx2  y2 and dZ2 lie along the axes, i.e., along the ligands the repulsions are more and so high is the energy. The lobes of the remaining three d-orbitals lie between the axes. i.e., between the ligands. The repulsion between them are less, so lesser the energy. In the octahedral complexes, if metal ion has electrons more than 3 then for pairing them the option are (i) Pairing may start with 4th electron in t 2g orbitals. (ii) Pairing may start normally with 6th electrons when t2g and eg orbitals are singly filled.

26.

Sel ect i ncorrect match for the fol lowing complexes. (A) [IrF6]3– ( > P) (B) [Co(H2O)6]3+ ( < P) (C) Fe(CO)5 ( > P) (D) [PdCl2(SCN)2]2– ( > P)

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND Comprehension Q. No. 27 to 29 Ni (NH3)4 (NO3)2.2H2O molecule may have two unpaired electron or zero unpaired electron and measurement of magnetic moment helps us to predict the geometry. 27.

If magnetic moment value is zero then the formula of the complex will be (A) [Ni(NH3)4] (NO3)2 . 2H2O (B) [Ni(NH3)2(H2O)2](NO3)2. 2NH3 (B) [Ni(NH3)4 (H2O)2] (NO3)2 (D) [Ni(NO3)2 (H2O)2]

Sol.

28.

Sol.

31.

The complex which does not exhibit cis-trans isomersim but optically active (A) [Zn(gly)2] (B) [Pt(gly)2] (C) [Ni(gly)2] (D) [Pd(gly)2]

Sol.

If the magnetic moment value is 2 2 and conducts electricity then the formula of the complex is (A) [Ni(NH3)4] (NO3)2 . 2H2O (B) [Ni(NH3)2(H2O)2](NO3)2. 2NH3 (C) [Ni(NH3)4 (H2O)2] (NO3)2 (D) [Ni(NH3)4 (NO3)2].2H2O

32.

The complex in which six pair of enantiomers available form is optically active (A) [CoBrCl(CN)(H2O)(NH3)2] (B) [Rh(CN)2(gly)(H2O)NH3)] (C) [FeF2(OH)2(en)]– (D) [CrBr2Cl(CN)(NH3)2]–

Sol.

Sol.

29.

The higher and lower value of magnetic moment of the given complex corresponds to the following geometries respectively. (A) Octahedron and tetrahedron (B) Octahedron and square planar (C) Square planar and octahedron (D) OCtahedron and octahedron

Sol.

Comprehension Q. No. 30 to 32 The necessary and sufficient condition to exhibit optical activity. the configuration of the given complex should be assymmetric. 30. The complex ions [Co(NH 3) 5 (NO 2)] 2+ and [Co(NH3)5(ONO)]2+ are called – (A) Ionization isomers (B) Linkage isomers (C) Coordination isomers (D) Hydrate isomers

Comprehension Q. No,. 33 to 34 No single theory of bonding of complex compound is sufficient to describe the bonding, magnetic property, colour, etc of a given complex. 33. The tetrahedral complex which is diamagnetic but coloured. (A) [NiCl4]2– (B) [CrO4]2– 2– (C) [MnO4] (D) [Cd(CN)4]2– Sol.

34.

The incorrect statement about Ni(CO)4 is (A) The bond order of CO in the complex is less than bond order of CO molecule. (B) The compl ex is diamagnetic and dsp 2 hybridised (C) The bond order of Ni – C bond is greater than one. (D) The complex cannot act as oxidizing or reducing agent according to sidwick EAN rule

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Page # 38

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Sol.

Sol.

Match the Column : 35. Column - I (A) [Ma2bcde]n± (B) [Ma2b2c2]n± (C) [M(AB)c2d2]n±

40. (A) (B) (C) (D) Sol.

Column - I [Fe(CO)4]2– [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 K2[Ni(CN)4] [Cu(NH3)4]2+

Column - II (P) 34 (Q) 35 (R) 36 (S) 37

41. (A) (B) (C) (D)

Column - I [Fe(NH3)6]2+ [NiF6]2– [Co(H2O)6]3+ [Pt(Cl2)(NH3)4]Cl2

Column - II (P) d2sp3 (Q) sp3d2 (R) diamagnetic (S) Paramagnetic (T) outer orbital complex

Column - II (P) 1 cis isomer (Q) 4 geometrical isomers (R) 5 stereo(space) isomers (S) 3 trans isomers (where AB  Unsym. bidentate ligand, a,b,c,d & e  monodentate ligands)

Sol.

36. (A) (B) (C) (D) Sol.

Column - I [Ni(H2O)6]Cl2 [Co(CN)2(NH3)4]OC2H5 [IrCl6]3– [PtCl2(NH3)4]Br2

Column - II (P) d2sp3 hybridisation (Q) Ionisaton isomerism (R)  = 2.83 B.M. (S) 0 < P

Sol.

42. (A) (B) (C) (D) 37.

Sol.

38.

Sol.

39.

Column - I (A) [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 (B) [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] (C) K4[Fe(CN)6] (D) [Fe(H2O)6]Cl3

Column - I (Complex) (A) [Co(en)3]2+ (B) [Ca(EDTA)]2– (C) [Ni(CO)4] (D) [Ag(NH3)2]Cl

Column - I (Complexes) (A) [CoCl3(NH3)3] (B) [Cr(OX)3]3– active (C) [CrCl2(OX)2] inactive (D) [RhCl3(Py)3]

Column - II (P) dsp2 (Q) Octahedral (R) sp3d2 (S) square planar

Column - II (C.N) (P) 6 (Q) 4 (R) 2 (S) 5

Column - II (Stereoproperties) (P) Show facial isomer (Q) Cis form is optically (R) Trans form is optically

Column - I [MnCl6]2– [Fe(CN)6]3– [CoF6]3– [Fe(H2O)6]2+

Column - II (P) One upaired electron (Q) d2sp3 (R) sp3d2 (S) Four unpaired electron

Sol.

43. Column - I Column - II (A) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (P) Inner orbital complex (B) [CuCl4]2– (Q) Magnetic moment = 1.73 B.M. (C) K2[Cr(CN)4(NH3)(NO+)] (B) K4[CO(NO2)6] (R) Metal oxidation state + 2 (S) During hybridisation d-orbital electron is transfered to higher energy orbital Sol.

44. Column - I (A) Only four stereoisomer (B) Four optically active isomer (C) Double the number of geometrical isomer compared to any other complex given in column II. Sol.

Column - II (P) [M (AB)3]n± (Q) [M (AA) a2b2]n± (R) [M a2b2 cd]n± (S) [Ma3bcd]n±

(S) Show meridional form (T) Two optically active isomer

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Page # 39

COORDINATION COMPOUND

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

EXERCISE – III 1.

Which of the following statements is not true about the complex ion [CrCl2(en)2]+ : (A) It has two geometrical isomers –cis and trans. (B) Both the cis and trans isomers display optical activity. (C) Only the cis isomer displays optical activity. (D Only the cis isomer has non-superimpossible mirror image.

3.

Identify the geometrical isomers of the following Cl Cl (I)

(II)

Cl Cl

Cl

Cl (III)

Sol.

(IV)

Cl

Cl (A) I with III (C) I with II & IV

(B) II with IV (D) none of these

Sol.

2.

Of the following configurations, the optical active isomers are :

Cl (I)

4.

Cl (II)

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

(III)

(IV)

Cl

Cl

Other than the X–ray diffractions, how could be the following pairs of isomers be distinguished from one another by : [Cr(NH3)6] [Cr(NO2)6] and [Cr(NO2)2(NH3)4] [Cr(NO2)4(NH3)2] (A) electrolysis of an aqueous solution (B) measurement of molar conductance (C) measuring magnetic moments (D) observing their colours

Sol. (A) I and II (C) II and IV

(B) I and III (D) II and III

Sol.

5.

How the isomeric complexes [Co(NH3)6][Cr(NO2)6] and [Cr(NH3)6][Co(NO2)6] can be distinguished from one another by (A) Conductivity measurement (B) Measuring magnetic moments (C) Electrolysis of their aqueous solutions (D) Optical measurement

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

Sol.

6.

9.

Which of the following ions are optically active?

Mn2+ forms a complex with Br– ion. The magnetic moment of the complex is 5.92 B. M. What could not be the probable formula and geometry of the complex? (A) [MnBr6]4–, octahedral (B) [MnBr4]2–, square planar (C) [MnBr4]2–, tetrahedral (D) [MnBr5]3–, trigonal bipyramidal

Sol.

Cl (I)

Cl (II)

Co

Co

Cl

Cl 10.

Cl

(III)

Co

(IV)

Co Cl

(A) I only (C) II and III

How many isomers are possible for the complex ion [CrCl3(OH)2(NH3)]2– (A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5

Sol.

(B) II only (D) IV only

Sol.

7.

Octahedral complex of Ni(II) will be always: (A) inner orbital (B) outer orbital (C) inner or outer orbital depending upon the strong or weak field ligand (D) none of these

11.. A complex of certain metal has the magnetic moment of 4.91 BM whereas another complex of the same metal with same oxidation state has zero magnetic moment. The metal ion could be : (A) Co2+ (B) Mn2+ 2+ (C) Fe (D) Fe3+ Sol.

Sol.

12. 8.

Sol.

For the correct assignment of electronic configuration of a complex, the valence bond theory often required the measurement of : (A) molar conductance (B) optical activity (C) magnetic moment (D) dipole moment

[Co(H2O)6]3+ and [PdBr4]2– complex ions are respectively : (A) low spin, high spin (B) high spin, low spin (C) both low spin (D) both high spin

Sol.

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Page # 41

COORDINATION COMPOUND 13.

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the antidote for lead poisoning. It is administered in the form of (A) free acid (B) sodium dihydrogen salt (C) Calcium dihydrogen salt (D) None of these

Sol.

Sol. 17.

14. Sol.

15.

Sol.

The species having tetrahedral shape is (A) [PdCl4]2– (B) [Ni(CN)4]2– (C) [Pd(CN)4]2– (D) [NiCl4]2–

Which one of the following species does not represent cationic species of vanadium formed in aqueous solution : (A) VO2+ (B) VO2+ 3+ (C) [V(H2O)6] (D) VO22+

The EAN of metal atoms in Fe(CO)2(NO)2 and Co2(CO)8 respectively are : (A) 34, 35 (B) 34, 36 (C) 36, 36 (D) 36, 35

Sol.

18.

Following Sidgwick’s rule of EAN, Co2(CO)x will be : (A) Co2(CO)4 (C) Co2(CO)8

(B) Co2(CO)3 (D) CO2(CO)10

Sol.

16.

The complex ion has two optical isomers. Their correct configurations are : Br

I

(A)

Br

I

and Br I

I

I

Br

(B)

19. Br Br

I

and I

Br

Br

(A) (B) (C) (D)

I

I

Br

Br

(C)

and

Br

I

I I I I

cis, II cis, II trans, trans,

trans; trans; II cis; II cis;

both both both both

tetrahedral square planar tetrahedral sqaure planar

Sol.

Br

I

On teatment of [Ni(NH3)4]2+ with concentrated HCl, two compounds I and II having the same formula, [NiCl2(NH3)2] are obtained, I can be converted into II by boiling with dilute HCl. A solution of I reacts with oxalic acid to form [Ni(C2O4)(NH3)2] whereas II does not react. Point out the correct statement of the following

I I

Br

Br

(D)

Br

Br

and

I

I

I

I

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Page # 42 20. (A) (B) (C) (D) Sol.

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Which one of the following statement is incorrect? Greater the formation constant (Kf) of a complex ion, greater is its stability. Greater the positive charge on the central metal ion, greater is the stability of the complex. Greater is the basic character of the ligand, lesser is the stability of the complex. Chelate complexes have high stability constants.

24.

(A) [Mn(CO)6]+ < [Cr(CO)6] < [V(CO)6]– (B) [V(CO)6]– < [Cr(CO)6] < [Mn(CO)6]+ (C) [V(CO)6]– < [Mn(CO)6]+ < [Cr(CO)6] (D) [Cr(CO)6] < [Mn(CO)6]+ < [V(CO)6]– Sol.

25. 21.

Point out the correct statements amongst the following :

(A)

[Cu(CN)4]3– has tetrahedral geometry and dsp2 hybridization.

(B)

[Ni(CN)6]4– is octahedral and Ni has d2sp2 hybridization.

(C) (D)

[ZnBr4]2– is tetrahedral and diamagnetic. [Cr(NH3)6]3+ has octahedral geometry and sp3d2 hybridization.

In the isoelectronic series of metal carbonyl, the CO bond strength is expected to increase in the order.

Which compound is formed when excess of KCN is added to aqueous solution of copper sulphate? (A) Cu(CN)2 (B) K2[Cu(CN)4] (C) K[Cu(CN)2] (D) K3[Cu(CN)4]

Sol.

26.

Sol.

Which of the following complex shows ionization isomerism : (A) [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3 (B) [Cr(en)2]Cl2 (C) [Cr(en)3]Cl3 (D) [CoBr(NH3)5]SO4

Sol.

22.

Among the following ions which one has the highest paramagnetism : (A) (C)

[Cr(H2O)6]3+ [Cu(H2O)6]2+

(B) (D)

27.

[Fe(H2O)6]2+ [Zn(H2O)6]2+

Sol.

23.

Among the following, the compound that is both paramagnetic and coloured is : (A) K2Cr2O7 (B) (NH4)2[TiCl6] (C) VOSO4 (D) K3[Cu(CN)4]

Which of the following statements are true/false(i) [Co(H2O)4]2+ (ii) [CoCl4]2– (iii) [Co(dmg)2] (a) i, ii are paramagnetic & iii is diamagnetic in nature (b) i & ii has magnetic moment greater than iii (c) i, ii has tetrahedral structure and iii has square planar structure (d) In i, ii there is one unpaired electron and in iii it has 3 unpaired electrons (A) FTFT (B) FFTT (C) TFTF (D) FTTF

Sol.

Sol.

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Page # 43

COORDINATION COMPOUND 28.

If NO reacts with [Cr(CO)6] how many CO groups can be replaced by NO : (A) All the 6 CO groups are replaced by 6 NO groups (B) All the 4 CO groups are replaced by 6 NO groups (C) All the 2 CO groups are replaced by 3 NO groups (D) All the 6 CO groups are replaced by 4 NO groups

31.

The complex K4[Zn(CN)4(O2)2] is oxidised into K2[Zn(CN)4(O2)2], then which of the following is/ are correct? (A) Zn(II) is oxidised into Zn (IV) (B) Paramagnetic moment decreases (C) O – O bond length increases (D) Paramagnetic moment increase

Sol.

Sol.

2–

29.

[(NH3)5Co–O–O–Co(NH3)5]+4 Brown

[S2O8] oxidise

32.

[(NH3)5Co–O–O–Co(NH3)5] Green The magnetic moment of green complex is 1.7 BM & for brown complexes magnetic moment is zero. (O–O) is same in all respect i n both the complexes. The O. S. of Co in brown complex & green complex respectively are– (A) III III & IV III (B) III II & III III brown green brown green +5

(C) III III & III II brown green

All the following complexes show decrease in their weight when placed in a magnetic balance then the group of complexes having tetrahedral geometry is : (I) Ni(CO)4 (II) K[AgF4] (III) Na2[Zn(CN)4] (IV) K2[PtCl4] (V) [RhCl((PPh3)3] (A) II, III, V (B) I, II, III (C) I, III, IV (D) None of these

Sol.

(D) III IV & III III brown green

Sol. 33.

K6[(CN)5Co–O–O–Co(CN)5] (X) oxidizes

30.

H3N

Cl M

(A) H3N (C) Both Sol.

K5[(CN)5Co–O–O–Co(CN)5] (Y) In both the complexes Co cation have t2g6eg0 configuration. The B. E. of (O–O) in X & Y is (A) B. E. of (O – O) in y < B. E of (O – O) in X (B) B. E. of (O – O) in X < B. E. of (O – O) in Y (C) B. E. of (O – O) in X = B. E. of (O – O) in Y (D) can’t be compared

Which of the following isomers of [M(NH3)2Cl2] would react with potassium oxalate (K2C2O4): H3N M

(B) Cl

Cl

Cl (D) None

H3N Sol.

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Page # 44 34.

COORDINATION COMPOUND

What is oxidation state, magnetic moment and type of hybridisation of central metal cation in following complex. [Os(ONO)(O)2(O2)(SCN)(H2O)]OH (A) +7,

38.

Which of the following complexes is diamagnetic? (A) [Fe(CN)6]4– (B) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ 3+ (C) [Ti(H2O)6] (D) [Fe(CN)6]3–

Sol.

3 B. M., d sp hybridisation (B) +8, 0 B. M., sp3d2 hybridisation (C) +8, 0 B. M., d2sp3 hybridisation (D) +9, 0 B. M., sp3d2 hybridisation 2

3

Sol. 39.

6 2 For the t 2g eg system, the value of magnetic moment (m) is – (A) 2.83 B.M. (B) 1.73 B.M. (C) 3.87 B.M. (D) 4.92 B.M.

Sol. 35.

Which of the following option is having maximum number of unpaired electrons. (A) A tetrahedral d6 ion (B) [Co(H2O)6]3+ (C) A square planar d7 ion (D) A co-ordination compound with magnetic moment of 5.92 B.M.

40.

Sol.

The magnetic moment of a complex ion is 2.83 BM. The complex ion is (A) [Cr(H2O)6]3+ (B) [Cu(CN)4]3– 3+ (C) [V(H2O)6] (D) [Co(H2O)6]2+

Sol.

36.

Whi c h one of t he fol l owi ng oct ahed ral complexes will not show geometrical isomerism (A and B are monodentate ligands) – (A) [MA5B] (B) [MA2B4] (C) [MA3B3] (D) [MA4B2]

Sol.

37.

Sol.

The number of possible isomers by the compounds like [Cd(gly)2] and [Pd(gly)2] are respectively. (A) 0, 2 (B) 1, 2 (C) 2, 2 (D) 1, 1

41.

The complex having highest  value (A) [Ni(en)3]2+ (B) [Ni(CN)4]2– 2– (C) [NiCl4] (D) [Ni(NH3)6]2+

Sol.

42.

Which of the following complex is with lowest number of unpaired electron (A) [NiF6]2– (B) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (C) [CoF6]3– (D) [Fe(EDTA)]–

Sol.

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Page # 45

COORDINATION COMPOUND

EXERCISE – IV

PREVIOUS YEARS

LEVEL – I

JEE MAIN

OBJECTIVE Q.1 In [Cr(C2O4)3]3–, the isomerism shown is [AIEEE-2002] (A) Ligand (B) Optical (C) Geometrical (D) Ionization Sol.

Q.5

Sol.

Q.6 Q.2

The number of 3d-electrons remained in Fe2+ (At. no. of Fe = 26) is – [AIEEE-2003] (A) 4 (B) 5 (C) 6 (D) 3

In the complexes [Fe(H2O)6]3+, [Fe(CN)6]3+, [Fe(C2O4)3]3– and [FeCl6]3–, more stability is shown by – [AIEEE-2002] (A) [Fe(H2O)6]3+ (B) [Fe(CN)6]3+ (C) [Fe(C2O4)3]3– (D) [FeCl6]3–

Sol.

Ammonia forms the complex ion [Cu(NH3)4]2+ ion with copper ions in alkaline solutions but not in acidic solution. What is the reason for it – [AIEEE-2003] (A) In acidic solution hydration protects copper ions (B) In acidic solutions protons coordinate with ammonia molecules forming NH4+ ions and NH3 molecules are not available (C) In alkaline solutions insoluble Cu(OH)2 is precipitated which is soluble in excess of any alkali (D) Copper hydroxi de is an amphoteric substance

Sol. Q.3

One mole of the complex compound Co(NH3)5Cl3, gives 3 moles of ions on dissolution in water. One mole of the same complex reacts with two moles of AgNO3 solution to yield two moles of AgCl(s). The structure of the complex is – [AIEEE-2003] (A) [Co(NH3)3Cl3]. 2NH3 (B) [Co(NH3)4Cl2] Cl. NH3 (C) [Co(NH3)4Cl] Cl2. NH3 (D) [Co(NH3)5Cl] Cl2

Q.7

Among the properties (a) reducing (b) oxidising (c) complexing, the set of properties shown by CN– ion towards metal species is – [AIEEE-2004] (A) c, a (B) b, c (C) a, b (D) a, b, c

Sol.

Sol.

Q.8 Q.4

Sol.

In the coordination compound K4[Ni(CN)4], the oxidation state of nickel is – [AIEEE-2003] (A) 0 (B) +1 (C) +2 (D) –1

The coordination number of a central metal atom in a complex is determined by – [AIEEE-2004] (A) The number of ligands around a metal ion bonded by sigma and pi-bonds both (B) The number of ligands around a metal ion bonded by pi-bonds (C) The number of ligands around a metal ion bonded by coordinate bonds (D) The number of only anionic ligands bonded to the metal ion

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COORDINATION COMPOUND Q.12

Q.9

Which one of the following complexes in an outer orbitals complex – [AIEEE-2004] 3+ (A) [Co(NH3)6] (B) [Mn(CN)6]4– (C) [Fe(CN)6]4– (D) [Ni(NH3)6]2+ (Atomic nos. : Mn = 25; Fe = 26; Co = 27; Ni = 28) Sol.

Sol.

Q.13

Q.10

Coordination compounds have great importance in biological systems. In this contect which of the following statements is incorrect ? [AIEEE-2004] (A) Cyanocobalamin is vitamin B12 and contains cobalt (B) Haemoglobin is the red pigment of blood and contains iron (C) Chlorophylls are green pigments in plants and contain calcium (D) Carboxypeptidase-A is an enzyme and contains zinc

The value of the 'spin only' magnetic moment for one of the following configurations is 2.84 BM . The correct one is – [AIEEE-2005] (A) d4 (in strong ligand field) (B) d4 (in weak ligand field) (C) d3 (in weak as well as in strong field) (D) d5 (in strong ligand field)

T he IUPAC nam e for the comp l e x [Co(NO2)(NH3)5] Cl2 is – [AIEEE-2006] (A) petaammine nitrito-N-cobalt (II) chloride (B) pentaammine nitrito-N-cobalt (III) chloride (C) nitrito-N-pentaamminecobalt (III) chloride (D) nitrito-N-pentaamminecobatl (II) chloride

Sol.

Q.14

Sol.

Nickel (Z = 28) combines with a ninegative monodentate ligand X– to form a paramagnetic complex [NiX4 ]2– . The number of unpaired electron in the nickel and geometry of this complex ion are respectively – [AIEEE-2006] (A) one, square planar (B) two, square planar (C) one, tetrahedral (D) two, tetrahedral

Sol. Q.11

The correct order of magnetic moments (spin only values in B.M. among is) – [AIEEE-2004] (A) [Fe(CN)6]4– > [MnCl4]2– > [CoCl4]2– (B) [MnCl4]4– > [Fe(CN)6]4– > [CoCl4]2– (C) [MnCl4]2– > [CoCl4]2– > [Fe(CN)6]4– (D) [Fe(CN)6]4– > [CoCl4]2– > [MnCl4]2–

Q.15

(Atomic nos : Mn = 25 ; Fe = 26 ; Co = 27 ; Ni = 28) Sol.

In Fe(CO)5, the Fe–C bond possesses – [AIEEE-2006] (A) ionic character (B) -character only (C) -character (D) both  and  character

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND Q.16

How many EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate ion) molecules are required to make an octahedral complex with a Ca2+ ion ? [AIEEE-2006] (A) One (B) Two (C) Six (D) Three

Sol.

Q.17

The ''spin-only'' magnetic moment [in units of Bohr magneton] of Ni2+ in aqueous solution would be (At. No. Ni = 28) – [AIEEE-2006] (A) 0 (B) 1.73 (C) 2.84 (D) 4.90

Q.20

In which of the following octahedral complexes of Co (at. no. 27), will the magnitude of 0 be the highest ? (A) [Co(CN)6]3– (B) [Co(C2O4)3]3– 3+ (C) [Co(H2O)6] (D) [Co(NH3)6]3+

Sol.

Q.21

Sol.

Which of the following has an optical isomer ? [AIEEE-2009] (A) [CO(en)(NH3)2]2+ (B) [CO(H2O)4(en)]3+ (C) [CO(en)2(NH3)2]3+ (D) [CO(NH3)3Cl]+

Sol.

Q.18

Which one of the following has a square planar geometry - (Co = 27, Ni = 28, Fe = 28, Fe = 26, Pt = 78) – [AIEEE-2007] (A) [CoCl4]2– (B) [FeCl4]2– (C) [NiCl4]2– (D) [PtCl4]2–

Q.22

Sol.

Q.19

The coordination number and the oxidation state of the element 'E' in the complex [E(en)2(C2O4)] NO2 (where (en) is ethylene diamine) are, respectively – [AIEEE-2008] (A) 6 and +2 (B) 4 and +2 (C) 4 and +3 (D) 6 and +3

Which of the following pairs represents linkage isomers ? [AIEEE-2009] (A) [Pd (P Ph3)2 (NCS)2] and [Pd (P Ph3)2 (SCN)2] (B) [CO(NH3)5NO3] SO4 and [CO(NH3)5SO4] NO3 (C) [Pt Cl 2 (NH3)4] Br2 and [Pt Br2 (NH3)4] Cl 2 (D) [Cu(NH3)4 [PtCl4]] and [Pt(NH3)4] [CuCl 4]

Sol.

Sol.

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COORDINATION COMPOUND

LEVEL – II

JEE ADVANCED

OBJECTIVE 1. The pair of compounds having metals in their highest oxidation state is [JEE-2004] (A) MnO2, FeCl3 (B) [MnO4]–, CrO2Cl2 (C) [Fe(CN)6]3–, [Co(CN)3] (D) [NiCl4]2–, [CoCl4]– Sol.

6.

The IUPAC name of A and B are (A) Potassi um tetracyani doni ckel ate (II), potassium tetrachloridonickelate (II) (B) Te trac yani dopotass i umni c ke l ate (II), teterachloridopotassiumnickelate (II) (C) Tetracyanidornickel (II), tetrachloridonickel (II) (D) Potassium tetracyanidonickel (II), potassium tetrachloridonickel (II)

Sol. 2.

The compound having tetrahedral geometry is [JEE-2004] (A) [Ni(CN)4]2– (B) [Pd(CN)4]2– (C) [PdCl4]2– (D) [NiCl4]2–

7.

Sol.

3.

Spin only magnetic moment of the compound Hg[Co(SCN)4] is [JEE-2004] (A) 3

(B)

15

(C) 24

(D)

8

Sol.

4.

Sol.

5.

Sol.

8.

Which of the following pair is expected to exhibit same colour in solution ? [JEE-2005] (A) VOCl2 ; FeCl2 (B) CuCl2; VOCl2 (C) MnCl2 ; FeCl2 (D) FeCl2 ; CuCl2

Whi c h ty pe of i s om eri s m i s s hown b y [Co(NH3)4Br2] Cl ? [JEE-2005] (A) Geometical and Ionisation (B) Optical and Ionisation (C) Geometrical and Optical (D) Geometrical only

Predict the magnetic nature of A and B (A) Both are diamagnetic (B) A is diamagnetic and B is paramagnetic with one unpaired electron (C) A is diamagnetic and B is paramagnetic with two unpaired electrons (D) Both are paramagnetic.

The hybridization of A and B are (A) dsp2, sp3 (B) sp3, sp3 2 2 (C) dsp , dsp (D) sp3d2, d2sp3

Sol.

9.

If the bond length of CO bond in carbon monoxides is 1.128 Å, then what is the value of CO bond length in Fe(CO)5 ?[JEE-2006] (A) 1.15 Å (B) 1.128 Å (C) 1.72 Å (D) 1.118 Å

Sol.

10.

Sol.

Among the following metal carbonyls, the C– O bond order is lowest in [JEE-2007] (A) [Mn(CO)6]+ (B) [Fe(CO)5] (C) [Cr(CO)6] (D) [V(CO)6]–

Sol. Question No. 6 to 8 (3 questions) [JEE-2006] The coordination number of Ni2+ is 4. NiCl2 + KCN (excess)  A (cyanido complex) NiCl2 + Conc. KCl (excess)  B (chlorido complex) Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 49

COORDINATION COMPOUND 11.

(A) (B) (C) (D)

Match the complexes in Column I with their properties listed in Column II. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate bubbles of the 4 × 4 matrix given in the ORS. [JEE-2007] Column I Column - II [Co(NH3)4(H2O)2]Cl2 (P) Geometrical isomers [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] (Q) Paramagnetic [Co(H2O)5Cl]Cl (R) Diamagnetic [Ni(H2O)6]Cl2 (S) Metal ion with +2 oxidation state

16.

Among the following, the coloured compound is [JEE-2008] (A) CuCl (B) K3[Cu(CN)4] (C) CuF2 (D) [Cu(CH3CN)4]BF4

17.

Sol. Sol. 13.

The spin only magnetic moment value (in Bohr magneton units) of Cr(CO)6 is [JEE-2009] (A) 0 (B) 2.84 (C) 4.90 (D) 5.92

Sol.

Sol.

12.

Sol.

The IUPAC name of [Ni(NH3)4] [NiCl4] is [JEE-2008] (A) Tetrachloronickel (II)-tetraamminenickel (II) (B) Tetraamminenickel (II)-Tetrachloronickel (II) (C) Tetraamminenickel (II)- tetrachloronickelate (II) (D) Tetrachloronickel (II) - tetraamminenickelate (0)

Sol.

18.

The compound(s) that exhibit (s) geometrical isomerism is (are) [JEE-2009] (A) [Pt(en)Cl2] (B) [Pt(en)2]Cl2 (C) [Pt(en)2Cl2]Cl2 (D) [Pt(NH3)2Cl2]

T he c orre ct s truc ture ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is [JEE-2010] HOOC – CH2

14.

Both [Ni(CO)4] and [Ni(CN)4]2– are diamagnetic. The hybridisations of nickel in these complexes, respectively, are [JEE-2008] (A) sp3, sp3 (B) sp3, dsp2 (C) dsp2, sp3 (D) dsp2, dsp2

Sol.

(A)

CH2– COOH N – CH = CH – N

HOOC – CH2

CH2– COOH

HOOC

COOH

(B)

N – CH2 – CH2 – N HOOC

COOH

HOOC – CH2

(C) 15.

STATEMENT - 1 [Fe(H2O)5 NO]SO4 is paramagnetic. and STATEMENT - 2 The Fe in [Fe(H2O)5NO]SO4 has three unpaired electrons. [JEE-2008] (A) STATEMENT -1 is true, STATEMENT -2 is true; STATEMENT - 2 is a correct explanation for STATEMENT - 1 (B) STATEMENT -1 is true, STATEMENT - 2 is true ; STAT EM EN T - 2 i s N OT a correc t explanation for STATEMENT - 1 (C) STATEMENT - 1 is true, STATEMENT - 2 is false (D) STATEMENT - 1 is Flase; STATEMENT - 2 is True

of

CH2– COOH N – CH2 – CH2 – N

HOOC – CH2

CH2– COOH

COOH HOOC – CH2

(D)

CH2

H

Sol.

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H

N – CH – CH – N CH2 HOOC

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CH2– COOH

Page # 50 19.

Sol.

20.

Sol.

COORDINATION COMPOUND

The ionization isomer of [Cr(H2O)4Cl(NO2)]Cl is (A) [Cr(H2O)4(O2N)]Cl2 [JEE-2010] (B) [Cr(H2O)4Cl2](NO2) (C) [Cr(H2O)4Cl(ONO)]Cl (D) [Cr(H2O)4Cl2(NO2)].H2O

Sol.

The complex showing a spin - only magnetic moment of 2.82 B.M. is [JEE-2011] (A) [Ni(CO)4] (B) [NiCl4]2– (C) [Ni(PPh3)4] (D) [Ni(CN)4]2–

2.

SUBJECTIVE 1. Why only [CuCl4]2– exists but [Cul4]2– deos not. [JEE-1992] Sol.

Sol.

3. 21.

Among the following complexes (K – P), K 3 [Fe (C N) 6 ] ( K) , [Co(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 3 ( L) , Na3[Co(oxalate)3] (M), [Ni(H2O)6]Cl 2(N), K2[Pt(CN)4] (O) and [Zn(H2O)6](NO3)2 (P) the diamagnetic complexes are [JEE-2011] (A) K, L, M, N (B) K, M, O, P (C) L, M, O, P (D) L, M, N, O

Sol.

Sol.

4.

The colour of light absorbed by an aqueous solution of CuSO4 is [JEE-2012] (A) orange-red (B) blue-green (C) yellow (D) violet

Which type of magnetism is exhibited by [Mn(H2O)6]2+ ion [JEE-1994]

W ri te t he IUPAC nam e of c om pound [Cr(NH 3 ) 5 (NCS)][ZnCl 4 ]. is this compound coloured ? [JEE-1997]

Sol.

5. 22.

Write the IUPAC name of [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 [JEE-1994]

Write the IUPAc name of the following complexes (i) Pentaamminechloridocobalt (III) (ii) Lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (III) [JEE-1997]

Sol.

Sol. 6.

23.

As per IUPAC nomenclature, the name of the complex, [Co(H2O)4(NH3)2]Cl3 is [JEE-2012] (A) Tetraaquadiaminecobalt (III) chloride (B) Tetraaquadiamminecobalt (III) chloride (C) Diaminetetraaquacobalt (III) chloride (D) Diamminetetraaquacobalt (III) chloride

Sol.

A, B and C are three complexes of chromium (III) with the empirical formula H12O6Cl3Cr. All the three complexes have water and chloride ion as l i gands. Compl ex A does not react wi th concentrated H2SO4 whereas complexes B and C lose 6.75 % and 13.5 % of their original wight, respectively, on treatement with concentrated H2SO4. Identity A, B and C. [JEE-1999]

Sol. 7. 24.

NiCl2{P(C2H5)2(C6H5)}2 exhibits temperature dependent magnetic behaviour (paramagnetic / diamagnetic). The coordination geometries of Ni2+ in the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states are respectively. [JEE-2012] (A) tetrahedral and tetrahedral (B) square planar and square planar (C) tetrahedral and square planar (D) square planar and tetrahedral

Draw the structures of [Co(NH3)6]3+, [Ni(CN)4]2– and Ni(CO)4. Write the hybridisation of atomic oribitals of the transition metal in each case. [JEE-2000]

Sol.

8.

Deduce the structures of [NiCl4]2– and [Ni(CN)4]2– considering the hybridisation. Calculate the magnetic moment (spin only) of the species. [JEE-2002]

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Page # 51

COORDINATION COMPOUND Sol.

14.

The colour of light absorbed by an aqueous solution of CuSO4 is [JEE-2012] (A) orange-red (B) blue-green (C) yellow (D) violet

Sol. 9.

Write the IUPAC name of the given complex along with its a hybridisation and structure. K2[Cr(NO) (NH3) (CN4)],  = 1.73 [JEE-2003]

15.

Sol.

10.

When dimethyl glyoxime is added to the aqueous solution of nickel (II) chloride in presence of dilute ammonia solution, a rosy red coloured ppt is obtained. [JEE-2004] (a) Draw the structure of rosy red substance. (b) Write the oxidation state of nickel in the substance and hybridisation. (c) State whether the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic.

As per IUPAC nomenclature, the name of the complex [JEE-2012] [Co(H2O)4(NH3)2]Cl3 is (A) Tetraaquadiaminecobalt (III) chloride (B) Tetraaquadiamminecobalt (III) chloride (C) Diaminetetraaquacobalt (III) chloride (D) Diamminetetraaquacobalt (III) chloride

Sol.

16.

Sol.

NiCl2{P(C2H5)2(C6H5)}2 exhibits temperature dependent magnetic behaviour (paramagnetic / diamagnetic). The coordination geometries of Ni2+ in the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states are respectively. [JEE-2012] (A) tetrahedral and tetrahedral (B) square planar and square planar (C) tetrahedral and square planar (D) square planar and tetrahedral

Sol. 11.

In the given reaction sequence, identify (A) and (B) 



SCN F (Excess) Fe3     A     Coloureles s (B) Blood red (Excess) (a) Write the IUPAC name of (A) and (B) (b) Find out the spin only magnetic moment of B. [JEE-2005] Sol.

17.

Consider the following complex ion P, Q and R P = [FeF6]3–, Q = [V(H2O)6]2+ and R = [Fe(H2O)6]2+ [JEE-2013] The correct order of the complex ions, according to their spin-only magnetic moment value (in B.M.) is (A) R < Q < P (B) Q < R < P (C) R < P < Q (D) Q < P < R

Sol.

12.

The number of water molecule(s) directly bonded to the metal centre in CuSO4. 5H2O is [JEE-2009]

18.

Sol.

Sol. 13.

Sol.

The volume (in mL ) of 0.1 M AgNO3 required for complete precipitation of chloride ions present in 30 mL of 0.01 M solution of [Cr(H2O)5Cl]Cl2, as silver chloride is close to [JEE-2011]

19.

The pair(s) of coordination complexes/ions exhibiting the same kind of isomerism is(are) [JEE-2013] (A) [Cr(NH3)5Cl2]+ and [Cr(NH3)4Cl2]Cl (B) [Co(NH3)4Cl2]+ and [Pt(NH3)2(H2O)Cl]+ (C) [CoBr2Cl2]2– and [PtBR2Cl2]2– (D) [Pt(NH3)3(NO3)]Cl and [Pt(NH3)3Cl]Br

EDTA4– is ethylenediaminetertraacetate ion. The total number of N–Co–O bond angles i n [Co(EDTA)]1– complex ion is [JEE-2013]

Sol.

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Page # 52

COORDINATION COMPOUND

Answers OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

Answer Ex–I 1.

B

2.

D

3.

D

4.

C

5.

B

6.

A

7. B

8.

C

9.

B

10.

B

11.

A

12.

D

13.

D

14. C

15.

C

16.

C

17.

C

18.

D

19.

B

20.

A

21. D

22.

D

23.

A

24.

B

25.

C

26.

C

27.

D

28. B

29.

B

30.

D

31.

B

32.

B

33.

A

34.

A

35. C

36.

D

37.

B

38.

B

39.

D

40.

B

41.

B

42. C

43.

D

44.

C

45.

B

46.

C

47.

D

48.

B

49. D

50.

B

51.

A

52.

C

53.

C

54.

D

55.

C

56. B

57.

B

58.

C

59.

D

60.

C

61.

D

62.

B

63. D

64.

C

65.

C

66.

C

67.

D

68.

A

69.

A

70. B

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Answer Ex–II One or more than correct : 1. AD

2. C

3. ABD

4. AD

5. ACD

6. ACD

7. A

8. BCD

9. AC

10. BD

11. BD

12. BD

13. ABD

14. ABD

15. ABCD

16. ABCD

17. ABD

18. BD

19. AB

20. BCD

21. AC

22. ABCD

23. BCD

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52

Page # 53

COORDINATION COMPOUND Comprehension Type : 24. D

25. B

26. B

27. A

31. A

32. A

33. B

34. B

28. C

29. B

30. B

MAtch the column : 35. A – S ; B –P; C – Q

36. A – R, S ; B –P Q ; C – P; D – P, Q

37. A – P, S ; B –P, S ; C – Q; D – Q, R

38. A – P ; B –P ; C – Q; D – R

39. A – P,R,S ; B –T ; C – Q,R,T ; D – P,R,S

40. A – R ; B –R ; C – P; D – Q

41. A – Q, S,T ; B –P, R ; C – P,R; D – P,R

42. A – Q ; B –P,Q ; C – R,S ; D – R,S

43. A – P,Q,R,S ; B –Q,R ; C – P,Q ; D – P,Q,R,S

44. A – P, Q ; B –P,R ; C – R, S

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Answer Ex–III 1.

B

2.

C

3.

C

4.

B

5.

C

6.

C

7. B

8.

C

9.

B

10.

B

11.

C

12.

C

13.

C

14. D

15.

D

16.

D

17.

C

18.

C

19.

B

20.

C

21. C

22.

B

23.

C

24.

B

25.

D

26.

D

27.

D

28. D

29.

A

30.

A

31.

D

32.

D

33.

B

34.

C

35. D

36.

A

37.

C

38.

A

39.

A

40.

C

41.

B

42. A

Answer Ex–IV

PREVIOUS YEARS

LEVEL – I

JEE MAIN

1.

B

2.

C

3.

D

4.

A

5.

C

6.

B

7. A

8.

C

9.

D

10.

C

11.

C

12.

A

13.

B

14. D

15.

D

16.

A

17.

C

18.

D

19.

D

20.

A

21. C

22.

A : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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53

Page # 54

COORDINATION COMPOUND

LEVEL – II

JEE ADVANCED

Objective : 1. B

2. D

3. B

4. B

5. A

6. A

7. C

8. A

9. A

10. D

11. A – P, Q, S ; B –P, R, S ; C – Q, S ; D – Q ,S

12. C

13. C

14. B

15. A

16. A

17. CD

18. C

19. B

20. B

21. C

22. A

23. D 24. C

Subjective :

O–

OH

1. Reducing power of |–> C|–

CH3 – C = N

CU2+ + |–  Cu+ + l2 (O.A) (R.A.)

N = C – CH3 Ni

10. (a)

N = C – CH3

CH3 – C = N

2. Hexaaminecobalt (lll) chloride 3.Paramagnetism m =

O

OH

35 B.M

4. Pentaammi nethi ocyanato-N-chromi um (ll l ) tetrachloridozincate (ll), Yes

H-bonding (b) dsp2 hybrization square planar structure and oxidation state of Ni = 2+

5. [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+, Li[AlH4]

(c) Diamagnetic

6. A =[Cr(H 2O)]Cl 3 , B=[Cr(H2 O)5 Cl]Cl 2 . H2 O, C =[Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl.2H2O 7. [Co(NH3)6]3+ Octahedral

d2sp3

[Ni(CN)4]2– Square planar

dsp2

[Ni(CO)4] Tetrahedral

sp3

8. Tetrahedral,



SCN

11. (a) Fe3++ (Excess) [Fe(SCN)3] – F (Excess) coloureless (B) [FeF6]3– Trithiocyanato iron (lll) Hexafluoridoferrate (lll) ion

(b) The magnetic moment value of B is 5.93 B.M.

8 B.M. Square planar,  = 0 B.M.

9. K2[Cr(NO)(NH3)(CN)4], meff = 1.73 BM. Chromium is 1 + oxidation state and hybridizationis d2sp3 and IUPAC name is Post as i um aminetetracynidonitrosoniumchromate(l) and Octahedral shape.

12.

H H H

H

O Cu O

O O

H

H H

O

H H

H

13. 0006

14. A

15. D

17. B

18. B,D

19. 0006

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O

O S

O

O

16. C

54

Page # 55

METALLURGY

METALLURGY Minerals : Naturally occuring chemical substance in which metal exist either in its free state or in combined state is called mineral. Ore : Mineral from which metal can be conventionaly and economically extracted is called ore & impurities associated with it is called gangue or matrix TYPES OF ORES : •



Sulphide Ores : Galena : PbS,

Cinnabar : HgS,

Zinc bllend : Zns,

Chalcopyrite : CuFeS2

Copper glance : Cu2S

Fool's Gold : FeS2

Oxide Ores : Bauxite : Al2O3. 2H2O Haematite : Fe2O3 Limonite : Fe2O3. 3H2O



Tin stone or Cassiterite : SnO2

Carbonate Ores : Siderite : FeCO3 Calamine ZnCO3 Malacite : Cu(OH)2CuCO3 Dolomite CaCO3. MgCO3. 2H2O lime stone : CaCO3



Sulphate Ores : Gypsom : CaSO4.2H2O

Anylesite PbSO4

Glauber's salt : Na2SO4. 10 H2O Mohr's salt : FeSO4. (NH4)2SO4. 6H2O •

Halide Ores : Rock salt : NaCl Fluorspar : CaF2

Cryolite : Na3AlF6 Carnallite : KCl. MgCl2. 6H2O



Nitrate Ores :

Chiele Saltpeter : NaNO3 Indian Salt petre : KNO3



Native Ores : Those metals which are chemically less reactive. They occur in the earth crust in form of free state (lumbs) e.g : Cu, Ag, Au, Hg, Pd, Pt, Bi General principles and processes involved in the extraction of metal from its ore : The extraction of metal from its ore is completed in five steps :

Step I : Pulverization : The crushing of ore to powdered state is called pulverisation. Step II : concentration or Dressing or Beneficiation of ore Step III : Conversion of Concentrated ore into oxide form step IV : Reduction of oxide to the metal Step V: Purification or refining of crude metal : Step I : Pulverization : The crushing of ore to powdered state is called pulverisation This process in stamp mill or ball mill Step II : Concentration or Dressing or beneficiation of Ore (a)

By Gravity separation : Ore particles are heavier than the gangue particles. This is used for the separation of most of the gangue particles : : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY By Wilfley Table Method Aq. Suspersion of powdered / Crushed ore

Ore particles Gangue + water



By Hydraulic Classifier

Powdered/Crushed ore

Gangue + water Water

Conc. ore

(b) By Magnetic separator :

Powdered/Crushed Ore Nonmagnetic Roller

Magnetic Roller

Non Magnetic substance

Magnetic substance

Cassiterite or Tinstone contains impurities of wulframite or wulframates of Fe & Mn. 

Tin stone : SnO2  Diamagnetic



Wulframites or wulframates of Fe & Mn : FeWO4, MnWO4  Paramagnetic. Ulframates of Fe & Mn from Tin stone by magnetic separator.

(c) •

By Froth Floatation Process : This method is used for the concentration of sulphide ores.

It is based on the concept that the sulphide ores are prefrentially wetted by pine oil, camphor oil while gangue particles are prefrentially by water.



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Page # 57

METALLURGY air Powdered/crushed ore + water pine oil

Conc. Ore + pine oil

Gangue

Frother : Pine oil, Camphor oil Surface of pine oil Sulphide ore air bubble

Froth Stabilizers : They reduce surface tension of water e.g. cresols, amines. Collector : Sodium or Potassium xanthates. It combines with sulphide ore & makes them water replent so that its affinity towards pine oil increases (Adsorption tendency increases) KOH + EtOH  Et O– K+ + H2O OE S = C = S’ + Et

O–

K+

S=C S– K+ Potassium ethyl xanthate

Depressant : KCN or NaCN ZnS is found to be an impurity with the lead sulphide. Therefore to separate out PbS from ZnS depressant KCN or NaCN added. PbS + NaCN  No complex formation due to very law Ksp of PbS. ZnS + 4NaCN  4Na+ + [Zn (CN)4]2– + S– – (water soluble)

[Zn(CN)4]2–

ZnS

Thus, ZnS becomes water soluble & it remains with gangue while PbS comes out with the froth. Activator : CuSO4 From galena (PbS.ZnS) ZnS is removed ZnS + 4NaCN

3– CuSO 4 4 Na+ + [Zn(CN)4]2–    [Cu(CN)4] + ZnS 

+ S– –

(water soluble) (more stable)

& ZnS is taken out by froth floatation second time. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY

(ii) Chemical Method of Concentration : Leaching : It involves dissolution of metalic ore in a suitable reagent in which metallic ore is soluble and impurities are insoluble. Leaching of alumina from bauxite : Al2O3(s) + 2NaOH(aq) + 3H2O(I)  2Na[Al(OH)4](aq) Having F2O3 as important leachant. The aluminate in solution is acidified by adding acid and hydrated Al2O3 is precipitated. 2Na[Al(OH)4](aq) + H+(aq)

Al(OH)3  + H2O + Na+(aq). (white ppt)

Hydrated alumina is filtered, dried and heated to give back pure Al2O3 :  Al(OH)3   Al2O3(s) + 3H2O(g)

white

(pure)

Other examples : In the metallurgy of silver and gold, the respective metal/ore is leached with very dilute solution of NaCN or KCN in the presence of air (for O2) from which the metal is obtained by displacement reaction. 4M(s) + 8CN–(aq) + 2H2O(aq) + O2(g)  4[M(CN)2]– (aq) + 4OH–(aq) (M = Ag Or Au) 2[M(CN)2]– (aq) + Zn(s) [Zn(CN)4]2–(aq) + 2M(s) Step III : Conversion of Concentrated ore into oxide form : It is done either by calcination or by roasting. (i) Calcination : •

Calcination is carried out for carbonate, hydrated metal oxide & metal hydroxide ores.



It is carried out in the absence of air i.e., heating in absence of air. Ca++ CO3– – Ca++ CO3– –

Ca++ O– – Ca++ O– –  

CO3– – Ca++ CO3– – Ca++

+

CO2

O– – Ca++ O– – Ca++ lattice will remain same



Due to calcination ore becomes porous.



Volatile organic impurities get evaporated eg.

 CaCO3( s)  CaO  CO 2

 CaCO3MgCO3 .2H2 O  CaO  MgO  2CO2  2H2O  2Al(OH)3  Al2 O3  2 H2 O   Al2 O3.2H2O  Al2O3 + 2H2O   Pb(OH)2. PbCO3  2PbO + CO2  + H2O  FeCO3  FeO + CO2   Fe2O3. 3H2O  Fe2O3 + 2H2O 

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METALLURGY  Cu(OH)2. CuCO3  2CuO + CO2  + H2O

Black powder  ZnCO3  ZnO + CO2 

(ii) Roasting : In the presence of air the sulphide are heated in free supply of air below m.p. Impurities of sulphur, phosphorus, arsenic & antimony are converted into their corresponding volatile oxide & thus get removed. Moisture & Water of crystallisation are also removed. eg. (1) PbS +

3  O  PbO + SO2  2 2

 PbS + 2O2  PbSO4

(2) ZnS 

3  O2  ZnO  SO 2  (Utilised in manufacturing of H2SO4) 2

ZnS  2O2  ZnSO4 step IV : Reduction of oxide to the metal : (b) Reduction of Metal oxide / conc. ore into free metal . This can be carried out (i) chemical reduction

(ii) By self reduction or auto reduction or Air Reduction

(iii) Metal - displacement method

(iv) By electrolytic Reduction

(v) By amulgamation.

(i) & (ii) method are collectively known as Pyrometallurgy e.g. Sn, Pb, Fe, Hg, Cu, B, Zn, (Based on Ellinghum diagram) (iii) step is called hydrometallurgy — Cu, Ag, Au are extracted (iv) step is called Electrometallurgy, Alkali, Alkaline earth metals & Al & base electrolysis (v) is used for Ag & Au (I)

CHEMICAL REDUCTION :

1. Smelting i.e., carbon Reduction - Reduction of metal oxide by coke, coal & CO Reducti on of the metal oxide usually involves heating it with some other Substance acting as a reducing agent, e.g., C or CO or even another metal. The reducing agent (e.g., carbon) combines with the oxygen of the metal oxide. MxOy + yC  xM + y CO Some metal oxides get reduced easily while others are very difficult to be reduced. To understand the variation in the temperature requirement for thermal reductions and to predict which element will suit as the reducing agent for a given metal oxide (MxOy), Gibbs energy interpretations are done, which is explained by ellingham diagram. G = H – TS

If H is greater than zero then reduction will be feasible on increasing temprature i.e., |TS| > |H| Ellingham diagram M(s) +

x  O M2Ox(s)  2 2(g)

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METALLURGY

 For forward rxn S < 0 0 –100

) (s

x

O

M

2



–200

2

x O 2

) (g



G (kg/mole)

) (s M

Temp

(Ellingham diagram for formation of M2Ox) Ellingham diagram is a plot of formation of an element oxide between G & T Ex.

Which of the following statements are true : A  Mg(s) +

1 T1 O (g)  MgO(s) 2 2

B  Mg() +

1 T2 O (g)  MgO(s) 2 2

C  Mg(g) +

2

3 O  2 ) s Al(

  g) ( 2

1 O2  2 Mg

 G –1000 –1100

1 T3 O (g)  MgO(s) 2 2

 

(s) O3 Al 2

(C)

O Mg

(B)

(A) T2

T3

1350°C

Temp.

I

:

Below 1350° Mg can reduce Al2O3

II

:

Above 1350° C Mg Will reduce Al2O3

III

:

Below 1350° Al can reduce MgO

IV

:

Above 1350° Al can reduce MgO

V

:

At 1350° C there is no change in free energy i.e., G = 0

Sol.

then Above 1350 C 3MgO  2Al     Al2 O3  3Mg,

(Its G high)

G < 0

(Its G less)

Below 1350 C Al2O3 + 3 Mg    3 MgO + 2Al

At 1350° C both reactions have same G

 G = 0

To carry out smelting below 800°C, CO is used as reducing agent while above 800°C, smelting is carried out by coke. 2C(s) + O2(g)  2CO (g) H = –221.0 kJ/mole S = + 179.4 J kJ/mol Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 61

METALLURGY C(s) + O2(g)  CO2(g)

H = – 393.5 kJ/mol S = 2.89 JK–1 mole–1

–100 –200 –300 –400 –500 –600 G –500 (kJ/mole) –600 –700 –800 –900 –1000 –1100

O2 1 O C CO  2 2

C  O2  CO2

3 O2  2 l 2A



O3 Al 2

2C 

O

2

2 CO

2000°C 710°C



Temp Aluminium can be extracted from Alumina by carbon reduction but the method is highly uneconomical because -

(i)

As the smelting occurs above 200°C hence a part of the aluminium will go into vapour phase (M.P. = 2520°C)

(ii)

At this high temperature the liberated Al will combine with the carbon & aluminium carbide will be formed.

(iii)

Hfor of alumina is high – ve value  It is thermodynamically more stable & reduction is more difficult



To extract metal from sulphide ore is carried out by firstly roasting it into metal oxide & followed by its smelting. Metal sulphide or sulphide ore is not directly smelted to metal.  2PbS + C  2Pb + CS2

Pbs +

(Thermodynamically Not feasible)

3  O  PbO + SO2 2 2

 PbO + C  Pb + CO 

Gf of PbS = –21.9 kcal/mol

   Thermodynamically feasible  

Gf of CS2 = +17.15 kcal/mol Gf of PbO = –45.1 kcal/mol Gf of SO2 = –71.7 kcal/mol Gf of CO = – 32.8 kcal/mol Flux : Additional substances which are used during metal extration to remove acidic or basic impurity are called flux depending upon nature of impurity flux are of two types. (i) Basic Flux : It is used to remove acidic impurity eg : CaO, MgO, CaCO3, MgCO3 FeCO3 etc. (ii)Acidic Flux : It is used to remove basic impurity eg : SiO2, B2O3, P2O5, Na2B4O7. (Borax) Smelting : Phenomenon of slag formation by combining flux with impurity is called smelting. Flux + Impurity  Slag (Smelting) (Basic or acidic)

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METALLURGY

Properties of slag : (i) Slag has low melting point than metal. (ii) Slag is lighter than metal therfore it floats over the molten metal and prevents further oxidation of molten metal by air. (iii) Slag immiscible with molten metal therefore it can be easily separted from molten metal. (b)

Gold Schmidt Thermite Reduction :

Thermite : Al powder Cr2O3

+

 2Al  2Cr

+

(Gf = –540 kJ/mole) B2O3

+

Al2O3 (G3 = –827 kJ/mole)

 2Al 

2B + Al2O3

 2Mn3O4 + 8Al  9Mn + 4 Al2O3  Fe2O3 + 2Al  2Fe + Al2O3

This method is used for reduction of those metal oxides which are highly stable if they are reduced by coke it will occur at very high temprature & at this high temperature the liberated metal will combine with the coke & carbide will be formed hence Al powder i.e., thermite is used (c)

Reduction by Hydrogen : Because of inflammable nature of hydrogen its use as a reducing agent is very restricted.  Cu2O + H2  2Cu + H2O  MOO3 + 3H2  M0 + 3H2O

B Cl3 +

3 T0 / w   B + 3 HCl H Filament 2

BCl3 + H2 Reduction by other metals :  SiCl4 + 2Mg  2MgCl2 + Si

Kroll process used for extraction of Ti & Zr 1000 –1150C TiCl4 + 2Mg  Ti + 2MgCl2  ZrCl4 + 2Mg  Zr + 2MgCl2

I.M.I Process (Imperial Metal Industries)  TiCl4 + 4Na  Ti + 4NaCl

(ii)

By Self reduction or Auto reduction or Air Reduction : This method is used for extraction of copper, lead, mercury i.e., it is used for the extraction of metal from their sulphide ores. In this method the sulphide ore is roasted in free supply of air to its metal oxide & then air supply is cut off followed by heating by increasing temprature & metal is extracted by self reduction. PbS +

3 O2 2

 PbO + SO2 

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METALLURGY  PbS + 2O2  PbSO4

Now air supply is cut off followed by heating  PbS(s) + 2PbO(s)  3Pb() + SO2 

Self reduction is responsible for acid rain than roasting because SO2 dissolves in air, (3927cc CO2 in 1000cc of H2O) (iii)

By Metal Displacement Method or By Hydrometalurgy : Cu Ag Hg Au

Li K Ca Na Mg Al Zn Fe Sn Pb H

Less Electropositive

More Electropositive than Hydrogen

In this method the concentrated ore is treated/ leached with specific chemical reagent that converts the ore into water soluble salt. Now, on adding more electropositive metal into the aqueous salt solution the metal (less electro positive) is displaced e.g. Extraction of Copper from Malacite : Cu(OH)2 CuCO3 + H2SO4  2CuSO4 + CO2  + 2H2O or  Cu(OH)2.CuCO3  2CuO + CO2  + H2O

CuO + H2SO4  CuSO4 + H2O H2SO4  leaching agent, it leached out Cu as CuSO4 Now, on adding more electropositive metal : CuSO4 + Fe  FeSO4 + Cu  Reducing

agent)

ECu   / Cu  0.34



EFe  / Fe  –0.40  ECell  0.74



G < 0



Iron is found to be an impurity in the copper ores hence if Zn is added to extract copper, iron will also be displaced along with copper & that is why iron is used.



Both metals which extracted & by which we extracted are water insoluble

(iv)

Electro Metallurgy : The metal is extracted by passing electricity into its fused salt or in aqueous solution. Extraction of sodium :



By electrolysis of Aq. NaCl solution : NaCl(s) + x H2O H2O

Na+(aq) + Cl–(aq) H+ + OH–

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METALLURGY

On passing electricity At cathode : 2H+ + 2e– 

 H2 

EH / 1/ 2H

2 0

; G  –nFE

ENa  / Na  –2.7 V ; G = – n FE°  Na+ does not discharge at cathode At anode :

2Cl–  Cl2 + 2e– E1/ 2 Cl E1/ 2O

2

 –1.36 Volt

/ Cl –

2 / OH



 –0.44 V

In sol :

Na+ + OH–

 NaOH



By electrolysis of fused NaCl :  NaCl( s)  Na   Cl–  Molten state

On Passing electricity At cathode : 2Na+ + 2e– At Anode In sol.

: 2Cl–

 Na + –  Cl2  2e

Na+ + OH–  NaOH

Electrochemical Principles of Metallurgy : We have seen how principles of thermodynamics are applied to pyrometallurgy. Similar priniciples are effective in the reductions of metal ions in solution or molten state. Here they are reduced by electrolysis or by adding some reducing element. In the reduction of molten metal salt, electrolysis is done. Such methods are based on electrochemical principles which could be understood through the equation, G° = –nE°F ..................... (16) Here n is the number of electrons and E° is the electrode potential of the redox couple formed in the system. More reactive metals have large negative values of the electrode potential. So their reduction is difficult. If the difference of two E° values corresponds to a positive E° and consequently negative G° in equation (16), then the less reactive metal will come out of the solution and the more reactive metal will go to the solution, e.g., Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s)  Cu(s) + Fe2+(aq) In simple electrolysis, the Mn+ ions are discharged at negative electrodes (cathodes) and deposited there. Precautions are taken considering the reactivity of the metal produced and suitable materials are used as electrodes. Sometimes a flux is added for making the molten mass more conducting.

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Page # 65

METALLURGY Step V: Purification or refining of crude metal : (A) By physical Methods : (a) liquation (b) Distillation (c) Zone refining (B) By Chemical Methods (a) Oxidation (b) Poling (c) Vapour Phase Refining (C) By Electrolytic Refining (A)

By Physical Method :

(a)

Liquation Method :

Metal

Impurities

M.P.

Sn

232°C

Fe

1535°C

Mn

1244°C

W

3380°C

impurities (or Dross) Molten Metal Fire

This method is used for refining of those metal which have very low m.p. in comparison to impurity present in them. e.g.  Sn, Pb, Hg, Bi, Zn (b)

Distillation Method : It is used for refining of those metals which are volatile & hence it is used for refining of Zn, Cd, Hg (i.e., is of filled d orbital metal)

(c)

Zone Refining : (Si, Ge, Pb, B, Ga, In)

SiO2 + 2C

1800ºC

Si + 2CO impure

2Cl2 SiCl4

distillation

SiCl4

Mg

Pure

Volatile

Zone Si Pure refining

Si Ultra Pure 9 [1 : 10 ]

Quartz tube Moving Heating Coil

Pure silicon rod Ar gas Recrystalized Si

Molten zone of Si-rod + impurities

Concept : Impurities are more soluble in the melt than in the solid state. (Fractional crystallization)

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METALLURGY

(B)

By Chemical Methods :

(a)

Oxidation : (Fe, Sn, Pb)

eg.

Pig iron : M.P. 1080

Impurities : C, P, Mn, Si –200 –300 –400 –500 –600 –700 –800 –500

O 2 Cu

Sn+O2

SnO 2

+ 1/2O 2 g Fe 80k ZnO /2O2 MnO Zn + 1 O 2 1/2 + n M SiO 2 2C Si + O2

FeO

+O

2

2C O

100ºC Temp CaO P4  5O2 P4 O10   Ca3 (PO 4 ) 2

Si  O 2  SiO 2 (acidic) Mn +

1 O 2  MnO (Basic) 2

MnO + SiO2  MnSiO3 + Heat Slag 1 O 2  CO 2 This method is used for the refining of metals in which impurtities are more oxidisable than metal itself. C

When impurities oxidise they are converted into either volatile oxides or non volatile oxides Non-volatile oxides are removed either by slag formation or by removing their skum Oxidation is known by various names : bassemerization (Fe), Cupellation (Ag), Softening (Pb) or Puddling (for iron), tossing (for iron) (b)

Polling : When along with impurities the metal to be refine is also oxidised part then this method is used. In this method the molten impure metal is steared with green wood log, The hydrocarbons released from the log reduce metal oxide into metal while impurity oxides are not reduced. This method is used for refining of Cu & Tin. In both metals during poling iron get oxidised into FeO which in turn is oxidised into Fe2O3 while in case of Sn, SnO2 is reduced to tin (Sn) & in case of Cu copper (I) oxide i.e., cuprous oxide is reduced to Cu, Cu2O  Cu

(c)

Vapour Phase Refining : Impure metal is allowed to react with a suitable reagent such that a volatile unstable compound is formed & then the compound is decomposed to pure free metal when it is subjected to heat.



Mond's Process : used for refining of Ni 50 C 230 C Ni  4Cu   Ni(CO) 4   Ni  CO 

impure

volatile unstable

pure

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Page # 67

METALLURGY (C)

By Electrolytic Refining : Anode : Impure metal cathode : Pure metal Electrolyte : Aq. salt sol. of metal/fused metal salt + Acid Anode Mud : Metals which are less electropositive than the metal to be refined. In electrolyte : More electropositive metals are found. eg. in Cu : Ag, Au, Fe, Zn In electrolyte

1.

Gold : Occurence : Found mostly in free state in quartz veins called auriferous quartz. Extration of gold from native ore : (A) Crushing and concentration : The gold ore is crushed, powdered finely and concentrated by washing with water. (B) (Treatment with 0.25–1% sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide solution) Extraction of Au, from Native ore by Mac-Arthur forrest cyanide process. 4Au + 8NaCN + 2H2O + O2  4Na[Au(CN)2] + 4NaOH air

soluble

2Na[Au(CN)2] + Zn  Na2[Zn(CN)2] + 2Au (Impure)

Impure Au is purified by Electrolytic refining method or by amalgamation. (C) Electrolytic refining method : Anode

:

Impure Au

Cathode

:

Pure Au

Electrolyte

:

4% AuCl3 solution acidified with 10% HCl

Purple of Cassius : It is of colloidial gold solution : 2AuCl3 + 3SnCl2  2Au + 3SnCl4 (Very dil.) The gold thus precipitated is absorbed by Sn (OH)4 formed by hydrolysis of SnCl4 SnCl4 + 4H2O  Sn(OH)4 + 4HCl This form of gold is purple in colour named after its discoverer, Cassius. 2.

Silver : Ores : (i) Siliver glance or argentite Ag2S (main ore) (ii) Ruby silver or pyrargyrite 3Ag2S. Sb2S3 (iii) Horn silver or chlorargyrite AgCl. Extraction of silver from silver glance : (A) Crushing and concentration : The ore is crushed, powdered and concentrated by froth floatation process. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY

(B) Extraction of Ag by Mac-Arthur forrest cyanide process : (Treatment with 0.4-0.7% sodium cyanide solution) Ag2S + 4NaCN

Atm air

2Na [Ag(CN)2] + Na2S soluble

The role of air is to oxidise Na2S so that reaction proceed in the forward direction. Impure Ag is purified by Electolytic refining method or by amalgamation. (C) Electrolytic refining : Anode

:

Impure Ag

Cathode

:

Pure Ag

Electrolyte

:

AgNO3(aq) + HNO3.

Silver from (commercial lead) argentiferous lead by Parke’s process : Desilverisation of Lead : Lead extracted from galena (PbS) contains impurities of Cu, Ag, Bi, As, Fe Zn, Sn, etc. and is called commercial lead or argentiferous lead. This contains Ag upto 2% which is extrated by parkes process. Commerical lead is mixed with a large quantity of Zn and the mixture is melted, where Zn-Ag alloy is formed and Pb remains in the molten state. The alloy is strongly heated where Zn is distilled of leaving Ag. This silver contains some Pb impurity which is removed by cupellation process. Impure Ag is melted in a cupel (a boat shaped dish made of bone ash) by passing Hot blast of air. Pb is oxidised to PbO (litherge) which is either absorbed by cupel or carried away by blast of air leaving pure Ag.

Separation of silver from gold (Parting with conc. H2SO4) Alloy (Au < 20%) is boiled with conc. H2SO4 where Ag is dissolved as Ag2SO4 and Au remains as spongy mass.

Ag2SO4

+

Zn  2Ag

+

ZnSO4 (Metal displacement reaction)

(sparingly soluble solution)

If alloy contains Au > 20%, then some Ag is added to it so as to reduce the % Au below 20. Silver from silver coin or silver ornaments : dissolve in

dil. HCl  Ag+(aq) + Cu2+(aq) + 3NO3–(aq) (Ag + Cu)   AgCl + Cu2+(aq) + 3NO3– conc. HNO3

Recovergy of Ag from AgCl : (i) By treating with KCN solution : 2AgCl + 2NaCN 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + 2NaCl soluble complex 2Na[Ag(CN)2] + Zn(dust)  2Ag + Na2[Zn(CN)4]

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Page # 69

METALLURGY (ii) Boiling with caustic soda and glucose. C6H12O6 2AgCl + 2NaOH  Ag2O + 2NaCl + H2O   2Ag + C6H12O7 (Gluconic Acid)

Fuse (iii) 2AgCl + Na2CO3   2Ag + CO2 +

3.

1 O + 2NaCl 2 2

Copper : Ores : Copper pyrites or Chalcopyrites CuFeS2 (main ore) ; Cuprite or ruby copper Cu2 O ; Malachite CuCO3Cu(OH)2(green) ; Azurite 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2(Blue) ; Copper glance Cu2S, bornite (peacock ore) Cu5FeS4. Extraction of copper from copper pyrites : (A) Crushing and concentration : Ore is first crushed and then powedered finely and powdered ore is concentrated by froth floatation process. (B) Roasting : Concentrated ore along with SiO2 is heated in excess of air in a reverberatory furnace. (Cu2S + FeS + FeS2)

2CuFeS2 + O2 Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2 2FeS + 3O2 2FeO + 2SO2(Major oxidation) 2Cu2S + 3O2 2Cu2O + 2SO2(Minor oxidation) Cu2O + FeS Cu2S + FeO

Reverberatory Furance S + O2  SO2  ; 4As + SO2  2As2O3 ; 4Sd + 3O2 2Sb2O3 Volatile impurities are removed in this step. (C) Slag formation : Roasted ore mixed with sand and strongly heated in furnace. FeO + SiO2  FeSiO3 flux

slag

Upper layer containing slag is removed and lower layer contains mostly Cu2S (98%) with little amount of FeS(2%) is called matte. (D) Bessemerisation : (Self – reduction)  2FeS + 3O2   2FeO + 2SO2 fuse FeO + SiO2   FeSiO3(slag)

2Cu2S + 3O2

  

2Cu2O + 2SO2 (partial roasting)

(limited air) high temp. Cu2S + 2Cu2O  6Cu + SO2 (self reduction) 

(R.A.)

(impure)

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METALLURGY

Impure copper obtained has blister appearances and therefore called blister copper.

Poling : Molten Cu is stirred with poles of green wood to reduce any copper oxide impurity into Cu. Electrolytic refining : Anode - impure Cu ; Cathode - Pure Cu ; Electrolyte CuSO4 + H2SO4. The more electropositive impurities like Zn, Fe, Ni etc. get dissolved in solution and less positive impurities like Ag, Au collect below anode as anode mud. 4.

Lead : Ores : Galena PbS (Main ore) ; Anglesite PbSO4 ; Cerussite PbCO3 Extraction of lead from galena : Crushing and conentration : The ore is crushed, grinded finely and concentrated by froth floatation process. Roasting : In reverberatory furnance, limited supply of air is passed at moderate temperature.   PbS + 2O2   PbSO4 ; 2PbS + 3O2   2PbO + 2SO2

Self reduction : Air supply is cut off and the temperature is increased to melt the change in reverberatory furnace. high temp. PbS + 2PbO  3Pb + SO2 

(R.A.)

impure high temp. 

PbS + PbSO4  2Pb + 2SO2 (R.A.)

impure

fuse SiO2 + CaO (flux)   CaSiO3 (slag)

PbSiO3 + CaO (lime)   PbO + CaSiO3 (slag) In this way, lime (CaO) prevents formation of PbSiO3. Impure Pb is purified by electrolytic refining method or by liquation and poling. Electrolytic refining : Anode - Impure Pb Cathode - Pure Pb Electrolyte - PbSiF6 + H2SiF6 + gelatine Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

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METALLURGY 5.

Tin : Ores : (i) Cassiterite or Tin stone SnO2 (Main ore) (It contains impurities of pyrites of Cu and Fe and magnetic impurity of wolframite which is a mixture of FeWO4 + MnWO4). This mineral is also called black tin to distinguish it from the metal Sn which is also called white tin.

Extraction of Sn from cassiterite : (i) Crushing and concentration : The ore is crushed and washed with a stream of runing water to remove lighter silicious impurities followed by magnetic separation method to remove the magnetic impurity of Wolframite. (ii) Roasting : Concentraed ore is heated in pressence of air, and volatile impurities (S as SO2, As as As2O3 and Sb as Sb2O3) are removed. The impurities of pyrites of Cu and Fe are converted into their respective oxides and sulphates. (iii) Washing : Sulphates of copper and iron are dissolved in water. The ore thus obtained contains 60–70% SnO2 and is called as black tin. Carbon reduction : The black tin is mixed with anthracite coal and heated to about 1300°C. If SiO2 is present as impurity then CaO is added as flux.

Refining : (i) Liquation and poling : Impure Sn is melted on the sloping hearth where Sn(m.pt. 232°C) is first melt and flows out leaving behind the less fusible impurities of Cu, Fe, W etc. The liquid Sn is then strirred with poles of green wood to reduce SnO2 (Impurity) to Sn. (ii) Electrolytic refining : Anode : Impure Sn Cathode : Pure Sn Electrolyte : SnSO4 + H2SO4 : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY

Iron : Ores : Haematite Fe2O3(Main ORE) ; Limonite Fe2O3.3H2O ; Magnetite Fe3O4 ; Siderite FeCO3 ; Iron pyrites FeS2 Extraction of Iron from ore haematite : Crushing and concentration : The oxide ore is first crushed in jaw crushers and then is broken in small pieces. Haematite (non-magentic) is washed with running water to remove earthy and siliceous impurities by levigation. Calcination following by roasting : The concentrated ore is roasted with excess air in a reverberatory furnace. During roasting step, the following changes occur : (a) If FeCO3 is present as impurity, it gets decomposed into FeO which is oxidised by air to Fe2O3.  FeCO3   FeO + CO2 (calcination)

siderite  4FeO + O2 (air)   2Fe2O3 (Roasting) In this way, formation of FeSiO3 slag is prevented during melting, and following reaction does not occur. SiO2 + FeO  FeSiO3 (slag) (b) The impurities of S, As are also removed as their volatile oxides S + O2 SO2 4As + 3O2  2As2O3, The entire mass becomes porous and hence the reduction of Fe2O3 to spongy iron becomes easy at later stage. Reduction in blast furnace. (Fe2O3 ore + lime stone + coke) is smelted in blast furnace and following changes take place. (i) Combustion Zone (155 - 1700°C) (a) (Combustion zone) a blast of dry preheated air is blown into the furnace from near the bottom of the furnace. Near the bottom, the preheated air comes in contact with the falling coke and combustion of coke into CO2 takes place. C + O  CO2 H = – 393.5 kJ CO2 produced in the combustion zone rises up and meets with more coke in fusion zone and gets reduced to CO. CO2 + C  2CO H = + 163.0 kJ

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METALLURGY (ii) Reduction zone (250 - 700°C)

Near the top of the furnace (reduction zone), the temperature varies from 250-700°C. Here the oxide ore (Fe2O3) is reduced to spongy iron with the help of uprising vapours of CO produced in the zone of fusion. 400 700C Fe2O3 + 3CO   2Fe + 3CO2

Actually above Reduction, takes in 3 steps : 3Fe2O3 + CO  2Fe3O4 + CO2  Fe3O4 + CO  3FeO + CO2  FeO + CO  Fe + CO2  (Spongy iron)

Any Fe2O3 which escapes from reduction in reduction zone is reduced in fusion zone. (iii) Slag formation zone (700-1000°C) In the middle of the furnace (slag formation zone) where the temperature varies from 700-1000°C, lime stone (CaCO3) present in the change decomposes into CaO and CO2.   CaO + CO2 CaCO3  1000C

CaO combines with the impurity of SiO2 and forms a fusible slag of CaSiO3. Thus CaO acts as a basic flux. CaO(basic flux) + SiO2 (acidic impurity)  CaSiO3(slag) Slag is lighter than the molten iron. It moves down and floats over molten iron. This region where slag is fromed is called slag formation zone. (iv) Fusion Zone (1000 - 1500°C) Since the reduction of CO2to CO is an endothermic reaction (Heat is required), temperature is decreased to about 1500°C. Fe2O3 is reduced to Fe which might not have been reduced in the reduction zone. Fe2O3 + 3C  2Fe + 3CO Impurities are also reduced and get mixed up with spngy Iron. MnO2 + 2C  Mn + 2CO 2P2O5 + 10C  P4 + 10CO SO2 + C  S + 2CO SiO2 + 2C  Si + 2CO Spongy iron produced in the reduction zone melts here and gets impured in called pig iron, while slag being lighter floats over and thus prevents oxidation of Fe by blast of hot air. Types of Iron : 1.

Cast iron (2% to 5% carbon & other impurity)

2.

Steel (0.5% to 2% carbon & other impurity)

3.

Wrought iron (< 0.5% carbon & other impurity)

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METALLURGY

Manufacturing of wrought from cast Iron : Wrought iron is mannfactured from puddling furnace having inner lining of haematite (Fe2O3) oxidant for impurities present in cast iron.

Mn + Fe2O3  MnO + 2 Fe (O.A.)

(basic)

Si + Fe2O3  SiO2 + 2 Fe (O.A.)

(basic)

MnO + SiO2  MnSiO3 + (slag) (O.A.)

(basic)

S + Fe2O3  SO2 + 2 Fe C + Fe2O3  3CO + 2 Fe 3P4 + 10Fe2O3  6P2O5 + 20Fe P2O5 + Fe2O3  2FePO4(slag) Manufacturing of steel from cast from : (i) Bassemerisation (already discussed) (ii) Open-Hearth process (Siemen Marthin’s process) (iii) Electrical furnace process Open hearth process (siemen Mortin’s process) Mn + Fe2O3  MnO + 2 Fe (O.A.)

(basic)

Si + Fe2O3  SiO2 + 2 Fe (O.A.)

(Acidic)

MnO + SiO2  MnSiO3 + (slag) (O.A.)

(basic)

S + Fe2O3  SO2 + Fe (O.A.) C + Fe2O3  3CO  + 2Fe 3P4 + 10Fe2O3  6P2O5 + 20Fe P2O5 + 3CaO  Ca3(PO4)2 (Thomas slag)

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Page # 75

METALLURGY Open hearth furnace for the manufacture steel from cast iron

After adding requried amount of spiegeleisen steel is formed. In this method 2 – 5% iron is also oxidised by air because hearth is open therefore this method is discarded is modern age. In modern age steel is manufactured by electrical furnace process or by L.D. process. In electrical fumace process heating effect is produced by passing electricity and all chemical reaction are similar to open-hearth process.

Heating Treatment of STEEL (i) Annealing : Process of heating steel upto redness and then cooling it slowly is called annealing, In this way steel becomes soft, malleable and elastic. (ii) Quenching : Process of heating steel upto redness and then cooling it suddenly by plundging in into oil or water is called quenching. In this way steel become hard and brittle. (iii) Tempering : Process of heating quenched steel much below redness and then colling it slowly is called tempering. In this steel becomes neither so hard nor so brittle. Surface Treatment of steel :

7.

(i) Case – Hardening : Process of forming hard coating of iron carbide over mild steel by heating it with charcoal is called case – hardening. (ii) Nitriding : Process of forming hard coating of iron nitride by heating steel with ammonia gas is called nitriding. Zinc : Ores : Zinc blende ZnS (main ore), Zincite (ZnO), Calamine, ZnCO3. Extraction of zinc from zinc blende : (A) Crushing and concentration : The ore is crushed and concentrated by froth floatation process. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY

(B) Roasting : The concentrated ore is roasted in presence of excess of air 2ZnS + 3O2

2ZnO + 2SO2

ZnS + 2O2

ZnSO4

2ZnSO4

2ZnO + 2SO2 + O2

ZnSO4 decomposed at higher temperature (C) Carbon Reduction (Balgian process) : Roasted ore is heated with coke in a vertical fire clay retort. ZnO +

C

Zn  + CO

(R.A.)

vapour

Vapours of zinc are collected by rapid cooling to get zinc spelter (Impure Zn). Impure Zn is purified either by electrolytic refining method or by distillation.

(D) Electrolytic refining :

*

Anode

:

Impure Zn

Cathode

:

Aluminium Electrode

Electrolyte

:

ZnSO4(aq) + H2SO4

Extraction of Cr From FeCr2O4(FeO.Cr2O3) Chromite ORE : Conc. Step : Chromite ore is concentrated by gravity sep. Method to remove light impurites followed by magnetic sep. method to remove non-magnetic impurities. Chemical Method to Separate Cr2O3 : fuse  2Fe2O3 + 8Na2CrO4 + 8CO2/8H2O 4FeO.Cr2O3 + 7O2 (air) + 8 Na2CO3/16NaOH  lim e

2Na+ (aq) + Cr2O72–(aq) + SO42– (aq) (Orange Solution)

2Na+(aq) + CrO42– (aq) yellow solution

Carbon red. H2 O  NaCrO2  Na2Cr2O7.2H2O   Cr(OH)3 method (orange crystal) (green ppt)

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Page # 77

METALLURGY Al-reduction method : (Goldsmith alumino thermite process)  Cr2O3  Al(R.A.)    Al2 O3  2Cr   Heat Mg Ribbon  BaO2 3part 1part   

   lgnition Mixture

Thermite Mixture

(Molten Impure metal)

Impure Cr is purified by electrolytic refining method. Anode : Impure chromium Cathode : Hg-electrode Electrolyte : CrCl3 + HCl

Hg – Cr (alloy)

*

Distillation

Extraction of Mn from MnO2 (Pyrolusite) : Pyrolusite is concentrated by gravity separation method followed by magnetic separation method to remove non-magnetic impurity.

Calcination : MnO2 gives explosive rxn. with Al therefore in this step it is converted into mixed oxide Mn3O4. 900C 3MnO2   Mn3O4(MnO + Mn2O3) + O2

Al-reduction method : (Goldsmith alumino thermite process)  Mn3 O 4  2Al(R.A.)    4 Al2 O3  9Mn  Heat Mg Ribbon  BaO2 3 part 1part   

   lgnition Mixture

Thermite Mixture

(Impure metal)

Impure Mn is purified by electrolytic refining method. Anode : Impure Mn Cathode : Hg-electrode Electrolyte : MnSO4 + H2SO4

Hg – Cr (alloy)

8.

Distillation

Aluminium : Ores : (i) Bauxite Al2O3.2H2O (main ORE) ; Diaspore Al2O3.H2O ; Corundum Al2O3 (ii) Mica K2O.3Al2O3.6SiO2.2H2O ; Kaolin Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O (iii) Cryolite Na3AIF6 Extraction of Al from Bauxite : Purification of Bauxite : : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY

Electrolysis of pure fused Al2O3 (Hall - Heroult method) Cathode - iron tank lined with graphite Anode - Carbon rods dipped in molten electrolyte Electrolyte - molten (20% Al2O3 + 60% Cryolite + 20% CaF2) Temp  1100°C Cryolite lowers the melting point of mixture and makes the molten mix conducting. Na3AlF6

3NaF +AlF3

AlF3  Al+3 + 3F– At cathode

Al+3 + 3e– Al

At anode

3F–  3F + 3e– Al2O3 + 6F  2AIF3 +

3 O 2 2

1 O  CO 2 2 1 CO + O  CO2 2 2

C+

Anodes are periodically changed as they are consumed by oxygen liberated at anode. Electrolytic refining (Hoppe’s Method) Iron box lined with carbon, contains the three molten layers. Bottom layer : Impure Al as anode Middle layer : (Na3AlF6 + BaF2) Molten electrolyte Tope layer : molten pure Al as cathode.

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METALLURGY

On passing the current aluminium is deposited at cathode from the middle layer and an equivalent amount is taken from andoe (bottom layer) levaing behind the impurites. In this way aluminium obtained is 99.98% pure. 9.

Magnesium : (Dow’s process) Ores : Carnallite MgCl2.KCl 6H2O (main ore) ; Epsom MgSo4.7H2O magnesite MgCO3 ; Kiesserite MgSO4. H2O ; Dolomite MgCO3. CaCO3 ; Kainite K2SO4. MgSO4. MgCl2.6H2O (Mg is also found in Talc, sabestos and chlorophyll) Sea water contains 0.13% magnesium as chloride and sulphate. It involves following steps. (a) Precipitation of magnesium as magnesium hydroxide by slaked lime : MgCl2 + Ca(OH)2  Mg(OH)2  + CaCl2 (ppt. reaction) (b) Preparation of hexahydrated magnesium chloride : Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl(aq)  MgCl2 + 2H2O (Neutralisation reaction) The solution on concentration and crystallisation gives the crystals of MgCl2.6H2O (c) Preparation of anhydrous magnesium chloride :   MgCl2 + 6H2O MgCl2.6H2O  Dry HCl (g)

* It is not made anhydrous by simple heating because it gets hydrolysed.  MgCl2.6H2O   MgO + 5H2O + 2HCl

(d) Electrolysis of fused anhydrouns MgCl2 : Magnesium chloride obtained by any of the above methods is fused and mixed with sodium chloride and calcium chloride in the temperature range of 972 – 1023K. The molten mixture is electrolysed. Magnesium is liberated at the carhode (iron pot) and chlorine is evolved at graphite anode. MgCl2

Mg2+ + 2Cl–

At cathode : Mg2+ + 2e–  Mg(99% pure) ; At anode : 2Cl–  Cl2 + 2e–

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EXERCISE – I 1.

Sol.

METALLURGY

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

Formation of metallic copper from the sulphide ore in the commercial thermo-metallurgical process essentially involves which one of the following reaction : (A) Cu2S + 3/2O2  Cu2O + SO2; CuO + C  Cu + CO (B) Cu2S + 3/2O2  Cu2O + SO2; 2Cu2O + Cu2S  6Cu + SO2 (C) Cu2S + 2O2  CuSO4; CuSO4 + Cu2S  3Cu + 2SO2 (D) Cu2S + 3/2O2  Cu2O + SO2; Cu2O + CO  2Cu + CO2

Sol.

5.

Match the method of concentration of the ore in column I with the ore in column II and select the correct alternate: I II X magnetic separation (a) Ag2S Y froth floation (b) FeCr2O4 Z gravity separation (c) Al2(SiO3)3 X Y Z (A) (a) (b) (c) (B) (b) (a) (c) (C) (c) (a) (b) (D) (b) (c) (a)

Sol. 2.

Ag2S + NaCN + Zn  Ag This method of extraction of Ag by complex formation and then its displacement is called : (A) Parke’s method (B) MacArthur–Forest method (C) Serpeck method (D) Hall’s method

6.

Sol.

Bessemerization is carried out for (I) Fe (II) Cu (III) Al (IV) silver (A) I, II (B) II, III (C) III, IV (D) I, III

Sol.

7. 3.

Calcination is the process of heating the ore : (A) in inert gas (B) in the presence of air (C) in the absence of air (D) in the presence of CaO and MgO

Refining of silver is done by : (A) liquation (B) poling (C) cupellation (D) van Arkel method

Sol.

Sol. 8.

4.

Which of the following does not contain Mg : (A) magnetite (B) Magnesite (C) Asbestos (D) Carnallite

Which of the following is not used for obtaining Ag (A) as a side product in electrolytic refining of copper. (B) Parke’s process in which Zn is used to extract silver by solvent extraction from molten lead. (C) by reaction of silver sulphide with KCN and then reaction of soluble complex with Zn. (D) by heating Na[Ag(CN)2]

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METALLURGY Sol.

9.

Sol.

Blister Cu is about : (A) 60% Cu (B) 90% Cu (C) 98% Cu (D) 100% Cu

Sol.

10. Which one of the following is not a method of concentration of ore? (A) gravity separation (B) froth floatation process (C) electromagnetic separation (D) smelting Sol.

14. Consider the following statements : Roasting is carried out to : (i) convert sulphide to oxide and sulphate (ii) remove water of hydration (iii) melt the ore (iv) remove arsenic and sulphur impurities Of these statements : (A) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct (B) (i) and (iv) are correct (C) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct (D) (ii), (iii) and (iv) are correct Sol.

15. Iron obtained from blast furance is : (A) wrought iron (B) cast iron (C) pig iron (D) steel Sol. 11. In which of the following isolations no reducing agent is required : (A) iron from haematite (B) aluminium from bauxite (C) mercury from cinnabar (D) zinc from zinc blends Sol.

12. Chemical leaching is useful in the concentration of : (A) copper pyrites (B) bauxite (C) galena (D) cassiterite Sol.

16. Which of the following is not an ore : (A) malacite (B) calamine (C) stellite (D) cerussite Sol.

17. Which one of the following statements is not correct : (A) Nickel forms Ni(CO)4. (B) All the transition metals form monometallic carbonyls. (C) Carbonyls are formed by transition metals. (D) Transition metals form complexes. Sol.

13. The element which could be extracted by electrolytic reduction of its oxide dissolved in a high temperature melt is : (A) sodium (B) magnesium (C) fluorine (D) aluminium : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 82 18. In the extraction of nickel by Mond process, the metal is obtained by : (A) electrochemical reduction (B) thermal decomposition (C) chemical reduction by aluminium (D) reduction by carbon Sol.

METALLURGY Sol.

23. Formation of Ni(CO) 4 and subsequent its decomposition into Ni and CO (recycled) makes basis of Mond’s process T

19. B4C(boron carbide) is used except: (A) to extract boron (B) As an abrasive for polishing (C) For making bullet-proof clothing (D) For making diborane Sol.

20. Froath floatation process is based on: (A) Wetting properties of ore particles (B) Specific gravity of ore particles (C) Magnetic properties of ore particles (D) Electrical properties of ore particles Sol.

21. When ZnS and PbS minerals are present together, then NaCN is added to separate them in the froth floatation process as a depressant, because (A) Pb(CN)2 is precipitated while no effect on ZnS (B) ZnS forms soluble complex Na2[Zn(CN)4] (C) PbS forms soluble complex Na2[Pb(CN)4] (D) They cannot be separated by adding NaCN Sol.

T1 2  Ni + 4CO  Ni(CO)4  Ni + 4CO  T1 and T2 are : (A) 100ºC, 50ºC (B) 50ºC, 100ºC (C) 50ºC, 230ºC (D) 230ºC, 50ºC

Sol.

24. Match column–I (process) with column–II (electrolyte) : Column–I (process) (i) Downs cell (ii) Dow sea water process (iii) Hall–Heroult (iv) Moissan Column–II (electrolyte) (W) fused MgCl2 (X) fused (Al2O3 + Na3AlF6 + CaF2) (Y) fused KHF2 (Z) fused (40% NaCl + 60% CaCl2) Choose the correct alternate. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (A) Z W X Y (B) X Y Z W (C) W Z X Y (D) X Z W Y Sol.

Q.No.25 to Q.28 are based on following reactions (I) FeCr2O4 + NaOH + air  (A) + Fe2O3 (II) (A) + (B)  Na2Cr2O7 

(III) Na2Cr2O7 + X  Cr2O3 

22. When copper is purified by electrorefining process, noble metals like Ag and Au are found in (A) Cathode mud (B) Electrolytic solution (C) Anode mud (D) Over cathode or anode

(IV) Cr2O3 + Y  Cr 25. Compounds (A) and (B) are : (A) Na2CrO4, H2SO4 (B) Na2Cr2O7, HCl (C) Na2CrO5, H2SO4 (D) Na4[Fe(OH)6], H2SO4

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METALLURGY Sol.

Sol.

26. (X) and (Y) are : (A) C and Al (C) C in both Sol.

(B) Al and C (D) Al in both

27. Na2CrO4 and Fe2O3 are separated by : (A) dissolving in conc. H2SO4 (B) dissolving in NH3 (C) dissolving in H2O (D) dissolving in dil. HCl Sol.

28. High temperature (> 1000ºC) electrolytic reduction is necessary for isolating : (A) Al (B) Cu (C) C (D) F2 Sol.

29. In froth–floatation process, palm oil functions as : (A) activator (B) frother (C) collector (D) agitator Sol.

30. Collector are the substances which help in attachement of an ore particle to air bubble in froth. A popular collector used industrially is : (A) sodium ethyl xanthate (B) sodium xenate (C) sodium pyrophosphate (D) sodium nitroprusside

31. Zone refining is based on the principle of : (A) fractional distillation (B) fractional crystallisation (C) partition coefficient (D) chromatographic separation Sol.

32. Which of the following species is desirable substance in extraction of copper but not in extraction of iron? (A) CaSiO3 (B) FeSiO3 (C) SiO2 (D) Coke Sol.

33. Select incorrect statement regarding silver extraction process (A) When the lead-silver alloy is rich in silver, lead is removed by the cupellation process. (B) When the lead-silver alloy is rich in lead, lead is removed by parke's or pattinsion's process. (C) Zinc forms an alloy with lead, from which lead is separated by distillation (D) Zinc forms an alloy with silver, from which zinc is separated by distillation. Sol.

34. Which of the following reaction does not occur in Bessemer’s converter? (A) 2Cu2S + 5O2  2CuSO4 + 2CuO (B) 2Cu2S + 3O2  2Cu2O + 2SO2 (C) 2CuFeS2 + O2  Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2 (D) FeO + SiO2  FeSiO3

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METALLURGY Sol.

35. Dow’s process : (A) involves purification of copper (B) involves extraction of magnesium (C) gives metal chloride as product (D) gives pure metal as product Sol.

40. Addition of high proportions of manganese makes steel useful in making rails of railroads, because manganese : (A) gives hardness to steel (B) helps the formation of oxides of iron (C) can remove oxygen and sulphur (D) can show highest oxidation state of +7 Sol.

36. In the cyanide process involving extraction of silver, zinc is used industrially as a(an) : (A) oxidising agent (B) reducing agent (C) solvent (D) solvating agent Sol.

37. Carnallite does not contain : (A) K (B) Ca (C) Mg (D) Cl Sol.

38. During initial treatment, preferential wetting of ore by oil and gangue by water takes place in (A) Levigation (gravity separation) (B) Froth floatation (C) Leaching (D) Bessemerisation Sol.

41. Among the following statements, the incorrect one is : (A) calamine and siderite are carbonate ores (B) argentite and cuprite are oxide ores (C) zinc blende and pyrites are sulphide ores (D) malachite and azurite are ores of copper Sol.

42. In the commercial electrochemical process for aluminium extraction the electrolyte used is : (A) Al(OH)3 in NaOH solution (B) an aqueous solution of Al2(SO4)3 (C) a molten mixture of Al2O3, Na3AlF6 and CaF2 (D) a molten mixture of AlO(OH) and Al(OH)3 Sol.

39. Silica is added to roasted copper ores during extraction in order to remove : (A) cuprous sulphide(B) ferrous oxide (C) ferrous sulphide(D) cuprous oxide Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 85

METALLURGY 43. Match column–I with column–II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: Column–I (a) Van Arkel method (b) Solvay process (c) Cupellation (d) Poling Column–II (1) Manufacture of caustic soda (2) Purification of titanium (3) Manufacture of Na2CO3 (4) Purification of copper (5) Refining of silver Codes: a b c d (A) 2 1 3 4 (B) 4 3 2 5 (C) 2 3 5 4 (D) 5 1 3 4 Sol.

44. Blister copper is refined by stirring molten impure metal with green logs of wood because such a wood liberates hydrocarbon gases (like CH4). This process X is called ________ and the metal contains impurities of Y is __________ . (A) X = cupellation, Y = CuO2 (B) X = poling, Y = Cu2O (C) X = poling, Y = CuO (D) X = cupellation, Y = CuO Sol.

45. Select the correct statement : (A) Magnetite is an ore of manganese (B) Pyrolusite is an ore of lead (C) Siderite is carbonate ore of iron (D) FeS2 is rolled gold Sol.

Sol.

47. An ore containing the impurity of FeCr2O4 is concentrated by : (A) magnetic-separation (B) gravity separation (C) froth-floatation method (D) electrostatic method Sol.

48. A piece of steel is heated until redness and then plunged into cold water or oil. This treatment of steel makes it : (A) soft and malleable (B) hard but not brittle (C) more brittle (D) hard and brittle Sol.

49. Give the correct order of initials T or F for following statements. Use T if statement is true and F if it is false: (i) Cu metal is extracted from its sulphide ore by reduction of Cu2O with FeS. (i i) An ore of Tin containing FeCrO 4 i s concentrated by magnetic separation method. (iii) Auto reduction process is used in the extraction Cu & Hg. (iv) Cassiterite and Rutile are oxide ores of the metals. (A) TFTT (B) TTFT (C) FTTT (D) FFFT Sol.

46. Three most occuring elements in the earth crust are : (A) O, Si, Al (B) Si, O, Fe (C) Fe, Ca, Al (D) Si, O, N : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 86 50. In the extraction of aluminium : Process X : applied for red bauxite to remove iron oxide (chief impurity) Process Y : (Serpeck’s process) : applied for white bauxite to remove Z (chief impurity) then, process X and impurity Z are : (A) X = Hall and Heroult’s process and Z = SiO2 (B) X = Baeyer’s process and Z = SiO2 (C) X = Serpeck’s process and Z = iron oxide (D) X = Baeyer’s process and Z = iron oxide Sol.

51. Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect? (A) Liquation is applied when the metal has low melting point than that of impurities. (B) Presence of carbon in steel makes it hard due to formation of Fe3C called cementite. (C) Less reactive metals like Hg, Pb and Cu are obtained by auto reduction of their sulphide or oxide ores. (D) Amalgamation method of purification cannot be applied for Au and Ag. Sol.

52. Si and Ge used for semiconductors are required to be of high purity and hence purified by : (A) zone–refining (B) electrorefining (C) Van–Arkel’s process (D) cupellation process Sol.

53. In electrorefining of metals anode and cathode are taken as thick slab of impure metal and a strip of pure–metal respectively while the electrolyte is solution of a complex metal salt. This method cannot be applied for the refining of : (A) Copper (B) Sodium (C) Aluminium (D) Zinc and Silver

METALLURGY Sol.

54. Select the correct statement : (A) Black jack is ZnS. (B) Sulphide ores are concentrated by floatation method. (C) Parke’s process is based on distribution principle. (D) All are correct. Sol.

55. The metal of which, its property of formation of volatile complex is taken in account for its extraction is : (A Cobalt (B) Nickel (C) Vanadium (D) Iron Sol.

56. Match List-I with List-II List-I(Property) I Explosive II Self-reduction III Magnetic meterial IV Verdigris List-II(Element/compound) A Cu B Fe3O4 C Cu(CH3COO)2.Cu(OH)2 D Pb(NO3)2 (A) I–A, II–B, III–C, IV–D (B) I–D, II–A, III–B, IV–C (C) I–D, II–B, III–A, IV–C (D) I–C, II–A, III–B, IV–D Sol.

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METALLURGY 57. A metal has a high concentration into the earth crust and whose oxides cannot be reduced by carbon. The most suitable method for the extraction of such metal is : (A) Alumino thermite process (B) Electrolysis process (C) Van-Arkel’s process (D) Cupellation Sol.

58. The process, which does not use a catalyst is (A) Contact process (B) Thermite process (C) Ostwald’s process (D) Haber’s process Sol.

59. Refractory materials are generally used in furnaces because : (A) they are chemically inert (B) they can withstand high temperature (B) they do not contain impurities (D) they decrease melting point of ore Sol.

60. % of silver in ‘german silver’ is : (A) 0 (B) 80 (C) 90 (D) 10 Sol.

61. Modern method of steel manufacturing is : (A) open hearth process (B) L. D. Process (C) Bessemerization (D) Cupellation Sol.

62. When an impurity in a metal has greater affinity for oxygen and is more easily oxidises than the metal itself. Then, the metal is refined by : (A) cupellation (B) zone-refining (C) distillation (D) electrolytic process Sol.

63. The chemical process in the production of steel from haematite ore involve : (A) Reduction (B) Oxidation (C) Reduction followed by oxidation (D) oxidation followed by reduction Sol.

64. “Fool’s gold” is : (A) iron pyrites (B) horn silver (C) copper pyrites (D) bronze Sol.

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Page # 88 65. During electrolytic reduction of alumina, two auxillary electrolytes X and Y are added to increase the electrical conductance and lower the temperature of melt in order to making fused mixture very conducting. X and Y are : (A) cryolite and flourspar (B) cryolite and alum (C) alum and flourspar (D) flourspar and bauxite Sol.

66. For extraction of sodium from NaCl, the electrolytic mixture NaCl + KCl + CaCl2 is used. During extraction process, only sodium is deposited on cathode but K and Ca do not because : (A) Na is more reactive than K and Ca (B) Na is less reactive than K and Ca (C) NaCl is less stable than Na3AlF6 and CaCl2 (D) the discharge potential of Na+ is more than that of K+ and Ca2+ ions. Sol.

METALLURGY 68. Which of the following statements is correct regarding the slag formation during the extraction of a metal like copper or iron : (A) The slag is lighter and lower melting than the metal. (B) The slag is heavier and lower melting than the metal. (C) The slag is lighter and higher melting than the metal. (D) The slag is heavier and higher melting than the metal. Sol.

69. Among the following groups of oxides, the group containing oxides that cannot be reduced by C to give the respective metal is : (A) CaO and K2O (B) Fe2O3 and ZnO (C) Cu2O and SnO2(D) PbO and Pb3O4 Sol.

70. The beneficiation of the sulphide ores is usually done by : (A) Electrolysis (B) Smelting process (C) Metal displacement method (D) Froth floatation method Sol.

67. A solution of Na2SO4 in water is electrolysed using inert electrodes. The products at cathode and anode are respectively (A) O2 ; H2 (B) O2 ; Na (C) H2 ; O2 (D) O2 ; SO2 Sol.

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Page # 89

METALLURGY

EXERCISE – II 1.

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Hoop’s process of purification of aluminium involves formation of layers during electrolysis. It involves :

4.

In the extraction of copper, the reaction which takes place in Bessemer converter is :

(A) the three layers have same densities but different materials.

(A) 2Cu2O + Cu2S  6Cu + SO2 (B) CuFeS2 + O2  Cu2S + 2FeS + SO2

(B) the three layers have different densities.

(C) 2Cu2S + 3O2  2Cu2O + 2SO2 (D) 2FeS + 3O2  2FeO + 2SO2

(C) the upper layer is of pure aluminium which acts as a cathode.

Sol.

(D) the bottom layer is of impure aluminium which acts as an anode and middle layer consists of cryolite and BaF2. Sol. 5.

Extraction of silver from argentiferrous lead (Pb + Ag) involves : (A) distillation method (B) cupellation

2.

Metallurgical process of zinc involves roasting of zinc sulphide followed by reduction. Metallic zinc distills over as it is volatile and impurities like Cu, Pd and Fe gets condensed. The crude metal obtained is called spelter which may be purified by : (A) electrolysis process (B) fractional distillation (C) polling (D) heating with iodide

(C) froth flotation method (D) treatment with NaCl Sol.

6.

Sol.

In the manufacturing of metallic sodium by fused salt–electrolysis method (Down’s process), small amount of CaCl2 that added is known as auxiliary electrolyte and in used to : (A) improve the electrical conductance (B) decrease the melting point of NaCl

3.

Calcination and roasting process of reduction of ores to their oxides are beneficial :

(C) stabilise the metallic sodium (D) increase the temperature of electrolysis Sol.

(A) to convert ores into porous form so that their reduction becomes easier. (B) as volatile impurities like P, As, Sb, S are removed. (C) as organic impurities are removed. (D) as the ores are converted into oxide form which makes the reduction easier.

7.

Sol.

Metal(s) which does/do not form amalgam is/ are : (A) Fe

(B) Pt

(C) Zn

(D) Au

Sol.

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METALLURGY

Auto reduction process is used in extraction of (A) Cu

(B) Hg

(C) Al

(D) Fe

13. Which of the following reduction reactions are actually employed in commercial extraction of metals? (A) Fe2O3 + 2Al  Al2O3 + 2Fe (B) Cr2O3 + 2Al  Al2O3 + 2Cr

Sol.

(C) 2Na[Au(CN)2 + Zn  Na2[Zn(CN)4] + 2Au (D) Cu2S + Pb  Cu + PbS Sol. 9.

Zone refining is used for purification of : (A) Ge

(B) Si

(C) Ga

(D) Se

Sol.

14. Which of the following cannot be obtained by electrolytic reduction of their compounds in aqueous solution? (A) Barium (C) Potassium

(B) Cadmium (D) nickel

Sol. 10. Which of the following process(es) are used for purification of Bauxite ore? (A) Hall’s process (B) Serpeck’s process (C) Baeyer’s process (D) Mond’s process Sol.

15. Which of the following ores is(are) concentrated by froth floatation? (A) haematite (B) galena (C) copper pyrite (D) azurite

11. Metals which can be extracted by smelting process : (A) Pb

(B) Fe

(C) Zn

(D) Mg

Sol.

Sol. 16. Which of the following statement(s) is/are common between roasting and sintering? (A) Both require heating of the ore. (B) Both involve burning away of organic matter. (C) Both the process cause partial fusion of ore, resulting in bigger lumps. (D) Both are performed only for sulphide ores.

12. Common impurities present in Bauxite are :

Sol.

(A) CuO

(B) ZnO

(C) Fe2O3

(D) SiO2 Sol.

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METALLURGY 17. Which of the following reaction(s) occur during calcination? (A) CaCO3  CaO + CO2 (B) 4FeS2 + 11O2  2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 (C) 2Al(OH)3  Al2O3 + 3H2O (D) CuS + CuSO4  2Cu + 2SO2 Sol.

Sol.

22. Calcium silicate slag formed in extraction of iron (A) prevents the reoxidation of molten iron. (B) catalyses the combustion of carbon. (C) reduces CO2 to CO at the bottom of the furnace.

18. Roasting is usually performed in : (A) Blast furnace (B) reverberatory furnace (C) Bessemer’s converter (D) electric furnace

(D) is used in cement industry. Sol.

Sol. 23. Amphoteric nature of aluminium is employed in which of the following process for extraction of aluminium? (A) Baeyer’s process

19. Which of the following is(are) sulphide ores?

(B) Hall’s process

(A) Argentite (B) Galena (C) Anglesite (D) Copper glance

(C) serpeck’s process (D) Dow’s process Sol.

Sol.

20. Which of the following is(are) regarded as iron ores? (A) Haematite (B) Magnetite (C) Limonite (D) Copper pyrites Sol.

21. Which of the following employ downward movement of ore due to gravity?

24. Noble metal(s) which are commerically extracted by cyanide process is(are) : (A) copper

(B) silver

(C) gold

(D) mercury

Sol.

25. Carbon reduction method is employed for commercial extraction of : (A) haematite

(A) Gravity separation

(B) cassiterite

(B) Froth floatation

(C) iron pyrite

(C) Blast furnace

(D) corundum

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METALLURGY Sol.

26. The chief reaction(s) occuring in blast furnance during extraction of iron from haematite is(are) (A) Fe2O3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO2 (B) FeO + SiO2  FeSiO3

30. Which of the following is true for calcination of a metal ore? (A) It makes the ore more porous. (B) The ore is heated to a temperature when fusion just begins.

(C) Fe2O3 + C  2Fe + 3CO (D) CaO + SiO2  CaSiO3

(C) Hydrat ed sal ts l ose thei r water of crystallisation.

Sol.

(D) Impurities of S, As and Sb are removed in the form of their volatile oxides. Sol. 27. Which of the following are true for electrolytic extraction of aluminium : (A) cathode material contains graphite (B) anode material contains graphite (C) cathode reacts away forming CO2 (D) anode reacts away forming CO2 Sol.

31. The major role of fluorspar (CaF2) which is added in small quantities in the electrolytic reduction of alumina dissolved in fused cryolite (Na3AlF6) is : (A) as a catalyst. (B) to make the fused mixture very conducting. (C) to lower the temperature of the melt.

28. During extraction of copper, it is obtained in the form of molten matte. Which of the following is not true? (A) matte is further treated in Bessemer’s converter.

(D) to decrease the rate of oxidation of carbon at the anode. Sol.

(B) molten matte is electrolysed. (C) It is treated with a blast of air and sand. (D) It is dissolved in CuSiF6 and crystallised. Sol. 32. The di fference(s) between roasti ng and calcination is(are) :

29. Which of the following ores is(are) concentrated industrially by froth floatation? (A) Copper pyrites (B) Galena (C) Dolomite (D) Carnallite

(A) roasting is highly endothermic while calcination is not. (B) partial fusion occurs in calcination but not in roasting. (C) calcination is performed in limited supply of air but roasting employs excess air. (D) combustion reactions occur in roasting but not in calcination.

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Page # 93

METALLURGY Sol.

Sol.

33. Leaching is used for the concentration of :

36. Which of the following reaction is not occur in blast furance during extraction of iron :

(A) Red bauxite

(A) CaO + SiO2  CaSiO3 (B) Fe2O3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO2

(B) Haematite

(C) FeO + SiO2  FeSiO3 (D) FeO  Fe + 1/2O2

(C) Gold Ore (D) Silver Ore Sol.

Sol.

34. The correct statements are : (A) generally the calcination and roasting is done in blast furance.

37. Match the following choosing one item from column X and the appropriate item from column Y. X

(B) the sandy and rocky materials associated with ore are called matrix. (C) froth floatation process is suitable for sulphide ores. (D) substance that reacts with gangue to form fusible mass is called slag.

Y

(A) Al

(P) Calamine

(B) Cu

(Q) Cryolite

(C) Mg

(R) Malachite

(D) Zn

(S) carnallite

Sol.

Sol.

35. Poling is employed in refining of : (A) iron (B) copper (C) tin (D) lead : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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METALLURGY

EXERCISE – III 1.

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

In the alumino thermite process, Al acts as : (A) An oxidising agent (B) A flux (C) A reducing agent (D) A solder

Sol.

Sol.

6. 2.

The process of the isolation of a metal by dissolving the ore in a suitable chemical reagent followed by precipitation of the metal by a more electropositive metal is called : (A) hydrometallurgy (B) electrometallurgy (C) zone refining (D) electrorefining

Sol.

3.

Sol.

7.

Carbon cannot be used in the reduction of Al2O3 because: (A) It is an expensive proposition (B) The enthalpy of formation of CO2 is more than that Al2O3 (C) Pure carbon is not easily available (D) The enthalpy of formation of Al2O3 is too high

Froth floatation process for concentration of ores is an illustration of the practical application of : (A) Adsorption (B) Absorption (C) Coagulation (D) Sedimentation

Which of the following ore and metal are correctly matched: Ore Metal (A) Carnallite Zinc. (B) Calamine Titanium (C) Ilmenite Magnesium (D) Chalcopyrite Copper

Sol.

8.

Sol.

4.

Mercury is purified by : (A) Passing through dilute HNO3 (B) Distillation (C) Distribution (D) Vapour phase refining

Which of the following metal is correctly matched with its ore : Metal Ore (A) Zinc Calamine (B) Tin Azurite (C) Magnesium Cassiterite (D) Silver Ilmenite

Sol.

Sol. 9.

5.

Which process of purification is represented by the following equation : 250 ºC

1400 º C

Ti (impure) + 2I2  TiI4   Ti (Pure) + 2I2 (A) Cupellation (B) Poling (C) Van-Arkel process (D) Zone refining

Which of the following employ(s) thermal decomposition of volatile iodide compounds? (A) Thermite process (B) Hall’s process (C) Van-Arkel’s process (D) Mond’s process

Sol.

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METALLURGY 10. The method of zone refining of metals is based on the principle of : (A) Greater mobility of the pure metal than that of impurity. (B) Higher melting point of impurity than that of the pure metal. (C) Greater noble character of the solid metal than that of the impurity. (D) Greater solubility of the impurity in the molten state than in the solid. Sol.

11. Railway wagon axles are made by heating iron rods embedded in charcoal powder. This process is known as : (A) Sherardising (B) Annealing (C) Tempering (D) Case hardening Sol.

12. In the extraction of copper from its sulphide ore the metal is formed by the reduction of Cu2O with: (A) FeS (B) CO (C) Cu2S (D) SO2 Sol.

13. Carnallite on electrolysis gives : (A) Ca and Cl2 (B) Na and CO2 (C) Al and Cl2 (D) Mg and Cl2 Sol.

14. Among the following statements, the incorrect one is : (A) calamine and siderite are carbonates (B) Argentite and cuperite are oxides (C) Zinc blende and iron pyrites are sulphides (D) Malachite and azurite are ores of copper Sol.

15. Match column–I and column–II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists: Column–I (I) Cyanide process (II) Floatation process (III) Electrolytic reduction (IV) Zone refining Column–II (1) Ultrapure Ge (2) Dressing of HgS (3) Extraction of Al (4) Extraction of Au (A) I–(3) II–(1), III–(4), IV–(2) (B) I–(4) II–(2), III–(3), IV–(1) (C) I–(3) II–(2), III–(4), IV–(1) (D) I–(4) II–(1), III–(3), IV–(2) Sol.

16. Match column–I with column–II and select the correct answer using the codes given below : Column–I (Metals) (I) Iron & copper (II) Zirconium & Titanium (III) Lead & Tin (IV) Copper & Tin Column–II (Method used for refining) (P) Poling (Q) Bessemerisation (R) Van–Arkel (S) Liquation (I) (II) (III) (IV) (A) P S R Q (B) Q S R P (C) P R S Q (D) Q R S P Sol.

Question No. 17 to 30 Assertion–Reason : (A) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion. (B) If both Assertion and Reason are true and Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion. (C) If Assertion is true and Reason is false. (D) If Assertion is false and Reason is true.

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Page # 96 17. Assertion : Sulphide ores are concentrated by froth floatation process. Reason : Pine oil acts as a frothing agent in froth floatation process. Sol.

18. Assertion : Platinum and gold occur in native state in nature. Reason : Platinum and gold are noble metals. Sol.

19. Assertion : Wolframite impurities are separated from cassiterite by electromagnetic separation. Reason : Cassiterite being magnetic is attracted by the magnet and forms a separate heap. Sol.

20. Assertion : In smelting, roasted ore is heated with powdered coke in presence of a flux. Reason : Oxides are reduced to metals by C or CO. Impurities are removed as slag. Sol.

21. Assertion : Al is used as a reducing agent in aluminothermy. Reason : Al has a lower melting point than Fe, Cr and Mn. Sol.

22. Assertion : Lead, tin and bismuth are purified by liquation method. Reason : Lead, tin and bismuth have low m.p. as compared to impurities. Sol.

23. Assertion : Wolframite impurity is separated from SnO2 by magnetic separation. Reason : Tin stone is ferromagnetic, therefore attracted by magnet.

METALLURGY Sol.

24. Assertion : Titanium is purified by Van-Arkel method. Reason : Ti reacts with I2 to form TiI4 which decomposes at 1700 K to give pure Ti. Sol.

25. Assertion : CuO can be reduced by C, H2 as well as Co Reason : CuO is basic oxide. Sol.

26. Assertion : Alkali metals cannot be prepared by the electrolysis of aq. MgCl2. Reason : The reduction potential of Mg2+ is much lower than that of H+. Sol.

27. Assertion : Magnesium can be prepared by the electrolysis of aq. MgCl2. Reason : The reduction potential of Mg2+ is much lower than that of H+. Sol.

28. Assertion : Titanium can be purified by VanArkel process. Reason : TiI4 is a volatile, stable compound. Sol.

29. Assertion : Magnesia and quick lime are used as basic flux. Reason : MgO and CaO can withstand very high temperatures. Sol.

30. Assertion : Nickel is purified by the thermal decomposition of nickel tetracarbonyl. Reason : Nickel is a transitional element. Sol.

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Page # 97

METALLURGY

1.

EXERCISE – IV

PREVIOUS YEARS

LEVEL – I

JEE MAIN

The metal extracted by leaching with cyanide is : [AIEEE-2002] (A) Mg (B) Ag (C) Cu (D) Na

5.

Sol.

Which one of the following ores is best concentrated by froath-flotation method ? [AIEEE-2004] (A) Magnetite

(B) Cassiterite

(C) Galena

(D) Malachite

Sol.

2.

When the sample of Cu with Zn impurity is to be purfied by electrolysis, the appropriate electrodes are : [AIEEE-2002] Cathode Anode (A) pure Zn pure Cu (B) impure sample pure Cu (C) impure Zn impure sample (D) pure copper impure sample

Sol.

6.

Aluminium is industrially prepared by [AIEEE-2002] (A) Fused cryolite (B) Bauxite ore (C) Alumina (D) Alumina mixed with molten cryolite

(A) Pb and Zn

(B) Sn and Ag

(C) Fe and Ni

(D) Ag and Au

Sol.

7. 3.

During the process of electrolytic refining of copper, some metals present as impurity settle as 'anode mud'. These are – [AIEEE-2005]

Heating mixture of Cu2O and Cu2S will give – [AIEEE-2005] (A) Cu + SO3

(B) Cu + SO2

(C) Cu2SO3

(D)CuO + CuS

Sol.

Sol. 8.

4.

The substance not likely to contain CaCO3 is – [AIEEE-2003] (A) Sea shells (B) Dolomite (C) A marble statue (D) Calcined gypsum

Sol.

Which of the following factors is of no significance for roasting sulphide ores to the oxides and not subjecting the sulphide ores to carbon reduction directly ? [AIEEE-2008] (A) CO2 is thermodynamically more stable than CS2 (B) Metal sulphides are less stable than the corresponding oxides (C) CO2 is more volatile than CS2 (D) Metal sulphides are thermodynamically more stable than CS2

Sol.

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Page # 98

METALLURGY

LEVEL – II 1.

JEE ADVANCED

In the commerical electrochemical process for aluminium extraction, the electrolyte used as :

4.

(A) Al(OH)3 in NaOH solution (B) an aqueous solution of Al2(SO4)3 (C) a molten mixture of Al2O3 and Na3AlF6 (D) a molten mixture of AlO(OH) and Al(OH)3

The chemical composition of “slag” formed during the smelting process in the extraction of copper is : [JEE 2001 Qualifying] (A) Cu2O + FeS

(B) FeSiO3

(C) CuFeS2

(D) Cu2S + FeO

Sol.

[JEE 1999] Sol.

5. 2.

The chemical process in the production of steel from haematite ore involve:

[JEE 2002 Qualifying]

[JEE 2000 Qualifying]

(A) Fused salt electrolysis (B) Self reduction

(A) Reduction

(C) Aqueous solution electrolysis (D) Thermite reduction

(B) Oxidation (C) Reduction followed by oxidation (D) Oxidation follwed by reduction

Which of the follwoing processes is used in extractive metallurgy of magnesium?

Sol.

Sol.

6. 3.

Electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminium by Hall–Heroult process is carried out : [JEE 2000 Qualifying]

In the process of extraction of gold, O

2  [X] + OH–  Roasted gold ore + CN– + H2O 

[X] + Zn  [Y] + Au Identify the complexes [X] and [Y] :

(A) in the presence of NaCl (B) in the presence of fluorite

(A) X = (B) X =

(C) in the presence of cryolite which forms a melt with lower melting temperature.

(C) X = (D) X =

(D) in the presence of cryolite which forms a melt with higher melting temperature.

[JEE 2003 Qualifying] [Au(CN)2]–, Y = [Zn(CN)4]2– [Au(CN)4]3–, Y = [Zn(CN)4]2– [Au(CN)2]–, Y = [Zn(CN)6]4– [Au(CN)4]–, Y = [Zn(CN)4]2–

Sol.

Sol.

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METALLURGY 7.

The methods chiefly used for the extraction of lead and tin from their ores are respectively : [JEE 2004]

10. Native silver metal forms a water soluble complex with a dilute aqueous solution of NaCl in the presence of : [JEE 2008] (A) nitrogen

(A) self reduction and carbon reduction

(C) carbon dioxide (D) argon

(B) self reduction and electrolytic reduction (C) carbon reduction and self reduction

(B) oxygen

Sol.

(D) cyanide process and carbon reduction Sol.

Paragraph for Question 11 to 13

8.

Which ore contains both iron and copper? [JEE 2004] (A) Cuprite

(B) Chalcocite

(C) Chalcopyrite

(D) Malachite

Sol.

Copper is the most noble of the first row transition metals and occurs in small deposits in several countries. Ores of copper include chalcanthite (CuSO4. 5H2O) atacamite (Cu2Cl(OH)3), cuprite (Cu2O), copper glance (Cu2S) and malachite (Cu2(OH)2CO3). However, 80% of the world copper production comes from the ore chalcopyrite (CuFeS2). The extraction of copper from chalcopyrite involves partial roasting, revoval of iron and self -reduction. [JEE 2010] 11. Partial roasting of chalcopyrite produces (A) Cu2S and FeO (B) Ca2O and FeO (C) CaS and Fe2O3 (D) Cu2O and Fe2O3 Sol.

9.

Extraction for zinc from zinc blende is achieved by : [JEE 2007] (A) electrolytic reduction (B) roasting followed by reduction with carbon (C) roasting followed by reduction with another metal

12. Iron is removed from chalcopyrite as

(D) roasting followed by self–reduction Sol.

(A) FeO

(B) FeS

(C) Fe2O3

(D) FeSiO3

Sol.

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METALLURGY

13. In self -reduction, the reducing species is (A) S

(B) O2–

(C) S2–

(D) SO2

Subjective 16. Answer the following questions briefly : [JEE 1987] (i) What is the actual reducing agent of haematite in blast furnace?

Sol.

(ii) Give the equations for the recovery of lead from galena by air reduction. (iii) Why is sodium chloride added during electrolysis of fused anhydrous mangnesium chloride? (iv) Why copper metal is not used for the recovery of metallic silver from complex [Ag(CN)2]– explain.

14. Oxidation states of the metal in the minerals haematite and magnetite, respectively, are (A) II, III in haematite and III in magnetite (B) II, III in haematite and II in magnetite

(v) Why is chalcocite roasted and not calcinated during recovery of copper? Sol.

(C) II in haematite and II, III in magnetite (D) III in haematite and II, III in magnetite [JEE 2011] Sol.

17. Give balanced equations for the following : “Extraction of silver from silver glance by cyanide process.” [JEE 1998] Sol.

15. Extraction of metal from the ore cassiterite involves [JEE 2011] (A) Carbon reduction of an oxide ore (B) Self-reduction of a sulphide ore (C) removal of copper impurity (D) removal of iron impurity

18. Write balanced equation for “the extraction of copper from copper pyrites by self reduction.” [JEE 1990]

Sol. Sol.

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Page # 101

METALLURGY 19. Give briefly the isolation of magnesium from sea

22. Write the chemical reactions involved in the

water by the Dow’s process. Give equations for the steps involved.

extraction of metallic silver from argentite.

[JEE 1993]

Sol.

[JEE main 2000] Sol.

23. Write down reactions involved in the extraction 20. Give reasons for the following :

[JEE 1994]

of Pb. What is the oxidation number of lead in

“Although aluminium is above hydrogen in the electrochemical series, it is stable in air and

litharge?

[JEE main 2003]

Sol.

water.” Sol.

24. A1 and A2 are two ores of metal M. A1 on calcination gives black precipitate, CO2 and water. [JEE 2004]

o ati cin l a c

21. When the ore haematite is burnt in air with

A1

coke around 2000ºC alonghwith lime, the process not only produces steel but also produces a

n

Black solid + CO2 + H2O

dil. HC KI l

silicate slag, that is useful in making building

I2 + ppt.

materials such as cement. Discuss the same and show through balanced chemical equation.

A2

Roasting

[JEE 1998]

Metal + gas K2Cr2O2 +H2SO4

Sol.

green colour

Sol.

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METALLURGY

Match the column : 25. Match the extraction processes listed in column– I with metals listed in column–II. [JEE 2006] Column–I (A) Self reduction

Fill in the blanks : 27. In extractive metallurgy of zinc partial fusion of ZnO with coke is called _________ and reduction of the ore to the molten metal is called __________ (smelting, calcining, roasting, sintering) [JEE 1988] Sol.

(B) Carbon reduction (C) Complex formation and displacement by metal (D) Decomposition of iodide Column–II (P) Lead (Q) Silver

28. In the cyanide extraction process of silver from argentite ore, the oxidizing and reducing agent used are [JEE 2012] (A) O2 and CO respectively (B) O2 and Zn dust respectively (C) HNO3 and Zn dust respectively (D) HNO3 and CO respectively Sol.

(R) Copper (S) Boron Sol.

26. Match the conversions in Column–I with the type(s) of reaction(s) given in Column–II. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate bubbles of the 4 × 4 matrix given in the ORS. Column–I

29. Sulfide ores are common ofr the metals (A) Ag, Cu and Pb [JEE 2013] (B) Ag, Cu and Sn (C) Ag, Mg and Pb (D) Al, Cu and Pb Sol.

[JEE 2008]

(A) PbS  PbO (B) CaCO3  CaO (C) ZnS  Zn (D) Cu2S  Cu Column–II (P) Roasing (Q) Calcination (R) Carbon reduction (S) Self reduction Sol.

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102

Page # 103

METALLURGY

ANSWER-KEY OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

Answer Ex–I 1.

B

2.

B

3.

C

4.

A

5.

B

6.

A

7.

C

8.

D

9.

C

10. D

11. C

12. B

13. D

14. C

15.

C

16. C

17. B

18. B

19. D

20. A

21. B

22.

C

23. C

24. A

25. A

26. A

27. C

28. A

29.

B

30. A

31. B

32. C

33. C

34. C

35. B

36.

B

37. B

38. B

39. B

40. A

41. B

42. C

43.

C

44. B

45. C

46. A

47. A

48. D

49. C

50.

B

51. D

52. A

53. B

54. D

55. B

56. B

57.

B

58. B

59. B

60. A

61. B

62. A

63. C

64.

A

65. A

66. D

67. C

68. A

69. A

70. D

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Answer Ex–II 1.

BCD

2.

AB

3.

ABCD

4.

ACD

8.

AB

9.

ABC

10. ABC

11. ABC

12. CD

13. BC

14. AC

15.

BC

16. AB

17. AC

18. B

19. ABD

20. ABC

21. AC

22.

AD

23. AB

24. BC

25. AB

26. AD

27. ABD

28. BD

29.

AB

30. AC

31. BC

32. CD

33. ACD

34. BC

35. BC

36.

CD

37. A-Q, B-R,C-S,D-P

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5.

AB

6.

AB

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7.

AB

103

Page # 104

METALLURGY

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Answer Ex–III 1.

C

2.

A

3.

D

8.

A

9.

C

10. D

11. D

12. C

13. D

14. B

15.

B

16. D

17. B

18. A

19. C

20. A

21. B

22.

A

23. C

24. A

25. B

26. A

27. D

28. A

29.

B

30. B

Answer Ex–IV

4.

A

5.

B

8.

D

2.

D

6.

B

7.

D

PREVIOUS YEARS PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

LEVEL – I 1.

C

JEE MAIN 3.

D

4.

D

5.

LEVEL – II

C

6.

D

7.

B

JEE ADVANCED

1.

C

2.

C

3.

C

8.

C

9.

B

10. B

15.

A,D

4.

B

11. A

5.

A

12. D

6.

A

13. C

7.

A

14. D

Match the column 25.

A-PR, B-P, C-Q, D-S

Q.26 A-P, B-Q, C-PR, D-PS

Fill in the blanks. 27.

sitering, smelting

28.

B

29.

A

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104

Page # 105

d-Block Elements

d-Block Elements TRANSITION ELEMENTS Definition: They are often called "transition elements" because their position in the periodic table is between s-block and p-block elements Typically, the transition elements have an incompletely filled d-level. Since Zn group has d10 configuration and are not considered as transition elements but they are d-block elements.

(i) (ii)

General Characteristics: Metallic character : They are all metal and good conductor of heat & electricity Electronic configuration : (n – 1)d1– 10ns1–2 Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn 1 1 4s 4s other are 3d5 3d10 as usual Cr Mo W

(iii)

M.P.

(iv)

Variation in atomic radius: Sc

lowest m.p. due to no unpaired e– for metallic bonding

Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn decreases

remains

increases

same

(v)

Zn Cd Hg

Maximum – 6 no. of unpaired e s are involved inmetallic bonding

again

Variable oxidation states possible Se

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

+1 +3

Cu

Zn

+1

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+2

+3

+3

+3

+3

+3

+3

+3

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+4

+5

+5

+5

+6

+6

+2

+2

+6

+7

Colour : (aquated)

Colour : (aquated)

Sc3+  colourless

Ti4+  colourless

Ti3+  purple

V4+  blue

V3+  green

V2+  violet

Cr2+  blue

Cr3+  green

Mn3+  violet

Mn2+  light pink

Fe2+  light green

Fe3+  yellow

Co2+  pink

Ni2+  green

Cu2+  blue

Zn2+  colourless

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Page # 106

d-Block Elements CHROMATE-DICHROMATE Residue (Fe2O3)

Dissolve in water and filtered

Preparation :  4FeCr2O4 + 8 Na2CO3 + 7O2

1000º-1300ºC red hot in pressce of air

8 Na2CrO4 + 2 Fe2O3

Filtrate (Na2CrO4)

+ 8 CO2

(chromite ore)

[Lime (CaO) added with Na2CO3 which keeps the mass porous so that air has access to all parts and prevents fusion] Then, 2Na2CrO4 + H2SO4  Na2SO4 + Na2Cr2O7 + H2O conc.

It's solubility upto 32ºC increases and then decreases

Hence, suitable temp. is to be employed to crystallise out Na2SO4 first.

Then Na2Cr2O7 is crystallised out as Na2Cr2O7.2H2O on evaporation. (red crystal)

How to get K2Cr2O7,Na2Cr2O7 + KCl

double decomposition

K2Cr2O7 + 2NaCl

hot conc.

NaCl crystallises out first and filtered off. Then K2Cr2O7 crystallised out on cooling *

Other props & test of CrO42– & Cr2O72– : Already discussed

*

Similarities between hexavalent Cr & S–compounds.

(i)

SO3 & CrO3  both acidic.

(ii)

S  SO42–, S2O72– , Cr  CrO42–, Cr2O72–

(iii)

CrO4–2 & SO42– are isomorphous

(iv)

SO2Cl2 & CrO2Cl2

OH

(v)

SO2Cl– & CrO3Cl–

OH



SO42– & CrO42– respectively



SO42– & CrO42– respectively O

(vi)

O

O

CrO3 & (SO3) has same structure – Cr – O – Cr – O – Cr – O

O

O

Ques. In laboratory K2Cr2O7 is used mainly not Na2Cr2O7. Why? Sol.

Na2Cr2O7 is deliquescent enough and changes its concentration and can not be taken as primary standard solution whereas K2Cr2O7 has no water of crystallisation and not deliquescent.

Ques. How to standardise Na2S2O3 solution in iodometry? Sol.

K2Cr2O7 is primary standard 

strength is known by weighing the salt in chemical balance and dissolving in measured amount of water.

Then in acidic solution add. KI Cr2O72– + 14 H+ + 6I–  2Cr3+ + 3I2 + 7H2O This I2 is liberated can be estimated with S2O32–. Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 107

d-Block Elements MANGANATE & PERMANGANATE Preparation of Manganate (MnO42–):– MnO2

KOH

2—

, or NaOH, in presence of air

MnO4

[2MnO2 + 4KOH + O2

green melt

MnO2 + 4KOH + KNO3

K2MnO4 + KNO2 + 2H2O]

3MnO2 + 6KOH + KClO3

3K2MnO4 + KCl + 2H2O]

Cold Water + little alkali

Green soln.

On evaporation

2K2MnO4 + 2H2O]

If KOH used

If NaOH used

K2MnO4(isomorphous with K2SO4) Na2MnO410H2O isomorphous with Na2SO4.10H 2O

In presence of KClO3 & KNO3 the above reaction is more faster because these two on decomposition provides O2 easily. Manganate is also obtained when KMnO4 is boiled with KOH. boiled

4 KMnO4 + 4KOH

4K2MnO4 + 2H2O + O2

Props : The above green solution is quite stable in alkali, but in pure water and in presence of acids, depositing MnO2 and giving a purple solution of permanganate. 3K2MnO4 + 2H2O

2KMnO4 + MnO2  + 4KOH purple

drak brown

o Prob : EMnO24 / MnO2 = 2.26 V

o EMnO 2  = – 0.56 V 4 / MnO4

Prove that MnO42– will disproportionate in acidic medium.

Another Method of Prepn.: 3K2MnO4 + 2H2SO4  2KMnO4 + MnO2 + 2K2SO4 + 2H2O or

3K2MnO4 + 2H2O + 4CO2  2KMnO4 + MnO2 + 4KHCO3

But in the above method

1 of Mn is lost as MnO2 but when oxidised either by Cl2 or by O3 3

2K2MnO4 + Cl2  2KMnO4 + 2KCl [Unwanted MnO2 does not form] OR 2K2MnO4 + O3 + H2O  2KMnO4 + 2KOH + O2 Oxidising Prop. of KMnO4 : (in acidic medium) (i)

MnO4– + Fe+2 + H+  Fe+3 + Mn+2 + H2O

(ii)

MnO4– + I– + H+  Mn+2 + I2 + H2O

(iii)

MnO4– + H2O2 + H+  Mn+2 + O2 + H2O

(iv)

MnO4– + SO2

H

Mn+2 + H2SO4

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Page # 108

d-Block Elements

(v)

MnO4– + NO2– + H+  Mn+2 + NO3– + H2O

(vi)

MnO4– + H2C2O4 + H+  Mn+2 + CO2 + H2O

(vii)

MnO4– + H2S  Mn2+ + S + H2O

*(1)

It is not a primary standard since it is difficult to get it in a high degree of purity and free from trances of MnO2.

*(2)

It is slowly reduced to MnO2 especially in presence of light or acid 4 MnO4– + 4 H+  4 MnO2 + 2H2O + 3O2 Hence it should be kept in dark bottles and standardise just before use.

(viii)

2 KMnO4 + 16 HCl  2KCl + 5 Cl2 + 8H2O + 2MnCl2

Oxidising Prop. of KMnO4 in alk. medium : 2 MnO4– + 2OH–  2MnO42– + H2O + O. Then 2MnO42– + 2H2O  2MnO2 + 4OH– + 2O (i)

2KMnO4 + H2O + KI  2MnO2 + 2KOH + KIO3

(ii)

2KMnO4 + 3HCO2K  2MnO2 + KHCO3 + 2K2CO3 + H2O

(iii)

2KMnO4 + 3H2O2  2MnO2 + 2KOH + 2H2O + 3O2

Oxidising Prop. in neutral or weakly acidic solution:

(i)

2KMnO4 + 3 MnSO4 + 2H2O

2+

in presence Zn

or ZnO

5 MnO2 + K2SO4 + 2H2SO4

or MnO4– + Mn+2 + 2H2O  5MnO2 + 4H+ In absence of Zn+2 ions, some of the Mn+2 ion may escape, oxidation through the formation of insoluble MnII[MnIVO3] manganous permanganite.

(ii)

8 KMnO4 + 3Na2S2O3 + H2O  8 MnO2 + 3 Na2SO4 + 3 S + 2 KOH

**

Conversion of Mn+2 to MnO4– (i) PbO2

(ii) Pb3O4 + HNO3

(v) (NH4)2S2O8/H+

(iii) Pb2O3 (vi) KIO4/H+

Heating effect : 2KMnO4

200ºC

K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 green

2K2MNO4

at red hot

(iv) NaBiO3/H+

Black

2K2MnO3 + O2

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Page # 109

d-Block Elements SILVER AND ITS COMPOUND

aq. regia

(I)

Dry of Moist air H2S

Metallic Ag

H2SO4 HNO3 hot conc.

HCl

Not dissolved No effect Black [4Ag + 2H2S + O 2 2Ag2S + 2H2O ] 2Ag + 2H2SO4 Ag2SO4 + SO2 + H2O Ag + 2HNO3 AgNO3 + NO 2 + H2O Not affected dil. HCl Hence in presence of O 2 Ag reacts with dil. HCl 4Ag + 4HCl + O2 4AgCl + 2H2O

In the same way in presence of O2, Ag complexes with NaCN/KCN. 4 Ag + 8 KCN + 2H2O + O2  4K[Ag(CN)2] + 4KOH

AgNO3 Prepn :

Already done.

Properties : (i)

It is called as lunar caustic because in contact with skin it produces burning sensation like that of caustic soda with the formation of finely devided silver (black colour)

(ii)

Thermal decomposition:

(iii)

Props. of AgNO3 : [Already done in basic radical] 6 AgNO3 + 3I2 + 3H2O  5 AgI + AgIO3 + 6HNO3 (excess)

(iv)

Ag2SO4

(v)

A(AgNO3)

2Ag + SO2 + O2 B added

B(Na2S2O3) (vi)

white ppt appears quickly

A added

Explain

It takes time to give white ppt.

Ag2S2O3 + H2O

Ag2S + H2SO4

AgCl. AgBr. AgI (but not Ag2S) are soluble in Na2S2O3 forming [Ag(S2O3)2]–3 complexes (vii)

AgBr : AgNO3

KBr

AgBr¯

+

KNO3

Pale yellow ppt.

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d-Block Elements

Heating effect : 2 AgNO3 2 AgNO3

212ºC

500ºC

2AgNO2 + O2 2Ag + 2NO + O2

aq. ragia

(viii)

dil. HCl

AgNO3

Na OH

AgCl NaOH (conc.)

insoluble

Zn/HCl [H]

Ag + HCl

Na2CO3

Ag + [4AgCl + 2Na2CO3

4Ag + 4NaCl + 2CO2 + O 2]

K2S2O8

Ag2O[2AgCl + 2NaOH AgO Black

Ag2O + 2NaCl + H2O]

glocose

Ag

Ag [Ag2O + C6H12O6

2Ag + C5H11CO2H] gluconic acid

Ag2O + H2O2  2Ag + H2O + O2 K2S2O8 + 2AgNO3 + 2H2O  2AgO + 2KHSO4 + 2HNO3

*

AgO supposed to be paramagnetic due to d9 configuration. But actually it is diamagnetic and exists as AgI[AgIII O2]

*

Reaction involved in developer: K2FeII(C2O4)2 + AgBr  KFeIII(C2O4)2 + Ag + KBr

ZINC COMPOUNDS ZnO : It is called as phillospher's wool due to its wooly flock type appearance Preparation :

1 ]

2Zn + O2  2ZnO

2 ]

ZnCO3

3 ]

2Zn(NO3)2

4 ]

Zn(OH)2

ZnO + CO2 2ZnO + 4NO2 + O2 ZnO + H2O

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Page # 111

d-Block Elements Purest ZnO : 4ZnSO4 + 4Na2CO3 + 3H2O  ZnCO3.3Zn(OH)2 + 4Na2SO4 + 3CO2 white basic zinc carbonate

4ZnO + 3H2O + CO Pure Properties :

1 ]

ZnO(cold)

ZnO(hot)

white

yellow

2 ]

It is insoluble in water

3 ]

It sublimes at 400ºC

4 ]

It is amphoteric oxide ZnO + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2O ZnO + H2SO4  ZnSO4 + H2O ZnO + 2NaOH  Na2ZnO2 + H2O

5 ]

ZnO  Zn by H2 & C ZnO + H2 ZnO + C

6 ]

>400ºC

Zn + H2O

Zn + CO

It forms Rinmann's green with Co(NO3)2 2Co(NO3)2  2CoO + 4NO2 + O2 CoO + ZnO  CoZnO2 or CoO – ZnO Rinmann's green

Uses : (1)

As white pigment. It is superior than white lead because it does not turn into black

(2)

Rinmann's green is used as green pigment

(3)

It is used as zinc ointment in medicine

ZnCl2 Preparation :

ZnO + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2O ZnCO3 + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2O + CO2

It crystallises as ZnCl2 . 2H 2O

Zn(OH)2 + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + 2H2O Anh. ZnCl2 cannot be made by heating ZnCl2.2H2O because

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Page # 112

d-Block Elements

ZnCl2.2H2O

Zn(OH)Cl + HCl + H2O

Zn(OH)Cl

ZnO + HCl

To get anh. ZnCl2 : Zn + Cl2  ZnCl2 Zn + 2HCl(dry)  ZnCl2 + H2 or

Zn + HgCl2  ZnCl2 + Hg

Properties : (i) It is deliquescent white solid (when anhydrous) (ii) ZnCl2 +

H2S  ZnS + NaOH  Zn(OH)2 + NH4OH  Zn(OH)2

Uses : 1]

excess

Na2[Zn(OH)4] [Zn(NH3)4]2+

excess

Used for impregnating timber to prevent destruction by insects

2]

As dehydrating agent when anhydrous

3]

ZnO. ZnCl2 used in dental filling ZnSO4 : –

Preparation :  Zn + dil. H2SO4  ZnSO4 + H2 ZnO + dil H2SO4  ZnSO4 + H2O ZnCO3 + dil H2SO4  ZnSO4 + H2O + CO2 ZnS + 2O2  ZnSO4 ZnS +

3 O  ZnO + SO2 2 2

parallel reaction

ZnS + 4O3  ZnSO4 + 4O2 Props. 1]

ZnSO4 . 7H2O

39-70ºC

ZnSO4 . 6H2O

>70ºC

ZnSO4.H2O

>280ºC

1 O + SO2 + ZnO 2 2

Uses : 1] 2]

ZnSO4

>800ºC

in eye lotion Lithophone making (ZnS + BaSO4) as white pigment.

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Page # 113

d-Block Elements COPPER COMPOUNDS CuO : Preparation : – (i)

CuCO3. Cu(OH)2

2CuO + H2O + CO2 (commercial process)

Malachite Green (native Cu-carbonate) (ii)

2Cu + O2  2CuO & Cu2O +

(iii)

Cu(OH)2

(iv)

2Cu(NO3)2

1 O  2CuO 2 2

CuO + H2O 250ºC

2CuO + 4NO2 + O2

Properties : (i)

CuO is insoluble in water

(ii)

Readily dissolves in dil. acids CuO + H2SO4  CuSO4 + H2O HCl  CuCl2 HNO3

(iii)

 Cu(NO3)2

It decomposes when, heated above 1100ºC 4CuO  2Cu2O + O2

(iv)

CuO is reduced to Cu by H2 or C under hot condition CuO + C  Cu + CO CuO + H2  Cu + H2O

CuCl2 : Preparation : –

CuO + 2HCl (conc.)  CuCl2 + H2O Cu(OH)2.CuCO3 + 4HCl  2CuCl2 + 3H2O + CO2

Preparation : – (i)

It is crystallised as CuCl2. 2H2O of Emerald green colour

(ii)

dil. solution in water is blue in colour due to fromation of [Cu(H2O)4]2+ complex.

(iii)

Conc. HCl or KCl added to dil. solution of CuCl2 the colour changes into yellow, owing to the formation of [CuCl4]2– .

(iv)

The conc. aq. solution is green in colour having the two complex ions in equilibrium 2[Cu(H2O)4]Cl2 [Cu(H2O)4]2+ + [CuCl4]2– + 4H2O : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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**

d-Block Elements

CuCl2  CuCl by no. of reagents (a)

CuCl2 + Cu-turnings

(b)

2CuCl2 + H2SO3 + H2O  2CuCl + 2HCl + 2H2SO4

(c)

2CuCl2 + Zn/HCl  2CuCl + ZnCl2

(d)

CuCl2 + SnCl2  CuCl + SnCl4

CuF2.2H2O  light bule CuCl2.2H2O  green CuBr2  almost black CuI2 does not exist

2CuCl

Anh. CuCl2 is dark brown mass obtained by heating CuCl2.2H2O at 150ºC in presence of HCl vap. 150ºC HCl gas

CuCl2.2H2O

CuCl2 + 2H2O

CuSO4 : Preparation : – CuO + H2SO4(dil)  CuSO4 + H2O Cu(OH)2 + H2SO4(dil)  CuSO4 + 2H2O Cu(OH)2.CuCO3 + H2SO4(dil)  CuSO + 3H2O + CO2 Cu

+

H2SO4 +

1 O  CuSO4 + H2O [Commercial scale] 2 2

(Scrap)

Cu + dil. H2SO4  no reaction {Cu is below H in electrochemical series} Preparation : – (i)

It is crystallised as CuSO4.5H2O

(ii)

CuSO4. 5H2O Blue

On exposure effloresence

CuSO4.3H2O

take places Pale blue

100ºC

CuSO4.H2O Bluish white

230ºC

CuSO4(anh.) white 800ºC

750ºC

CuO + SO2 + 21 O2 CuO + SO3

(iii)

Revision with all others reagent

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Page # 115

d-Block Elements IRON COMPOUNDS FeSO4.7H2O Preparation : – (i)

Scrap Fe + H2SO4  FeSO4 + H2 (dil.)

(ii)

From Kipp's waste FeS + H2SO4 (dil.)  FeSO4 + H2S

(iii)

FeS2 + 2H2O +

7 O  FeSO4 + H2SO4 2 2

Properties : – (i)

It undergoes aerial oxidation forming basic ferric sulphate 4FeSO4 + H2O + O2  4Fe(OH)SO4

(ii)

FeSO4.7H2O

300ºC

FeSO4

high temp.

Fe2O3 + SO2 + SO3

anh.white

(iii)

Aq. solution is acidic due to hydrolysis FeSO4 + 2H2O

Fe(OH)2 + H2SO4 weak base

(iv)

It is a reducing agent (a) Fe2+ + MnO4– + H+  Fe3+ + Mn2+ + H2O (b) Fe2+ + Cr2O72– + H+  Fe3 + Cr3+ + H2O (c) Au3+ + Fe2+  Au + Fe3+ (d) Fe2+ + HgCl2  Hg2Cl2 + Fe3+ white ppt.

(v)

It forms double salt. Example (NH4)2SO4. FeSO4.6H2O

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Page # 116

d-Block Elements

FeO(Black) : Prepn :

FeC2O4

Props : –

It is stable at high temperature and on cooling slowly disproportionates into

FeO + CO + CO2

in absence of air

Fe3O4 and iron. 4FeO  Fe3O4 + Fe FeCl2 : Preparation : –

Fe + 2HCl

heated in a current of HCl

FeCl2 + H2

OR 2FeCl3 + H2

2 FeCl2 + 2HCl

Properties: – (i)

It is deliquescent in air like FeCl3

(ii)

It is soluble in water, alcohol and ether also because it is sufficiently covalent in nature.

(iii)

It volatilises at about 1000ºC and vapour density indicates the presence of Fe2Cl4. Above 1300ºC density becomes normal

(iv)

It oxidises on heating in air 12FeCl2 + 3O2  2Fe2O3 + 8FeCl3

(v)

H2evolves on heating in steam 3FeCl2 + 4H2O  Fe3O4 + 6HCl + H2

(vi)

It can exist as different hydrated form FeCl2.2H2O  Colourless FeCl2.4H2O  pale green FeCl2.6H2O  green

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Page # 117

d-Block Elements

EXERCISE – I 1.

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

compd(U) conc.H2SO4 (V) (T) imparts violet colour   NaOH AgNO3 (W) Red ppt. Red gas  

5.

NH soln.

3  (X)

dil.HCl (W) Red ppt.  (Y) white ppt.

Sol.

Cr 2 O 7 2 –

X Y

2CrO 4 2 – , X and Y are

respectively(A) X = OH–, Y = H+ (C) X = OH–, Y = H2O2

(B) X = H+, Y = OH– (D) X = H2O2, Y = OH–

NaOH

 (Z) gas (gives white fumes with HCl) (U)  

Sol.

sublimes on heating Identify (T) to (Z). (A) T = KMnO4, U = HCl, V = Cl2, W = HgI2, X =Hg(NH2)NO3, Y = Hg2Cl2, Z = N2 (B) T = K2Cr2O7, U = NH4Cl, V = CrO2Cl2, W = Ag2CrO4, X = [Ag(NH3)2]+, Y = AgCl,Z=NH3 (C) T = K2CrO4, U = KCl, V = CrO2Cl2, W = HgI2, X = Na2CrO4, Y = BaCO3, Z = NH4Cl (D) T = K2MnO4, U = NaCl, V = CrO3, W = AgNO2, X = (NH4)2CrO4, Y = CaCO3, Z = SO2

6.

Sol.

7. 2.

The number of moles of acidified KMnO4 required to convert one mole of sulphite ion into sulphate ion is(A) 2/5 (B) 3/5 (C) 4/5 (D) 1

Addition of non-metals like B and C to the interstitial sites of a transition metal results the metal(A) of more ductability (B) of less ductability (C) less malleable (D) of more hardness

Mercury is a liquid at 0°C because of(A) very high ionisation energy (B) weak metallic bonds (C) high heat of hydration (D) high heat of sublimation

Sol.

Sol.

3.

N2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) Fe + Mo 2NH 3 (g) ; Haber’s process, Mo is used as (A) a catalyst (B) a catalytic promoter (C) an oxidising agent (D) as a catalytic poison

8.

Sol.

CrO3 dissolves in aqueous NaOH to give(A) Cr2O72– (B) CrO42– (C) Cr(OH)3 (D) Cr(OH)2

Sol.

4.

Sol.

Potash alum is a double salt, its aqueous solution shows the characteristics of(A) Al3+ ions (B) K+ ions 2– (C) SO4 ions (D) Al3+ ions but not K+ ions

9.

The correct statement(s) about transi ti on elements is/are(A) the most stable oxidation state is +3 and its stability decreases across the period (B) transition elements of 3d- series have almost same atomic sizes from Cr to Cu (C) the stability of +2 oxidation state increases across the period. (D) some transition elements like Ni, Fe, Cr may show zero oxidation state in some of their compounds

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d-Block Elements 15. The metal(s) which does/do not form amalgam is/ are(A) Fe (B) Pt (C) Zn (D) Ag Sol.

10. An ornament of gold having 75% of gold, it is of .............. carat. (A) 18 (B) 16 (C) 24 (D) 20 Sol. 16. Which of the following statements concern with transition metals ? (A) compounds containing ions of transition elements are usually coloured (B) the most common oxidation state is +3 11. Solution of MnO4– is purple-coloured due to(C) they show variable oxidation states, which (A) d-d- transition differ by two units only (B) charge transfer from O to Mn (D) they easily form complexes (C) due to both d-d-transition and charge transfer Sol. (D) none of these Sol.

12. The ionisation energies of transition elements are(A) less than p-block elements (B) more than s-block elements (C) less than s-block elements (D) more than p-block elements Sol.

17. Correct statement(s) is/are(A) an acidified solution of K2Cr2O7 liberates iodine from KI (B) K2Cr2O7 is used as a standard solution for estimation of Fe2+ ions (C) in acidic medium, M = N/6 for K2Cr2O7 (D) (NH4)2Cr2O7 on heating decomposes to yield Cr2O3 through an endothermic reaction Sol.

13. Transition elements having more tendency to form complex than representative elements (s and pblock elements) due to18. The highest oxidation state among transition (A) availability of d-orbitals for bonding elements is(B) variable oxidation states are not shown by (A) + 7 by Mn (B) + 8 by Os transition elements (C) +8 by Ru (D) +7 by Fe (C) all electrons are paired in d-orbitals Sol. (D) ƒ-orbitals are available for bonding Sol.

19. A compound of mercury used in cosmetics, in 14. During estimation of oxalic acid Vs KMnO4, self Ayurvedic and Yunani medicines and known as indicator isVermilon is(A) KMnO4 (B) oxalic acid (A) HgCl2 (B) HgS (C) Hg2Cl2 (D) HgI (C) K2SO4 (D) MnSO4 Sol. Sol.

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d-Block Elements Org.solvent

 X + Y,, 20. Acidified chromic acid + H2O2  (blue colour) X and Y are – (A) CrO5 and H2O (B) Cr2O3 and H2O (C) CrO2 and H2O (D) CrO and H2O Sol.

dil H2SO 4 21.  Y(g)KI  CuSO 4   X(Blue colour),X and Y

Sol.

are(A) X = I2, Y = [Cu(H2O)4]2+ (B) X = [Cu(H2O)4]2+, Y = I2 (C) X = [Cu(H2O)4]+, Y = I2 (D) X = [Cu(H2O)5]2+, Y = I2

22. Transition elements are usually characterised by variable oxidation states but Zn does not show this property because of(A) completion of np-orbitals (B) completion of (n–1) d orbitals (C) completion of ns-orbitals (D) inert pair effect Sol.

Sol.

26. Iron becomes passive by..................due to formation of ................ (A) dil. HCl, Fe2O3 (B) 80% conc. HNO3, Fe3O4 (C) conc. H2SO4, Fe3O4 (D) conc. HCl, Fe3O4 Sol.

27. Bayer’s reagent used to detect olifinic double bond is(A) acidified KMnO4 (B) aqueous KMnO4 (C) 1% alkaline KMnO4 solution (D) KMnO4 in benzene Sol.

28. Amphoteric oxide(s) is/are(A) Al2O3 (B) SnO (C) ZnO Sol.

(D) Fe2O3

23. (NH4)2Cr2O7(Ammonium dichromate) is used in fire works. The green coloured powder blown in air is(A) Cr2O3 (B) CrO2 (C) Cr2O4 (D) CrO3 Sol. 29. Interstitial compounds are formed by(A) Co (B) Ni (C) Fe (D) Ca Sol. 24. The d-block element which is a liquid at room temperature, having high specific heat, less reactivity than hydrogen and its chloride (MX2) is volatile on heating is(A) Cu (B) Hg (C) Ce (D) Pm Sol. 30. The transition metal used in X-rays tube is(A) Mo (B) Ta (C) Tc (D) Pm Sol. 25. Coinage metals show the properties of(A) typical elements (B) normal elements (C) inner-transition elements (D) transition element : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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d-Block Elements

EXERCISE – II 1.

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

The catalytic activity of transition elements is related to their(A) variable oxidation states (B) surface area (C) complex formation ability (D) magnetic moment

(A) Mn2+ acts as auto catalyst (B) CO2 is formed (C) Reaction is exothermic (D) MnO4– catalyses the reaction. Sol.

Sol.

5. 2.





2–

MnO4 + xe

(Alkaline medium)

+ ye–(acidic medium) + ze–(Neutral medium)

MnO4

CuSO4 solution reacts with exces KCN to give (A) Cu(CN)2 (B) CuCN (C) K2[Cu(CN)2] (D) K3[Cu(CN)4]

Sol. 2+

Mn

MnO2

x,y and z are respectively(A) 1,2,3 (B) 1,5,3 (C) 1,3,5

(D) 5,3,1

Sol. 6.

The higher oxidation states of transition elements are found to be in the combination A and B, which are (A) F, O (B) O, N (C) O,Cl (D) F,Cl

Sol. 3.

Cu  conc.HNO3  Cu(NO3 )2  X (hot)

( oxide of nitrogen) ; then X is(A) N2O (B) NO2 (C) NO

(D) N2O3

Sol. 7.

In the equation M + 8CN– + 2H 2 O + O2  4[M(CN)2]– + 4OH–, metal M is(A) Ag (B) Au (C) Cu (D) Hg

Sol. 4.

When KMnO4 solution is added to hot oxalic acid solution, the decolourisation is slow in the beginning but becomes instantaneous after some time. This is because-

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d-Block Elements 8.

An element of 3d-transition series shows two oxidation states x and y, differ by two units then (A) compounds in oxidation state x are ionic if x > y (B) compounds in oxidation state x are ionic if x < y (C) compound in oxidation state y are covalent if x < y (D) compounds in oxidation state y are covalent if y < x Sol.

Sol.

12. To an acidified dichromate solution, a pinch of Na2O2 is added and shaken. What is observed. (A) blue colour (B) Orange colour changing to green (C) Copious evolution of oxygen (D) Bluish-green precipitate Sol. 9.

Pick out the incorrect statement : (A) MnO2 dissolves in conc. HCl, but does not form Mn4+ ions (B) MnO 2 oxidizes hot concentrated H 2 SO 4 liberating oxygen (C) K2MnO4 is formed when MnO2 in fused KOH is oxidised by air, KNO3, PbO2 or NaBiO3 (D) Decomposition of acidic KMnO4 is not catalysed by sunlight.

Sol.

13. The rusting of iron is formulated as Fe2O3. xH2O which involves the formation of (A) Fe2O3 (B) Fe(OH)3 (C) Fe(OH)2 (D) Fe2O3 + Fe(OH)3 Sol.

10. 1 mole of Fe2+ ions are oxidised to Fe3+ ions with the help of (in acidic medium) (A) 1/5 moles of KMnO4 (B) 5/3 moles of KMnO4 (C) 2/5 moles of KMnO4 (D) 5/2 moles of KMnO4 Sol.

14. Metre scales are made-up-of alloy (A) invar (B) stainless steel (C) elektron (D) magnalium Sol.

11. The metals present in insulin and haemoglobin are respectively(A) Zn, Hg (B) Zn, Fe (C) Co, Fe (D) Mg, Fe

15. Amongst CuF2, CuCl2 and CuBr2 (A) only CuF2 is ionic (B) both CuCl2 and CuBr2 are covalent (C) CuF2 and CuCl2 are ionic but CuBr2 is covalent (D) CuF2, CuCl2as well as CuBr2 are ionic

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d-Block Elements 20. Purple of cassius is : (A) Pure gold (B) Colliodal solution of gold (C) Gold (I) hydroxide (D) Gold (III) chloride Sol.

16. A metal M which is not affected by strong acids like conc. HNO3, conc. H2SO4 and conc. solution of alkalies like NaOH, KOH forms MCl3 which finds use for toning in photography. The metal M is(A) Ag (B) Hg (C) Au (D) Cu Sol. 21. Amongst the following species, maximum covalent character is exhibited by(A) FeCl2 (B) ZnCl2 (C) HgCl2 (D) CdCl2 Sol. 17. Solid CuSO4. 5H2O having covalent, ionic as well as co-ord i nat e bond s. Copp er atom/i on forms.......co-ordinate bonds with water. (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 Sol. 22. Number of moles of SnCl2 required for the reduction of 1 mole of K2Cr2O7 into Cr2O3 is (in acidic medium) (A) 3 (B) 2 (C) 1 (D) 1/3 Sol. 18. CuSO4(aq) + 4NH3  X, then X is(A) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (B) paramagnetic (C) coloured (D) of a magnetic moment of 1.73 BM Sol. 23. Amphoteric oxide(s) of Mn is/are(A) MnO2 (B) Mn3O4 (C) Mn2O7 Sol.

(D) MnO

19. KMnO4  HCl  H2 O  X(g), X is a (acidified)

(A) red liquid (B) violet gas (C) greenish yellow gas (D) yellow-brown gas Sol.

24. Pick out the incorrect statement : (A) MnO42– is quite strongly oxidizing and stable only in very strong alkalies. In dilute alkali, neutral solutions, it disproportionates. Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

Page # 123

d-Block Elements (B) In acidic solutions, MnO4– is reduced to Mn2+ and thus, KMnO4 is widely used as oxidising agent (C) KMnO4 does not acts as oxidising agent in alkaline medium (D) KMnO4 is manufactured by the fusion of pyrolusite ore with KOH in presence of air or KNO3, followed by electrolytic oxidation in alkaline solution. Sol.

Sol.

28. Acidified KMnO4 can be decolourised by(A) SO2 (B) H2O2 (C) FeSO4 (D) Fe2(SO4)3 Sol.

25. The aqueous solution of CuCrO4 is green because it contains(A) green Cu2+ ions (B) green CrO42– ions (C) blue Cu2+ ions and green CrO42– ions (D) blue Cu2+ ions and yellow CrO42– ions Sol.

26. Manganese steel is used for making railway tracks because(A) it is hard with high percentage of Mn (B) it is solft with high percentage of Mn (C) it is hard wi th small concentration of manganese with impurities (D) it is soft with small concentration of manganese with impurities Sol.

29. Transition elements in lower oxidation states act as Lewis acid because(A) they form complexes (B) they are oxidising agents (C) they donate electrons (D) they do not show catalytic properties Sol.

30. The lanthanide contraction is responsible for the fact that(A) Zr and Hf have same atomic sizes (B) Zr and Hf have same properties (C) Zr and Hf have different atomic sizes (D) Zr and Hf have different properties Sol.

27. In nitroprusside ion, the iron exists as Fe2+ and NO as NO+ rather than Fe3+ and NO respectively. These forms of ions are established with the help of(A) magnetic moment in solid state (B) thermal decomposition method (C) by reaction with KCN (D) by action with K2SO4 : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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d-Block Elements

EXERCISE – III

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED) Sol.

1.

The Ziegler-Natta catalyst used for polymerisation of ethene and styrene is TiCl4 + (C2H5)3Al, the catalysing species (active species) involved in the polymerisation is(A) TiCl4 (B) TiCl3 (C) TiCl2 (D) TiCl

Sol. 6.

2.

Ion(s) having non zero magnetic moment (spin only) is/are(A) Sc3+ (B) Ti3+ (C) Cu2+ (D) Zn2+

Colourless solutions of the following four salts are placed separately in four different test tubes and a strip of copper is dipped in each one of these. Which solution will turn blue ? (A) KNO3 (B) AgNO3 (C) Zn(NO3)2 (D) ZnSO4

Sol.

Sol.

7.

3.

The electrons which take part in order to exhibit variable oxidation states by transition metals are (A) ns only (B) (n–1)d only (C) ns and (n–1)d only but not up (D) CuO + CaO

Sol.

Peacock ore is (A) FeS2 (C) CuCO3.Cu(OH)2

(B) CuFeS2 (D) Cu5FeS4

Sol.

8.

“925 fine silver” means an alloy of : (A) 7.5% Ag and 92.5% Cu (B) 92.5% Ag and 7.5% Cu (C) 80% Ag and 20% Cu (D) 90% Ag and 10% Cu

4.

‘Bordeaux mixture’ is used as a fungicide. It is a mixture of(A) CaSO4 + Cu(OH)2 (B) CuSO4 + Ca(OH)2 (C) CuSO4 + CaO (D) CuO + CaO

Sol.

Sol.

9.

5.

Which of the following reaction is possible at anode ? (A) 2Cr3+ + 7H2O  Cr2O72– + 14 H+ (B) F2 + 2 F– (C)

1 O2  2H  H2 O 2

Iron salt used in blue prints is : (A) FeC2O4

(B) Fe2(C2O4)3

(C) K4[Fe(CN)6]

(D) K3[Fe(CN)6]

Sol.

(D) None of these

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d-Block Elements 10. When acidified KMnO4 is added to hot oxalic acid solution, the decolourization is slow in the beginning, but becomes very rapid after some time. This is because :

Sol.

(A) Mn2+ acts as autocatalyst (B) CO2 is formed as the product (C) Reaction is exothermic (D) MnO4– catalyses the reaction Sol.

Question No. 11 to 20 Questions given below consist of two statements each printed as Assertion (A) and Reason (R) ; while answering these questions you are required to choose any one of the following four responses

14. Assertion : CrO3 reacts with HCl to form chromyl chloride gas. Reason : Chromy l chl ori de (CrO 2 Cl 2 ) has tetrahedral shape. Sol.

15. Assertion : Zinc does not show characteristic properties of transition metals. Reason : In zinc outermost shell is completely filled. Sol.

(A) If both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A) (B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not correct explanation of (A) (C) If (A) is true but (R) is false (D) If (A) is false and (R) is true 11. Assertion : KMnO4 is purple in colour due to charge transfer. Reason : In MnO4–, there is no electron present in d-orbitals of manganese. Sol.

12. Assertion : K 2 CrO 4 has yellow colour due to charge transfer. Reason : CrO42– ion is tetrahedral in shape. Sol.

13. Assertion : The hi ghest oxi dati on state of chromium in its compounds is +6. Reason : Chromium atom has only six electrons in ns and (n–1)d orbitals.

16. Assertion : Tungsten has a very high melting point. Reason : Tungsten is a covalent compound. Sol.

17. Assertion : Equivalent mass of KMnO4 is equal to one-third of its molecular mass when it acts as an oxidising agent in an alkaline medium. Reason : Oxidation number of Mn is +7 in KMnO4. Sol.

18. Assertion : Ce4+ is used as an oxidising agent in volumetric analysis. Reason : Ce4+ has the tendency to attain +3 oxidation state. Sol.

19. Assertion : Promethium is a man made element. Reason : It is radioactive and has been prepared by artificial means.

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20. Assertion : Cu+ ion is colourless. Reason : Four water molecules are coordinated to Cu+ ion. Sol.

21. Among d-block elements, the most abundant element belongs to the : (A) first transition series (B) second transition series (C) third transition series (D) fourth transition series Sol.

22. The 3d metal ions are gnerally paramagnetic in nature because : (A) they form coloured salts (B) they have one or more unpaired d electrons (C) they have one or more paired s electrons (D) they are reducing agents Sol.

23. Green vitriol is formed by : (A) FeS2 + CO (B) FeS2 + H2O + CO2 (C) FeS2 + H2O + O2 (D) FeS2 + CO + CO2 Sol.

24. Which of the following forms with an excess of CN–, a complex having coordination number two ? (A) Cu2+ (B) Ag+ 2+ (C) Ni (D) Fe2+ Sol.

d-Block Elements 25. Of the following outer electronic configurations of atoms, the highest oxidation state is achieved by which one of them ? (A) (n – 1)d8ns2 (B) (n – 1)d5ns1 3 2 (C) (n – 1)d ns (D) (n – 1)d5ns2 Sol.

26. In which of the following pairsare both the ions coloured in aqueous solution ? (A) Sc3+, Co2+ (B) Ni2+, Cu+ 2+ 3+ (C) Ni , Ti (D) Sc3+, Ti3+ Sol.

27. Which of the following has the maximum number of unpaired d electrons ? (A) Zn (B) Fe2+ (C) Ni3+ (D) Cu+ Sol.

28. Colour in transition metal compounds is attributed to : (A) small size of metal ions (B) absorption of light in UV region (C) moderate ionisation energy (D) incomplete (n – 1) d subshell Sol.

29. The property, which is not characteristic of transition metals, is : (A) variable oxidation states (B) tendency to form complexes (C) formation of coloured compounds (D) natural radioactivity Sol.

30. The correct order of ionisation energy is : (A) Cu > Ag > Au (B) Cu > Au > Ag (C) Au > Cu > Ag (D) Ag > Au > Cu Sol.

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d-Block Elements

EXERCISE – IV

PREVIOUS YEARS

LEVEL – I

JEE MAIN Sol.

Q.1

Arrange Ce3+, La3+, Pm3+, and Yb3+ in increasing order of their ionic radius – [AIEEE-02] (A) Yb3+ < Pm3+ < Ce3+ < La3+ (B) Ce3+ > Yb3+ < Pm3+ < La3+ (C) Yb3+ > Pm3+ < La3+ < Ce3+ (D) Pm3+ < La3+ < Ce3+ < Yb3+

Q.5

Sol.

Sol. Q.2

Sol.

What would happen when a solution of potassium chromate is treated with an excess of dilute nitric acid [AIEEE-03] (A) Cr3+ and Cr2O72– are formed (B) Cr2O72– and H2O are formed (C) Cr2O72– is reduced to +3 state of Cr (D) Cr2O72– is oxidised to +7 state of Cr

Q.6

Sol.

Q.7 Q.3

The radius of La3+ is 1.06 Å, which of the following given values will be closest to the radius of Lu3+ (At no. of Lu = 71, La = 57) – [AIEEE-03] (A) 1.6 Å (B) 1.4 Å (C) 1.06 Å (D) 0.85 Å

Sol.

Cerium (Z = 58) is an important member of the lanthanoids. Which of the following statement about cerium is incorrect [AIEEE-04] (A) Cerium (IV) acts as an oxidising agent (B) The +3 oxidation state of cerium is more stable than the +4 oxidation state (C) The +4 oxidation state of cerium is not known in solutions (D) The common oxidation states of cerium are +3 and +4

Calomel on reaction with NH4OH gives – [AIEEE-04] (A) HgNH2Cl (B) NH2–Hg–Hg–Cl (C) Hg2O (D) HgO

The lanthanoid contraction is responsible for the fact that [AIEEE-05] (A) Zr and Y have about the same radius (B) Zr and Nb have similar oxidation state (C) Zr and Hf have about the same radius (D) Zr and Zn have similar oxidation state

Sol.

Q.8 Q.4

Excess of KI reacts with CuSO4 solution and then Na2S2O3 solution is added to it. Which of the statements is incorrect for this reaction [AIEEE-04] (A) Evolved I2 is reduced (B) CuI2 is formed (C) Na2S2O3 is oxidised (D) Cu2I2 is formed

Lanthanoid contraction is caused due to – [AIEEE-06] (A) the same effective nuclear charge from Ce to Lu (B) the imperfect shielding on outer electrons by 4f electrons from the nuclear charge (C )t he app re ci ab l e s hi el di ng on oute r electrons by 4f electrons from the nuclear charge (D) the appreciable shielding on outer electrons by 5d electrons from the nuclear charge

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Q.9

d-Block Elements Sol.

Identify the incorrect statement among the following [AIEEE-07] (A) d-block elements show irregular and erratic chemical properties among themselves (B) La and Lu have partially filled d-orbitals and no other partially filled orbitals (C) The chemistry of various lanthanoids is very similar (D) 4f and 5f-orbitals are equally shielded

Q.12

Sol.

Q.10

The actinoids exhibits more number of oxidation states in general than the lanthanoids. This is because [AIEEE-07] (A) The 5f-orbitals are more buried than the 4f-orbitals (B) There is a similarly between 4f-and-5f in the their angular part of the wave function (C) The actinoids are more reactive than the lanthanoids (D) The 5f-orbitals extend further from the nucleus than the 4f-orbitals

Knowing that the Chemistry of lanthanoids (Ln) is dominated by its +3 oxidation state, which of the following statements is incorrect ? [AIEEE-09] (A) The ionic sizes of Ln (III) decrease in general with increasing atomic number. (B) Ln (III) compounds are generally colourless. (C) Ln (III) hydroxides are mainly basic in character. (D) Because of the large size of the Ln (III) i ons the bond i ng i n i ts c om pounds i s predominantly ionic in character.

Sol.

Q.13

Iron exhibits + 2 and + 3 oxidation states. Which of the following statements about iron is incorrect ?

Sol.

[AIEEE-2012]

(A) Ferrous compounds are relatively more ionic than the corresponding ferric compounds. (B) Ferrous compounds are less volatile than Q.11

In context with the transition elements, which of the following statements is incorrect ? [AIEEE-09] (A) In the highest oxidation states, the transition metal show basic character and form cationic complexes. (B) In the highest oxidation states of the first five transition elements (Sc to Mn), all the 4s and electrons are used for bonding. (C) Once the d5 configuration is exceeded, the tendency to involve all the 3d electrons in bonding decreases. (D) In addition to the normal oxidation states, the zero oxidation state is also shown by these elements in complexes.

the corresponding ferric compounds (C) Ferrous compounds are more easily hydrolysed than the corresponding ferric compounds (D) Ferrous oxide is more basic in nature than the ferric oxide Sol.

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d-Block Elements

LEVEL – II

JEE ADVANCED Q.4

Q.1

Which of the following statement (s) is (are) correct when a mixture of NaCl and K2Cr2O7 is gently warmed with conc. H2SO4 ? [IIT-1998] (A) A deep red vapour is evolved (B) The vapour when passed into NaOH solution gives a yellow solution of Na2CrO4 (C) Chlorine gas is evolved (D) Chromyl chloride is formed

Reduction of the metal centre in aqueous permanganate ion involves [IIT-2011] (A) 3 electrons in neutral medium (B) 5 electrons in neutral medium (C) 3 electrons in alkaline medium (D) 5 electrons in acidic medium

Sol.

Sol.

Q.5

Q.2

In the dichromate dianion, [IIT-1999] (A) 4, Cr-O bonds are equivalent (B) 6, Cr-O bonds are equivalent (C) All, Cr-O bonds are equivalent (D) All, Cr-O bonds are non-equivalent

The colour of light absorbed by an aqueous solution of CuSO4 is [IIT-2012] (A) orange-red (B) blue-green (C) yellow (D) violet

Sol.

Sol.

Q.6

Which of the following hydrogen halides react(s) with AgNO3(aq) to give a precipitate that dis-

Q.3

Which of the following compounds exhibit the same colour in the aqueous solution ? [IIT-2007] (A) VOCl2 & FeCl2 (B) FeCl2 & CuCl2 (C) MnCl2 & FeCl2 (D) VOCl2 & CuCl2

solves in Na2S2O3(aq) ? [IIT-2012] (A) HCl (B) HF (C) HBr (D) HI Sol.

Sol.

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d-Block Elements

Answers Exercise-I 1. 6. 11. 16. 21. 26.

B BCD B ABD B B

2. 7. 12. 17. 22. 27.

A AB AB ABC B C

3. 8. 13. 18. 23. 28.

B B A BC A ABC

4. 9. 14. 19. 24. 29.

ABC ABCD A B B ABC

5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30.

A A AB A D A

4. 9. 14. 19. 24. 29.

A D A C C C

5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30.

D A AB B D AB

4. 9. 14. 19. 24. 29.

B B B A B D

5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 30.

A A C C D C

Exercise-II 1. 6. 11. 16. 21. 26.

ABC A B C C A

2. 7. 12. 17. 22. 27.

B AB AC D A A

3. 8. 13. 18. 23. 28.

B BC D ABCD AB ABC

Exercise-III 1. 6. 11. 16. 21. 26.

B B B C A C

2. 7. 12. 17. 22. 27.

BC D B B B B

3. 8. 13. 18. 23. 28.

C B A A C D

Exercise-IV Level-I

Ques.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Ans.

A

B

D

C

B

A

C

B

D

D

A

B

C

Level-II

Ques.

1

Ans. A,B,D

2

3

4

5

6

B

D

A,C,D

A

A, C, D

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130

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

Page # 131

SALT ANALYSIS Qualitative analysis involves indentification of ions (cations and anion) of a salt or a misture of salts through their characteristic reactions. The process involves. (i) Analysis of anions and (ii) Analysis of cations. ANALYSIS OF ANIONS (ACIDIC RADICALS) Group I Anions which liberate gases with dil. HCl or dil. H2SO4 (CO32–, HCO3–, SO32–, S2–, S2O32–, NO2–) H

CO

2– 3

+

Ca(OH)3

CO2

BaCl2

CaCO3

CO 2 (excess)

CaCO3

(excess)

(white)

Ca(HCO3)2

CaCO3

Ca(HCO3)2

CaCO3

(soluble)

(white ppt)

BaCO3 (white)

AgNO3

Ag2CO3 (white)

H

+

Ca(OH)2

CO2

(white)

CO2

(soluble)

(white ppt)



HCO3

CaCl2 in cold H

Ca(HCO3) 2

CaCO3 (white ppt)

(soluble)

+

2–

Cr 2O7 /H

SO2

+

Green

– MnO4

/H

+

Decolourise

Ca(OH)3

2–

SO3

CaSO3

SO2 (excess)

(white ppt)

AgNO3

Ag2SO3

AgNO3 (excess)

(white ppt)

Ca(HSO3)2 (soluble)

CaCO3 (white ppt)

Na[AgSO3] (soluble)

+

H

NO

[HNO2]

NO2 (brown)

– 2

FeSO4 + H2SO4 AgNO 3

[Fe(H2O)5NO]SO4 (brown ring)

AgNO2 (white ppt.)

H

+

H2S

(CH 3COO) 2Pb 2–

+

Cr2O 7 |H | –

MnO4 |H

2–

S

Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]

PbS (black ppt.)

Green

+

Decolourise

Na4[Fe(CN)5(NOS)] (Violet)

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

H

+

2–

S + SO2

+

Cr2O7 |H

(turbidity)



MnO 4|H

Green +

Decolourise

Ca(OH)2

2–

S2O3

SO2 (white ppt.)

AgNO3

AgNO3

Ag2S2O 3

Ca(HSO3)2

(white ppt.)

(soluble)

Na 3[Ag(S 2O 3)2]

(excess)

(white ppt.)

(excess)

(soluble)

Group II: Gases or acid vapours evolved with conc. H2SO4 (Cl–.Br–.I–,NO–3 )

Conc. H2SO4

NH4OH (pungent)

White fumes of NH4Cl KI + starch

Blue

MnO2 + H2SO4 (yellowish green)

Cl–

Moist litmus paper AgNO3

NH4OH (white)

Bleached

[Ag(NH3)2] Cl (soluble)

K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4

NaOH (red)

Conc. H2 SO4

Na2CrO4

CH3COOH + (CH3COO)2Pb

(yellow solution)

(yellow ppt.)

Br2 (Brown)

MnO2 + H2 SO4

Br

Br2

starch paper

Orange red



AgNO3

AgBr

Partially soluble in NH4OH

(yellow) K2 Cr2 O7 + H2 SO4

Conc. H2SO4

CCl4 layer turns brown due to evolution of Br2

NO2 (Brown)

NO3–

Cu + H2SO4

FeSO4 + H 2SO 4

NO2

[Fe(H2O)5NO]SO4 (Brown ring)

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

Page # 133

Conc. H2SO 4

I2 (violet)

MnO2 + H2SO 4

I2

AgNO 3



I

Insoluble in NH 4OH

AgI (yellow)

CCl4 + Cl2(H2O)

CCl4 layer turns violet due to evolution of I2

HgCl2

HgI2 (scarlet ppt.)

KI (excess)

K2[HgI4] (soluble)

Group III : Anions which do not liberate any gas with dil HCl or conc. H2SO4. They are detected by precipitation (SO42–, PO43–). BaCl2

BaSO4

insoluble in HNO3

(White ppt.)

AgNO3

2–

SO3

Ag 2SO4 (White ppt.)

(CH3COO)2Pb

PbSO4 (White ppt.)

MgCl2 + NH4Cl + NH4OH (Magnesia mixture)

Mg(NH4) PO4 (White ppt.)

PO3– 4

(NH4 )2 [MoO4 ] (Ammonium molybdate)

(NH4)3[PO4(MoO3)12 (yellow ppt.)

ANALYSIS OF CATIONS (BASIC RADICALS) Group I 2+

Ag+, Hg2 ,Pb

2+

dil. HCl AgCl, Hg2Cl 2,PbCl2(All white ppt.) hot water Residue

Filterate

AgCl, Hg2Cl 2 Residue

Hg+Hg(NH2Cl) Black

NH4OH

PbCl2 Filterate

Ag(NH3)2Cl

K2CrO4

KI

dil. H2 SO4

PbCrO4

PbI2

PbSO4

(yellow ppt.)

(yellow ppt.)

(white ppt.)

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Group II +2

2+

3+

2+

2+

2+

4+

3+

Hg , Pb , Bi ,Cu , Cd ,Sn ,Sn ,As ,Sb

3+

dil. HCl + H2S HgS, PbS, CuS, Bi2S3, SnS, CdS, SnS2, As2S3, Sb2S3 Brown

Black

Orange

Yellow

Yellow ammonium sulphide, (NH4)2S2

Residue

Filterate

HgS, PbS, CuS, Bi2S3 CdS

(NH4)3AsS4, (NH4)3SbS4, (NH4) 2SnS3

Group II(A)

Group II(B)

Group II(A) HgS, PbS, Bi2S3, CuS, CdS Residue

dil. HNO3

Filterate

2+

HgS Dissolve in aqua regia and add SnCl2

White ppt. turning grey Hg2Cl2 Hg

3+

2+

2+

Nitrates of Pb , Bi ,Cu , Cd

(Black)

dil. H2SO4

Residue

Filterate

3+

PbSO4

2+

Sulphates of Bi , Cu , Cd

2+

(White)

NH4OH(excess) Residue

Filterate

Bi(OH) 3

[Cu(NH3)4SO 4, [Cd(NH3)4]SO4

(White)

(Blue) If solution is blue

K4[Fe(CN)6] + CH3COOH

Cu2[Fe(CN)6 (chocolate brown ppt.)

Add KCN until blue colour is discharged.Pass H2S gas

(Colourless) If colurless, Cu is absent. Acidify with CH3COOH and pass H2S gas

CdS

CdS

(yellow ppt.)

(yellow ppt.)

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

Page # 135

Group II(B) (NH4)3AsS4, (NH4)3SbS4,(NH4)3SnS3 dil. HNO3 until acidci

As2S5, Sb2S5, SnS2 (yellow)

(orange)

(yellow)

Boil with conc. HCl Residue

Filterate

As2S5

SbCl3, SnCl4

Dissolve in conc. HNO3, add NH4OH (excess) + magnesia mixuture Add NH4OH until alkaline, oxalic acid and pass H2S

Mg(NH4)AsO4

Add Fe to reduce SnCl4 to SnCl2 and filter into HgCl2

(White ppt.)

Sb2S3

White ppt. turning grey

(Orange ppt.)

Group III 3+

3+

3+

Al , Cl , Fe

Add NH4 Cl (solid) and NH4 OH (excess)

Al(OH)3, Cr(OH)3, Fe(OH)3 (White ppt.)

(Green ppt.)

(Brown ppt.)

Add H2O + Na2O2 Residue

Filterate

Fe(OH)3

Na2CrO4,

(Brown)

(Yellow)

Dissolve in dil HCl K4[Fe(CN)6

Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (Prussian blue)

NaAlO2 (Colourless)

If yellow

KCNS

Fe(CNS)3 (Blood red)

Add CH3COOH (excess) + (CH3COO)2Pb

Acidify with HCl and add NH4OH in excess

If colourless,Cr is absent. Acidify with HCl and add NH4OH in excess.

PbCrO4

Al(OH)3

Al(OH)3

(Yellow ppt.)

(White gelatinous ppt.)

(White ppt.)

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Group IV 2+

2+

2+

Ni , CO , Mn , Zn

2+

NH4 Cl (solid) + NH4 OH (excess) + H2 S gas

NiS, CoS (black ppt.)

MnS,

ZnS

(Buff ppt.) dil. HCl

(White ppt.)

Residue

Filterate

NiS, CoS

MnCl2, ZnCl 2

(Brown)

Boil off H2S and add NaOH in excess

dissolve in aqua regia Add NH4Cl and NH4OH until alkaline + DMG

Add CH3COOH+ +KNO2

Add amyl alcohol +NH4CNS Blue colour in amyl alcohol layer due to (NH4)2[CO(CNS) 4

Residue

K3[Co(NO2)6

Ni(DMG)2

(yellow ppt.)

(red ppt.)

Filterate

(white ppt.)

(white ppt.)

Group V Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+ NH4Cl (solid) + NH4OH (excess) + (NH4)2CO3

BaCO3, CaCO3, SrCO3 All white ppt. Dissolve the ppt. in CH3COOH and add K2CrO4 Filterate

Residue

Add NH4OH until alkaline + (NH4) 2CO3

BaCrO4

SrCO3, CaCO3

(yellow)

(white ppt.) Dissolve ppt. in CH3COOH Add NH4OH until alkaline + (NH4) 2SO4 Residue

Filterate

Ca2+

SrSO4 (white)

Add NH4OH + (NH4)2 C2O 4 (white ppt)

CaC2O4

Group VI +

NH4 Heat with NaOH

NH 3 gas is evolved

Add KOH + K2 [HgI4]

H 2N–Hg–O–Hg–I (Brown ppt.)

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

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Principles of qualitative analysis group I to V excluding interfering radicals. The detection of cations (basic radicals)and anions(acidic radicals) in a salt or in a mixture is known as Qualitative Analysis. Some Important Observations during Qualitative Analysis 1.

List of different coloured salts

2.

Action of Heat (Colour of Residue)

3.

Gases

4.

Flame Test

Classification Of Anions Methods available for the detection of anions are not as systematic as those used for the detection of cations. Furthermore anions are classified essentially on the basis of process employed.

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Class A: Includes anions that are identified by volatile products obtained on treatment with acids.It is further divided into two sub groups. (i) Gases evolved with dil HCl/ dil H2SO4. (ii) Gases or acid vapours evolved with conc H2SO4 Class B: Includes anions that are identified by their reactions in solution. It is subdivided into two groups: (i) Precipitation reactions (ii) Oxidation and reduction in solution Class A (i): Anions which evolve gases on reaction with dil. HCl/dil. H2SO4. It includes - CO32-, SO32-, S2-, NO2-, CH3COO-, S2O321.

Carbonate (CO32- ) : (i) Dilute HCl : gives effervescence, due to the evolution of carbon dioxide CO32- + 2H+  CO2 + H2O The gas gives white turbidity with lime water and baryta water CO2 + Ca2+ + 2OH-  CaCO3  + H2O CO2 + Ba2+ + 2OH-  BaCO3  + H2O On prolonged passage of carbon dioxide in lime water, the turbidity slowly disappears due to the formation of soluble hydrogen carbonate. CaCO3  + CO2 + H2O  Ca(HCO3)2 The following tests performed with then aqueous salts solution. (ii) Barium chloride or Calcium chloride solution: White ppt of barium or Calcium carbonate is obtained, which is soluble in mineral acid. CO32- + Ba2+  BaCO3  CO32- + Ca2+  CaCO3  (iii) Silver nitrate solution : White ppt of silver carbonate is obtained. CO32- + 2Ag+  Ag2CO3 The ppt so obtained is soluble in nitric acid and in ammonia, the ppt becomes yellow or brown on addition of excess reagent and same may also be happened if the mix is boiled, due to the formation of silver oxide Ag2CO3  Ag2O  + CO2 

2.

Sulphites (SO32-): (i) Dilute HCl or Dilute H2SO4 : decomposes with the evolution of sulphur dioxide SO32- + 2H+  SO2 + H2O The gas has a suffocating odour of burning sulphur. (ii) Acidified potassium dichromate solution: The gas turns filter paper moistened with acidified potassium dichromate solution, green due to the formation of Cr3+ions. SO2 + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4  K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + H2O green (iii) Lime water : On passing the gas through lime water, a milky ppt is formed. SO2 + Ca(OH)2  CaSO3  + H2O milky Precipitate dissolves on prolonged passage of the gas, due to the formation of soluble hydrogen sulphite ions. CaSO3  + SO2 + H2O  Ca(HSO3)2. Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

Page # 139

(iv) Barium chloride or Strontium chloride solution : Salt solutions gives white ppt of barium or strontium sulphite.

SO23   Ba 2   BaSO3  SO23   Sr 2   SrSO3  3.

Sulphide (S-2) : (i) Dil HCl or Dil H2SO4 : A colourless gas with a smell of rotten eggs (H2S) is evolved S2- + 2H+  H2S (ii) The gas turns lead acetate paper black (CH3COO)2Pb + H2S  PbS  + 2CH3COOH black (iii) Salt solution gives yellow ppt. with CdCl2 Na2S + CdCl2  CdS + 2NaCl yellow (iv) acid.

Silver nitrate solution : black ppt. of silver sulphide insoluble in cold but soluble in hot dil nitric S2- + 2Ag+  Ag2S 

(v)

Sodium nitroprusside solution : Turns sodium nitroprusside solution purple Na2S + Na2[Fe(CN)5NO]  Na4[Fe(CN)5NOS]

4.

Nitrites (NO2-) : (i) Dil HCl and Dil. H2SO4: Adding to solid nitrite in cold yield pale blue liquid (due to the presence of free nitrous acid HNO2 or its anhydride N2O3) & the evolution of brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide, the latter being largely produced by combination of nitric oxide with the oxygen of the air NO2- + H+  HNO2 2HNO2

 H2O + N2O3

3HNO2

 HNO3 + 2NO + H2O

2NO + O2  2NO2 Following tests performed with an aqueous salt solution. (ii)

Silver nitrate solution : White crystalline ppt. is obtained NO2- + Ag+  AgNO2

(iii)

Turns acidified KI - starch paper blue 2KI + 2NO2  2KNO2 + I2  Starch + I2  Blue Colour

5.

(iv) Brown ring test: When the nitrite solution is added carefully to a conc. solution of Iron(II) sulphate acidified with dil acetic acid or with dilute sulphuric acid, a brown ring, due to the formation of [Fe,NO]SO4 at the junction of the two liquids. NO2- + CH3COOH  HNO2 + CH3COO3HNO2  H2O + HNO3 + 2NO Fe2+ + SO42- + NO  [Fe, NO]SO4. Acetate (CH3COO-) : (i) Dilute Sulphuric Acid: Smell of vinegar CH3COO- + H+  CH3COOH  : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Iron (III) Chloride Solution: Gives deep - red colouration CH3COONa + FeCl3  (CH3COO)3Fe + 3NaCl Brown colour

6.

Thiosulphates ( S 2 O 2 ): 3 (i)

Dil Hydrochloric acid : Gives sulphur & sulphur di oxide S2O 23  + 2H+  S  + SO2 + H2O

(ii)

Iodine Solution : Decolourise due to formation of tetrathionate ion I2 + 2S2O 23   2I- + S4O62-

(iii)

Barium chloride solution : White ppt. of barium thiosulphate is formed S2O 23  + Ba2+  BaS2O3  But no ppt. is obtained with CaCl2 solution.

(iv)

Silver nitrate solution : Gives white ppt. of silver thiosulphate. S2O 23  + 2Ag+  Ag2S2O3  The ppt. is unstable, turning dark on standing, due to the formation of silver sulphide. Ag2S2O3 + H2O  Ag2S + H2SO4

(v)

Lead acetate or Lead nitrate solution : Gives white ppt.

S 2 O 23  + Pb2+  PbS2O3  On boiling it turns black due to the formation of PbS. PbS2O3  + H2O  PbS  + 2H+ + SO42Class A(ii):

Gases or acid vapours evolved with conc. Sulphuric acid It includes - Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-.

1.

Chloride (Cl-) : (i)

Conc. H2SO4 : decomposes with the evolution of HCl. Cl- + H2SO4  HCl + HSO 4

Gas so produced 1. Turns blue litmus paper red 2. Gives white fumes of NH4Cl when a glass rod moistened with ammonia solution is brought to the mouth of test tube. (ii) Manganese dioxide and conc. sulphuric acid: When a solid chloride is treated with MnO2 and conc. H2SO4, yellowish green colour is obtained. MnO2 + 2H2SO4 + 2Cl-  Mn2+ + Cl2 + 2SO42- + 2H2O The following tests are performed with the salt solution. (iii) Silver nitrate solution: White, curdy ppt. of AgCl insoluble in water & in dil nitric acid, but soluble in dilute ammonia solution. Cl- + Ag+  AgCl  AgCl  + 2NH3  [Ag(NH3)2]Cl Ag(NH3)2Cl + 2H+  AgCl + 2NH4+. (iv)

Lead acetate solution: White ppt. of lead chloride is formed 2Cl- + Pb+2  PbCl2 

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

Page # 141

(v) Chromyl chloride test : When a mix containing chloride ion is heated with K2Cr2O7 and conc. H2SO4 orange red fumes of chromyl chloride (CrO2Cl2) are formed. K2Cr2O7 + 4NaCl + 6H2SO4  2KHSO4 + 4NaHSO4 + 2CrO2Cl2  + 3H2O orange – red fumes Chlorides of mercury, owing to their slight ionization, do not respond to this test and only partial conversion to CrO2Cl2 occurs with the chlorides of lead, silver, antimony and tin. When chromyl chloride vapours are passed into sodium hydroxide a yellow solution of sodium chromate is formed which when treated with lead acetate gives yellow ppt. of lead chromate. CrO2Cl2 + 2NaOH  Na2CrO4 + 2HCl Yellow solution Na2CrO4 + (CH3COO)2 Pb  2CH3COONa + PbCrO4  (yellow ppt.) 2.

Bromide (Br ) -

(i)

Conc. H2SO4 : Gives reddish brown vapours of bromine. 2KBr + H2SO4  K2SO4 + 2HBr 2HBr + H2SO4  2H2O + SO2  + Br2 (reddish brown)

(ii) Manganese dioxide and conc. sulphuric acid : When a mix of solid bromide, MnO2 and conc. H2SO4 is heated reddish brown vapours of bromine are evolved. 2KBr + MnO2 + 2H2SO4  Br2  + K2SO4 + MnSO4 + 2H2O The following tests are performed with the salt solution. (iii) Silver nitrate solution: A pale yellow ppt. of silver bromide is obtained. This ppt. is sparingly soluble in dil but readily soluble in conc. ammonia solution and insoluble in dil. HNO3. Br- + Ag+  AgBr (iv) Lead acetate solution: White crystalline ppt. of lead bromide which is soluble in boiling water. 2Br- + Pb+2  PbBr2  (v) Chlorine water: When this solution is added to a solution of bromide and chloroform free brom i ne is l i b erat ed , whi c h col ours the organi c l aye r orange – red. 2KBr + Cl2 (water)  2KCl + Br2 Br2 + Chloroform  Orange red colour (vi) Potassium dichromate & conc. H2SO4: When a mix of solid bromide, K2Cr2O7, and conc. H2SO4 is heated and passing the evolved vapours into water, a yellowish brown solution is obtained. 2KBr + K2Cr2O7 + 7H2SO4  3Br2  + Cr2(SO4)3 + 4K2SO4 + 7H2O. 3.

Iodide (I-) : (i)

Conc. H2SO4 : Gives violet vapours of iodine 2I- + 2H2SO4  I2 + SO42- + 2H2O + SO2  violet vapours

The following tests are performed with the salt solution. (ii) Silver nitrate solution: Yellow, curdy ppt. of silver iodide AgI, very slightly soluble in conc. ammonia solution and insoluble in dil nitric acid. I- + Ag+  AgI : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY (iii) Lead acetate solution: Yellow, curdy ppt. of lead iodide soluble in much hot water forming a colourless solution & yielding golden yellow plates (spangles) on cooling. 2I- + Pb2+  PbI2 (iv)

Potassium dichromate & conc. sulphuric acid: Iodine is liberated 6I- + Cr2O72- + 2H2SO4  3I2  + 2Cr3+ + 7SO42- + 7H2O.

(v) Chlorine water: Iodine is liberated, by the dropwise addition of chlorine water to iodide, and on addition of CHCl3 violet coloured organic layer is obtained. 2I- + Cl2  I2 + 2ClI2 + chloroform  violet coloured layer. (vi) Copper sulphate solution: Gives brown ppt. consisting of a mixture of copper (I) iodide & i odi ne and on ad di ton of hyp o sol uti on b rown p pt c hang es to white ppt. 4I- + 2Cu2+  2CuI + I2 I2 + 2S2O32-  2I- + S4O62-. v(ii)

Mercury (II) chloride solution: Forms scarlet ppt. of HgI2 2I- + HgCl2  HgI2  + 2Cl-. This ppt. dissolves in excess of KI, forming tetraiodo mercurate (II) complex. HgI2 + 2I-  [HgI4]2-

4.

Nitrate (NO3- ) : (i)

Conc H2SO4 : Gives reddish - brown vapours of nitrogen dioxide 4NO3- + 2H2SO4  4NO2 + 2SO42- + 2H2O + O2 The following tests are performed with the salt solution.

(ii) Brown ring test : When a freshly prepared solution of iron (II) sulphate is added to nitrate solution & conc. H2SO4 is poured slowly down the side of the test - tube, a brown ring is obtained. 2NO3- + 4H2SO4 + 6Fe2+  6Fe3+ +2NO + 4SO4- + 4H2O Fe2+ + NO  [Fe(NO)]2+ On shaking and warming the mix, the brown colour disappears, nitric oxide is evolved and a yellow solution of Iron(III) ions remains. Action of heat : The result varies with the metal 1. Nitrates of sodium and potassium evolve oxygen (test with glowing splint) & leave solid nitrites (brown fumes with dilute acid) 2NaNO3  2NaNO2 + O2. 2. Ammonium nitrate yields dinitrogen oxide & steam NH4NO3  N2O  + 2H2O. 3. Nitrates of the noble metals leave a residue of the metal and a mix of nitrogen dioxide and oxygen is evolved. 2AgNO3  2Ag + 2NO2  + O2. 4. Nitrates of other metals, such as those of lead and copper, evolve oxygen and nitrogen dioxide and leave a residue of the oxide. 2Pb(NO3)2  2PbO + 4NO2 + O2. Class B

(i)

Precipitation reaction : SO42-

(ii)

Oxidation and reduction in solution - CrO42 - ,Cr2O 72 , MnO4-

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY 1. Sulphate (SO42-):

Page # 143

All sulphates except those of Ba, Pb, Sr are soluble in water. Sulphates of calcium and mercury(II) are slightly soluble. The following tests are performed with the salt solution. (i) Barium chloride solution: White ppt. of barium sulphate BaSO4 insoluble in warm dil. hydrochloric acid and in dilute nitric acid, but moderately soluble in boiling, conc. hydrochloric acid. SO42- + Ba2+  BaSO4  (ii)

Mercury (II) nitrate solution : Gives yellow ppt. of basic mercury (II) sulphate. SO42- + 3Hg2+ + 2H2O  HgSO4.2HgO  + 4H+

2.

Chromate CrO42 -and Dichromate (Cr2O 72 ) : Metallic chromates gives yellow solution when dissolved in water. In the presence of H+ chromates are converted into dichromates (orange-red solution). 2CrO 42 + 2H+

Cr2O 72 + H2O

Cr2O 72 + 2OH-

2CrO 42 + H2O

It may also be expressed as : 2CrO 42 + 2H+

2HCrO4-

Cr2O7-2 + H2O

(i) Barium chloride solution: Pale - yellow ppt. of barium chromate soluble in dilute mineral acids but insoluble in water and acetic acid. CrO 42 + Ba2+  BaCrO4  Dichromate ions also gives the same ppt. but due to the formation of strong acid precipitation is partial. Cr2O 72 + 2Ba2+ + H2O

2 BaCrO4  + 2H+

If sodium hydroxide or sodium acetate is added, precipitation becomes quantitative. (ii) Silver nitrate solution: Brownish - red ppt. of silver chromate Ag2CrO4 which is soluble in dil. nitric acid & in ammonia solution, but is insoluble in acetic acid. CrO42- + 2Ag+  Ag2CrO4  2 Ag2CrO4 + 2H+  4 Ag+ + Cr2O72- + H2O Ag2CrO4  + 4NH3  2[Ag(NH3)2]+ + CrO42Ag2CrO4  + 2Cl-  2AgCl + CrO42A reddish brown ppt. of silver dichromate Ag2Cr2O7 dichromate.

is formed with a conc. solution of a

Cr2O72- + 2Ag+  Ag2Cr2O7 (iii) Lead acetate solution: Yellow ppt. of lead chromate PbCrO4 insoluble in acetic acid, but soluble in dil nitric acid CrO42- + Pb2+  PbCrO4 . 2PbCrO4  + 2H+

2Pb2+ + Cr2O72- + H2O.

(iv) H2O2: If an acidic solution of a chromate is treated with H2O2 a deep blue solution of chromium penta oxide is obtained. CrO42- + 2H+ + 2H2O2  CrO5 + 3H2O : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 144

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY CrO5 is unstable and it decomposes yielding oxygen and a green solution of a Cr+3 Salt.

3.

Permanganate MnO 4 : (i)

Hydrogen peroxide : It decolourises acidified potassium permanganate solution 2MnO4- + 5H2O2 + 6H+  5O2  + 2Mn2+ + 8H2O.

(ii) Iron (II) sulphate, in the presence of sulphuric acid, reduces permanganate to manganese (II). The solution becomes yellow because of the formation of iron (III) ions MnO4- + 5Fe2+ + 8H+  5Fe3+ + Mn2+ + 4H2O (iii) Action of heat : On heating, a residue of potassium manganate K2MnO4 and black manganese dioxide remains behind. Upon extracting with water and filtering, a green solution of potassium manganate is obtained. 2KMnO4  K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2. Exercise 1:

(i)

How to distinguish between CO3  and SO3  ions?

(ii)

A gas turns red litmus paper into blue and forms white fume with HCl, identify the gas

Classification of Cations For the purpose of systematic qualitative analysis, cations are classified into five groups on the basis of their behaviour with some reagents and classification is based on whether a cation reacts with these reagents by the formation of precipitate or not (solubility difference) Group reagent: Hydrocholoric acid, hydrogen sulphide, ammonium sulphide and ammonium carbonate.

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Page # 145 Points to Remember 1. Group I radicals (Ag+, Pb+2 Hg22+) are precipitated as chlorides because the solubility product of these chlorides (AgCl, PbCl2, Hg2Cl2) is less than the solubility products of all other chlorides which remain in solution. 2.

Group II radicals are precipitated as sulphides because sulphides of other metals remain in solution because of their high solubility products, HCl acts as a source of H+ and thus decreases the conc. of S2- due to common ion effect. Hence decreased conc. of S2- is only sufficient to precipitate the Group II radicals only.

3.

Group III A radicals are precipitated as hydroxides and the NH4Cl suppresses the ionisation of NH4OH so that only the group III A radicals are precipitated because of their low solubility product. Note: (i) Excess of NH4Cl should be added otherwise manganese will be ppt. as MnO2.H2O. (ii) (NH4)2SO4 can’t be used in place of NH4Cl because the SO42- will ppt. barium as BaSO4. (iii) NH4NO3 can’t be used in place of NH4Cl because NO3- ions will oxidise Mn2+ to Mn3+ and thus Mn(OH)3 will be precipitated in III A group. (iv) Only Al(OH)3 is soluble in excess of NaOH followed by boiling to form sodium metaluminate while Fe(OH)3 and Cr(OH)3 are insoluble.

4.

Ammonium hydroxide increases the ionisation of H2S by removing H+ from H2S as unionised water H2S 2H+ + S2-. H+ + OH-  H2O Now excess of S2- ions are available and hence the ionic product of hydroxides of Group III B exceed their solubility product and ppt. will be obtained.In case H2S is passed through a neutral solution, incomplete precipitation will take place due to the formation of HCl which decreases the ionization of H2S. MnCl2 + H2S  MnS + 2HCl

Identification of Basic Radicals All confirmatory tests for basic radicals are performed with the salt solution. 1.

Group I (Pb2+, Ag+, Hg+) (a) PbCl2 gives a yellow ppt. with K2CrO4. The ppt. is insoluble in acetic acid but soluble in NaOH Pb(NO3)2 + K2CrO4  PbCrO4  + 2KNO3 Yellow ppt. PbCrO4 + 4NaOH  Na2[PbO2] + Na2CrO4 + 2H2O (b) Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI  PbI2  + 2KNO3 (Yellow) PbCl2 + 2KI (excess)  K2[PbI4]

2.

AgCl is soluble in NH4OH forming a complex while Hg2Cl2 forms a black ppt. with NH4OH. AgCl + 2NH4OH  Ag(NH2)2Cl + 2H2O Hg2Cl2 + 2NH4OH  H2N  Hg  Cl + Hg + NH4Cl + 2H2O Amino mercuric Chloride Group II A (Hg2+, Cu2+, Bi3+, Cd2+)

2.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Hg+2ions in solution, on addition of SnCl2, give white precipitate turning black. 2Hg+2 + SnCl  Sn+4 + Hg2Cl2  White Hg2Cl2 + SnCl2  SnCl4 + 2Hg  Black Cu+2 ions in solution gives a pale blue precipitate which gives a deep blue colour with excess of NH4OH Cu+2 + 4NH4OH  [Cu(NH3)4 ]+2 + 4H2O Deep blue in colour Cu+2 ions give chocolate precipitate with K4Fe(CN)6. 2Cu+2 + K4Fe(CN)6  Cu2[Fe(CN)6] + 4K+ Bi+3 ions in solution of HCl on addition of water give white cloudy precipitate. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 146

3.

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY BiCl3 + H2O  BiOCl  + 2HCl White ppt. When treated with sodium stannite a black ppt. is obtained. 2BiCl3 + 3Na2SnO2  2Bi  + 3Na2SnO3 + 6NaCl + 3H2O black (iv) Cd+2 ions in solution, with ammonium hydroxide gives a white precipitate which dissolves . Cd+2 + 2NH4OH  Cd(OH)2  + 2NH4+ Yellow Cd(OH)2 + 4NH4OH [Cd(NH3 )4] (OH)2 Group II B (As3+, As5+, Sb3+, Sb5+, Sn3+, Sn4+) (v) As+3 ions in solution give yellow precipitate with ammonium molybadate and HNO3. As+3

(vi)

v(ii)

4.

5.

HNO3 As+5 (as H3AsO4 ) Oxidation

H3AsO4 +12(NH4)2MoO4 +21HNO3 (NH4)3 AsMo12O40 + 21NH4NO3 + 12H2O Yellow ppt. Sn2+ ions in solution as SnCl2 give white ppt. with HgCl2 ,which turns black on standing. SnCl2 + 2HgCl2  SnCl4 + Hg2Cl2  White Hg2Cl2 + SnCl2 SnCl4 + 2Hg  Black Sb+3 ions in solution as SbCl3 , on addition of water give white precipitate. SbCl3 + H2O  SbOCl + 2HCI White

Group III A (Al3+, Fe3+, Cr3+) (i)

White precipitate of Al(OH)3 is soluble in NaOH Al(OH)3 + NaOH  NaAlO2 + 2H2O

(ii)

Precipitate of Cr(OH)3 is soluble in NaOH + Br2 water and addition of BaCl2 to this solution gives yellow precipitate. Br2 + H2O  2HBr + (O) 2Cr(OH)3 + 4NaOH + 3(O)  2Na2CrO4 + 5H2O Na2CrO4 + BaCl2  BaCrO4  + 2NaCl Yellow ppt. Fe(OH)3 is insoluble in NaOH

(iii)

Brown precipitate of Fe(OH)3 is dissolved in HCl and addition of KCNS to this solution gives blood red colour. Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl  FeCl3 + 3H2O FeCl3 + 3KCNS  Fe(CNS)3 + 3KCl blood red Also on addition of K4Fe(CN)6 to this solution, a prussian blue colour is obtained. FeCl3 + 3K4Fe(CN)6  Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 + 12KCl prussian blue colour

Group III B (Ni2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) (i)

Ni+2 and Co+2 ions in solution, on addition of KHCO3 and Br2 water give apple green colour if Co+2 is present and black precipitate if Ni+2 is present. CoCl2 + 6KHCO3  K4[Co(CO3)3] + 2KCl + 3CO2 + 3H2O 2K4[Co(CO3)3] + 2KHCO3 + [O]  2K3[Co(CO3)3] + 2K2CO3 + H2O Apple green colour NiCl2 + 2KHCO3  NiCO3 + 2KCl + H2O + CO2 2NiCO3 + 4NaOH + [O]  Ni2O3  + 2Na2CO3 + 2H2O Black ppt.

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Page # 147 +2 (ii) Zn ions in solution give a white precipitate with NaOH, which dissolves in excess of NaOH. Zn+2 + 2NaOH  Zn(OH)2  + 2Na+ White Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH  Na2ZnO2 + 2H2O Soluble (iii)

Mn+2 ions in solution give pink precipitate with NaOH turning black or brown on heating. Mn+2 + 2NaOH Mn(OH)2 + 2Na+ Pink Δ Mn(OH)2 + [O]  MnO2 + H2O Brown or black

6.

Group IV (Ba2+, Sr2+, Ca2+) (i)

Ba+2 ions in solution give

(a)

Yellow precipitate with K2CrO4 Ba+2 + K2CrO4  BaCrO4  + 2K+ Yellow

(b)

White precipitate with (NH4)2SO4 Ba+2 + (NH4)2 SO4  BaSO4 +

2 NH 4

White (c)

White precipitate with (NH4)2 C2O4 Ba+2 + (NH4)2C2O4  BaC2O4 +

2 NH 4

White (ii)

Sr+2 ions give white precipitate with (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)2C2O4 Sr+2 + (NH4)2SO4  SrSO4 +

2 NH 4

White ppt. Sr+2 + (NH4)2C2O4  SrC2O4 +

2 NH 4

White (iii)

Ca+2 ions give white precipitate with (NH4)2 C2O4 only. Ca+2 + (NH4)2C2O4  CaC2O4  +

2 NH 4

White 7.

Group V (NH4+, Na+, K+, Mg+2) (i) NH3).

All ammonium salts on heating with alkali say NaOH give a colourless, pungent smelling gas (

(a)

Gas evolved gives white fumes with a rod dipped in conc. HCl NH3 + HCl  NH4Cl  White fumes

(b)

Paper soaked in CuSO4 solution, becomes deep blue due to complex formation with NH3. CuSO4 + 4NH3  [Cu(NH3)4]SO4 deep blue

(c)

With Hg2 (NO3)2 , a black colour is obtained Hg2(NO3)2 + 2NH3  Hg  + Hg(NH2)NO3  + NH4NO3 black An aqueous solution of an ammonium gives a brown ppt. with Nessler’s reagent(alkaline solution

(d)

NH4Cl

+ NaOH  NaCl + NH3  + H2O

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Page # 148

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY of potassium tetraiodomercurate(II) ). Hg NH2I

NH4Cl + 2K2HgI4 + 3KOH  O

+ 4KI + 2H2O + 3NaI

Hg (Brown) (Iodide of Millon's base)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Potassium salts give a yellow ppt. with sodium cobaltinitrite Na3[Co(NO2)6] + 3KCl  K3[Co(NO2)6] + 3NaCl yellow Sodium salts give a heavy white ppt. with potassium dihydrogen antimonate KH2SbO4 + NaCl  NaH2SbO4  + KCl White ppt. Mg2+ gives white ppt. of magnesium hydroxide with sodium hydroxide Mg2+ + 2NH3 + 2H2O  Mg(OH)2  + 2NH4+ The ppt. obtained is sparingly soluble in water but readily soluble in ammonium salt.

Problem 1: An aqueous solution of gas (X) shows the following reactions :(i) It turns red litmus blue. (ii) When added in excess to a copper sulphate solution, a deep blue colour is obtained. (iii) On addition of FeCl3 solution a brown ppt. soluble in dilute nitric acid is obtained. Identify (X) and give equations for the reactions at step (ii) & (iii) Solution: X - NH3 Reactions : (i) CuSO4 + 4NH4OH  Cu(NH3)4 SO4 + H2O deep blue (ii) FeCl3 + 3NH4OH  Fe(OH)3  + 3NH4Cl brown ppt. Fe(OH)3 + 3HNO3  Fe(NO3)3 + 3H2O Soluble Problem 2: An aqueous solution of a gas (X) gives the following reactions: (i) It decolourizes an acidified K2Cr2O7 solution. (ii) On boiling with H2O2 , cooling it and then adding an aqueous solution of BaCl2, a white ppt. insoluble in dilute HCl is obtained. (iii) On passing H2S into the solution, turbidity is obtained. Identify (X) and give equations for the steps (i), (ii), (iii) . Solution: X - SO2 Reactions : (i) K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4 + 3SO2  K2SO4 + Cr2 (SO3 )3 + H2O (ii) SO2 + H2O2  H2SO4 H2SO4 + BaCl2  BaSO4  + 2HCl white ppt. (iii) SO2 + 2H2S  3S + 2H2O white turbidity Problem 3: A white amorphous powder (A) on strongly heating gives a colourless non-combustible gas (B) and solid (C). The gas (B) turns lime water milky and turbidity disappears with the passage of excess of gas.The solution of (C) in dilute HCl gives a white ppt. with an aqueous solution of K4[Fe(CN)6]. The solution of (A) in dilute HCl gives a white ppt. (D) on passing H2S in presence of excess of NH4OH. Identify (A) to (D) by giving chemical equations. Solution: (A) - ZnCO3 (B) - CO2 (C) - ZnO (D) - ZnS Reactions : (i) ZnCO3  ZnO + CO2 (A) (C) (B) (ii) CO2 + Ca(OH)2  CaCO3 + H2O (B) White CaCO3 + H2O + CO2  Ca(HCO3)2 Excess Soluble Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Page # 149 (iii) ZnO + 2HCl  ZnCl2 + H2O 2ZnCl2 + K4Fe(CN)6  Zn2[Fe(CN)6] + 4KCl White ppt. (iv) ZnCl2 + H2S  ZnS + 2HCl (D) Problem 4: A certain compound (X) is used in laboratory for analysis. Its aq. solution gave the following reactions. (i) On addition to copper sulphate solution, a brown ppt. is obtained which turns white on addition of excess of Na2S2O3 solution. (ii) On addition to Ag+ ion solution, a yellow ppt. is obtained which is insoluble in NH4OH. Identify (X), giving reactions Solution: X - KI Reactions : (i) 2CuSO4 + 2KI  2CuI2 + K2SO4 2CuI2  Cu2I2 + I2 white I2 + 2Na2S2O3  Na2S4O6 + 2NaI (ii) Ag+ + KI  AgI + K+ Yellow ppt. The white ppt. of Cu2I2 is coloured brown due to the presence of I2. On adding sodium thiosulphate, I2 is consumed. Therefore the ppt. appears white. Problem 5: An aqueous solution of inorganic compound (X) gives the following reactions: (i) With an aq. solution of barium chloride a ppt. insoluble in dil. HCl is obtained. (ii) Addition of excess of KI gives a brown ppt. which turns white on addition of excess of hypo. (iii) With an aqueous solution of K4[Fe(CN)6] a chocolate coloured ppt. is obtained. Identify (X) and give equations for the reactions for (i), (ii) and (iii) observations. Solution: X - CuSO4 Reactions : (i) CuSO4 + BaCl2  BaSO4 + CuCl2 White ppt. (insoluble in HC(I) (ii) 2CuSO4 + 4KI  2CuI2 + 2K2SO4  Cu2I2 + I2 I2 + Na2S2O3  Na2S4O6 + 2NaI (iii) CuSO4 + K4[Fe(CN)6]  Cu2 [Fe(CN)6] + 2 K2SO4 Chocolate Coloured ppt. Problem 6: An aq. solution of an inorganic compound (X) shows the following reactions. (i) It d ec ol or iz es a n ac id if ie d KM nO 4 solu ti on a cc ompa ni ed with ev ol ution of O2. (ii) It liberates I2 from acidified KI solution. (iii) It gives brown ppt. with alkaline KMnO4 solution with evolution of O2. (iv) It is used to restore old oil paintings. Identify (X) and give chemical reactions for the steps (i) to (iv). Solution: X - H2O2 Reactions: (i) 5H2O2+2KMnO4+3H2SO4 K2SO4+2MnSO4+8H2O +5O2 (ii) H2O2 + 2KI + H2SO4  I2 + K2SO4 + 2H2O (iii) 3H2O2 + 2KMnO4  2MnO2  + 2KOH + 3O2 + 2H2O (iv) 4H2O2 + PbS  PbSO4 + 4H2O white Problem 7: A certain compound (X) shows the following reactions : (i) When KI is added to an aq. suspension of (X) containing acetic acid, iodine is liberated (ii) When CO2 is passed through an aq. suspension of (X) the turbidity transforms to a ppt. (iii) When a paste of (X) in water is heated with ethyl alcohol a product of anaesthetic use is obtained. : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 150

SALT ANALYSIS THEORY

Identify (X) and write down chemical equations for reactions involved in steps (i), (ii) and (iii) Solution: X - CaOCl2 Reactions: (i)CaOCl2 +2CH3COOH  Ca(CH3COO)2 + Cl2 + H2O 2KI + Cl2  2KCl + I2 (ii) CaOCl2(aq) + CO2  CaCO3 + Cl2 white ppt. (iii) CaOCl2 + H2O  Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 C2H5OH + Cl2  CH3CHO + 2HCI Ca( OH )2 CH3CHO + 3Cl2  CCl3CHO    CHCl3

Anaesthetic Problem 8: An inorganic Lewis acid (X) shows the following reactions : (i) It fumes in moist air. (ii) The intensity of fumes increases when a rod dipped in NH4OH is brought near it. (iii) An acidic solution of (X) on addition of NH4Cl and NH4OH gives a precipitate which dissolves in NaOH solution. (iv) An acidic solution of (X) does not give a precipitate with H2S. Identify (X) and give chemical equation for steps (i) to (iii) . Solution: X - AlCl3 Reactions : (i) AlCl3 + 3H2O  Al(OH)3 + 3HCl  fumes (ii) HCl + NH4OH  NH4Cl + H2O White fumes (iii) AlCl3 + 3NH4OH  Al(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl White ppt. Al(OH)3 + NaOH  NaAlO2 + 2H2O Soluble Problem 9: (i) A black mineral (A) on treatment with dilute sodium cyanide solution in presence of air gives a clear solution of (B) and (C). (ii) The solution of (B) on reaction with zinc gives a precipitate of metal (D). (iii) (D) is dissolved in dil. HNO3 and the resulting solution gives a white precipitate (E) with dil. HCl. (iv) (E) on fusion with sodium carbonate gives (D). (v) (E) dissolves in aqueous solution of ammonia giving a colourless solution of (F). Identify (A) to (F) and give chemical equations for reactions involved in steps (i) to (v). Solution: (A) - Ag2S (B) - NaAg(CN)2 (C) - Na2SO4 (D) Ag (E) AgCl (F) - Ag(NH3)2Cl Reactions : (i) Ag2S + 4NaCN+2O2  2NaAg(CN)2 + Na2SO4 (A) (B) (C) (ii) 2NaAg(CN)2 + Zn  Na2Zn(CN)4 + 2Ag (D) (iii) 3Ag + 4HNO3  3AgNO3 + NO + 2H2O HCl (iv) AgNO3  AgCl + HNO3 (v) AgCl + 2NH3  Ag(NH3)2Cl (E) (F) (vi) 4AgCl + 2Na2CO3  4Ag + 4NaCl + 2CO2 + O2

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SALT ANALYSIS THEORY Page # 151 Problem 10: A solid laboratory reagent (A) gives the following reactions. (i) It imparts green colour to flame. (ii) Its solution does not give ppt. on passing H2S. (iii) When it is heated with K2Cr2O7 and conc. H2SO4 a red gas is evolved. The gas when passed in aq. NaOH solution turns it yellow. Identify (A) giving chemical reactions. Solution: A - BaCl2 Reactions : (i) 2BaCl2 + K2Cr2O7 + 3H2SO4 K2SO4 + 2CrO2Cl2 + 2BaSO4 + 3H2O red gas (ii) CrO2Cl2 + 4NaOH  Na2CrO4 + 2NaCl + 2H2O yellow solution Problem 11: NH4SCN can be used to test one or more out of Fe3+, Co2+ , Cu2+ (A) Fe3+ only (B) Co2+, Cu2+ (C) Fe3+, Cu2+ (D) All Solution: (D)

Problem 12: Ag2S is soluble in NaCN due to formation of (A) Na[Ag(CN)2] (B) Ag(CN)2 (C) Na2Ag(CN)3 Solution: (A)

(D) Na2[Ag(CN)2]

Problem 13: There is foul smell in presence of moisture with (A) AlCl3 (B) Al2(SO4)3 (C) FeS Solution: (C)

(D) FeSO4

Problem 14: AgNO3 on treatment with hypo gives white ppt. changing to black after some time. Black ppt. is (A) Ag2S2O3 (B) Ag2SO4 (C) Ag2S4O6 (D) Ag2S Solution: (D) Problem 15: Yellow coloured solution of FeCl3 changes to light green when (A) SnCl2 is added (B) Zn is added (C) H2S gas is passed (D) Any one of the above is added. Solution: (D) Problem 16: Fe(OH)3 and Cr(OH)3 precipitate are separated by (A) [Ag(NH3)2]+ (B) HCl (C) NaOH/H2O2 Solution: (C)

(D) H2SO4

Problem 17: Evolution of deep red vapours when an inorganic salt is mixed with powdered K2Cr2O7 and heated with conc. H2SO4 confirms the presence of a (A) chloride (B) fluoride (C) borate (D) phosphate Solution: (A) Problem 18: Which of the following would enable you to remove SO42– ions from a mixture of SO42,C2O42- and Cl– ions? (A) NaOH (B) KOH (C) Ba(OH)2 (D) BaSO4 Solution: (C) Problem 19: Which of the following sulphates is insoluble in water? (A) CuSO4 (B) CdSO4 (C) PbSO4 (D) Solution: (C)

Bi(SO4)3

Problem 20: A fire work gave bright crimson light. It probably contained a salt of (A) Ca (B) Sr (C) Ba (D) Mg Solution: (B)

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Page # 152

EXERCISE – I 1.

SALT ANALYSIS

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

In the precipitation of the iron group in qualitative analysis, ammonium chloride is added before adding ammonium hydroxide to(A) decrease concentration of OH– ions. (B) prevent interference by phosphate ions (C) increase concentration of Cl– ions. (D) increase concentration of NH4+ ions.

6.

Nessler’s reagent is(A) K2HgI4 (C) K2HgI2 + KOH

(B) K2HgI4 + KOH (D) K2HgI4+ KI

Sol.

Sol. 7.

2.

A salt gives violet vapours when treated with conc. H2SO4, it contains. (A) Cl– (B) I– (C) Br– (D) NO3–

When bismuth chloride is poured into a large volume of water the white precipitate produced is(A) Bi(OH)3 (B) Bi2O3 (C) BiOCl (D) Bi2OCl3

Sol.

Sol. 8.

3.

The acidic solution of a salt produced a deep blue colour with starch iodide solution. The salt may be(A) chloride (B) nitrite (C) acetate (D) bromide

Sol.

Ferric ion forms a prussian blue coloured ppt. of(A) K4[Fe(CN)6] (B) Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (C) KMnO4 (D) Fe(OH)3

Sol.

9.

A mixture, on heating with conc. H2SO4 and MnO2, librates brown vapour o(A) Br2 (B) NO2 (C) HBr (D) I2

Sol.

4.

When a mixture of solid NaCl, solid K2Cr2O7 is heated with conc. H2SO4, orange red vapours are obtained. These are of the compound. (A) chromous chloride (B) chromyl chloride (C) chromic chloride (D) chromic sulphate

Sol.

5.

Sol.

Which of the following pairs of ions would be expected to form precipitate when dilute solution are mixed? (A) Na+, SO42– (B) NH4+, CO32– + 2– (C) Na , S2 (D) Fe3+, PO43–

10. Which one of the following can be used in place of NH4Cl for the identification of the third group radicals? (A) NH4NO3 (B) (NH4)2SO4 (C) (NH4)2S (D) (NH4)2CO3 Sol.

11. At the occasion of marriage, the fire works are used, which of the following gives green flame? (A) Ba (B) K (C) Be (D) Na Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS 12. Nitrate is confirmed by ring test. The brown colour of the ring is due to formation of(A) ferrous nitrite (B) nitroso ferrous sulphate (C) ferrous nitrate (D) FeSO4NO2 Sol.

13. Fe(OH)3 can be separated from Al(OH)3 by addition of(A) dil. HCl (B) NaCl solution (C) NaOH solution (D) NH4Cl and NH4OH Sol.

14. If NaOH is added to an aqueous solution of zinc ions a white ppt appears and on adding excess NaOH, the ppt dissolves. In this solution zinc exist in the(A) cationic part (B) anionic part (C) both in cationic and anionic parts (D) there is no zinc ion in the solution Sol.

15. Mark the compound which is soluble in hot water. (A) Lead chloride (B) Mercurous chloride (C) Stronsium sulphate (D) Silver chloride Sol.

16. Colour of nickel chloride solution is(A) pink (B) black (C) colourless (D) green Sol.

17. Sometimes yellow turbidity appears while passing H2S gas even in the absence of II group radicals. This is because of(A) sulphur is present in the mixture as impurity (B) IV group radicals are precipitated as sulphides. (C) the oxidation of H2S gas by some acid radicals. (D) III group radicals are precipitated as hydroxides.

Page # 153 Sol.

18. The ion that cannot be precipitated by H2S and HCl is(A) Pb2+ (B) Cu2+ (C) Ag+ (D) Ni2+ Sol.

19. In V group, (NH4)2CO3 is added to precipitate out the carbonates. We do not add Na2CO3 along with NH4Cl because (A) CaCO3 is soluble in Na2CO3 (B) Na2CO3 increase the solubility of V group carbonate. (C) MgCO3 will be precipitated out in V group (D) None of these Sol.

20. CuSO4 decolourises on addition of excess KCN, the product is(A) [Cu(CN)4]2– (B) Cu2+ get reduced to form [Cu(CN)4]3– (C) Cu(CN)2 (D) CuCN Sol.

21. Which of the following cations is detected by the flame test ? (A) NH4+ (B) K+ (C) Mg2+ (D) Al3+ Sol.

22. Which one among the following pairs of ions cannot be separated by H2S in dilute HCl? (A) Bi3+, Sn4+ (B) Al3+, Hg2+ 2+ 2+ (C) Zn , Cu (D) Ni2+, Cu2+ Sol.

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Page # 154 23. A metal salt solution gives a yellow ppt with silver nitrate. The ppt dissolves in dil. nitric acid as well as in ammonium hydroxide. The solution contains (A) bromide (B) iodide (C) phosphate (D) chromate Sol.

24. A metal salt solution forms a yellow ppt with potassium chromate in acetic acid, a white ppt with dilute sulphuric acid, but gives no ppt with sodium chloride or iodide, it is: (A) lead carbonate (B) basic lead caroonate (C) barium nitrate (D) strontium nitrate Sol.

25. Which is soluble in NH4OH ? (A) PbCl2 (B) AgCl (C) PbSO4 Sol.

(D) CaCO3

SALT ANALYSIS 29. What product is formed by mixing the solution of K4[Fe(CN)6] with the solution of FeCl3? (A) Ferro-ferricyanide (B) Ferri-ferrocyanide (C) Ferri-ferricyanide (D) None of these Sol.

30. Which of the following will not give positive chromyl chloride test ? (A) Copper chloride, CuCl2 (B) Mercuric chloride, HgCl2 (C) Zinc chloride, ZnCl2 (D) Anillinium chloride, C6H5NH3Cl Sol.

31. A blue colouration is not obtained when(A) ammonium hydroxide dissolves in copper sulphate. (B) c opper sul p hate sol ut i on reacts wi th K4[Fe(CN)6] (C) ferric chloride reacts with sodium ferrocyanide. (D) anhydrous white CuSO4 is dissolved in water. Sol.

26. Which of the following combines with Fe(II) ions to form a brown complex (A) N2O (B) NO (C) N2O3 (D) N2O4 Sol. 32. AgCl dissolves in ammonia solution giving. (A) Ag+, NH4+ and Cl– (B) Ag(NH3)+ and Cl– 2– – (C) Ag2(NH3) and Cl (D) Ag(NH3)2+ and Cl– Sol. 27. Nessler’s reagent is used to detect(A) CrO42– (B) PO43– (C) MnO4– Sol.

(D) NH4+

28. Prussian blue is formed when(A) ferrous sulphate reacts with FeCl3 (B) ferric sulphate reacts with K4[Fe(CN)6]. (C) Ammonium sulphate reacts with FeCl3 (D) ferrous ammonium sulphate reacts with FeCl3 Sol.

33. A white crystalline substance dissolves in water. On passing H2S gas in this solution, a black ppt is obtained. The black ppt dissolves completely in hot HNO3. On adding a few drops of conc. H2SO4, a whie ppt is obtained. This ppt is that of(A) BaSO4 (B) SrSO4 (C) PbSO4 (D) CdSO4 Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS 34. When excess of SnCl2 is added to a solution of HgCl2, a white ppt turning grey is obtained. The grey colour is due to the formation of(A) Hg2Cl2 (B) SnCl4 (C) Sn (D) Hg Sol.

35. Of the following sulphides which one is insoluble in dil. acids but soluble in alkalies. (A) PbS (B) CdS (C) FeS (D) As2S3 Sol.

36. When chlorine water is added to an aqueous solution of potassium halide in presence of chloroform, a violet colour is obtained. On adding more of chlorine water, the violet colour disappears, and a colourless solution is obtained. This test confirms the presence of the following in aqueous solution (A) Iodide (B) Bromide (C) Chloride (D) Iodide and bromide Sol.

37. An aqueous solution of colourless metal sulphate M, gives a white ppt, with NH4OH. This was soluble in excess of NH4OH. On passing H2S through this solution a white ppt is formed. The metal M in the salt is(A) Ca (B) Ba (C) Al (D) Zn Sol.

38. When AgNO3 is strongly heated, the products formed are(A) NO and NO2 (B) NO2 and O2 (C) NO2 and N2O (D) NO and O2 Sol.

Page # 155 39. AgCl is soluble in(A) Aqua regia (C) dil. HCl Sol.

(B) H2SO4 (D) aq. NH3

40. A substance on treatment with dil. H2SO4 liberates a colourless gas which produces (i) turbidity with baryta water and (ii) turns acidified dichromate solution green. The reaction indicates the presence of(A) CO32– (B) S2– (C) SO32– (D) NO2– Sol.

41. When copper nitrate is strongly heated, it is converted into(A) Cu metal (B) cupric oxide (C) cuprous oxide (D) copper nitrate Sol.

42. A white solid is first heated with dil H2SO4 and then with conc. H2SO4. No action was observed in either case. The solid salt contains(A) sulphide (B) sulphite (C) thiosulphate (D) sulphate Sol.

43. A pale green crystalline metal salt of M dissolves freely in water. On standing it gives a brown ppt on addition of aqueous NaOH. The metal salt solution also gives a black ppt on bubbling H2S in basic medium. An aqueous solution of the metal s al t de col ouri zes t he p i nk col our of the permaganate solution. The metal in the metal salt solution is(A) copper (B) aluminium (C) lead (D) iron Sol.

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Page # 156 44. On the addition of a solution containing CO42– ions to the solution of Ba2+, Sr2+ and Ca2+ ions, the ppt obtained first will be of(A) CaCO4 (B) SrCrO4 (C) BaCrO4 (D) a mixture of all the three Sol.

45. Turnbull’s blue is a compound(A) ferricyanide (B) feero ferricyanide (C) ferrous cyanide (D) ferriferocyanide Sol.

46. Sodium borate on reaction with conc. H2SO4 and C2H5OH gives a compound A which burns with a green edged flame. The compound A is(A) H2B4O7 (B) (C2H5)2B4O7 (C) H3BO3 (D) (C2H5)3BO3 Sol.

47. When K2Cr2O7 crystals are heated with conc. HCl, the gas evolved is(A) O2 (B) Cl2 (C) CrO2Cl2 (D) HCl Sol.

48. Which is most soluble in water ? (A) AgCl (B) AgBr (C) AgI (D) AgF Sol.

SALT ANALYSIS 49. On passing H2S gas in II group sometimes the solution turns milky. It indicates the presence of(A) oxidising agent (B) acidic salt (C) thiosulphate (D) reducing agent Sol.

50. Dimethyl glyoxime in a suitable solvent was refluxed for 10 minutes with pure pieces of nickel sheet, it will result in(A) Red ppt (B) Blue ppt. (C) Yellow ppt. (D) No ppt. Sol.

51. A mixture of chlorides of copper, cadmium, chromium, iron and aluminium was dissolved in water acidified with HCl and hydrogen sulphide was was passed for sufficient time. It was filtered, boiled and a few drops of nitric acid were added while boiling. To this solution ammonium chloride and sodium hydroxide were added in excess and filtrate shall give test for(A) sodium and iron ion (B) sodium, chromium and aluminium ion (C) aluminium and iron ion (D) sodium, iron, cadmium and aluminium ion Sol.

52. A metal is brunt in air and the ash on moistening smells of ammonia. The metal is(A) Na (B) Fe (C)Mg (D) Al Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS 53. Solution of chemical compound X reacts with AgNO3 solution to form a white ppt. Y which dissolves in NH4OH to give a complex Z. When Z is treated with dil. HNO3, Y reappears. The chemical compound X can be(A) NaCl

(B) CH3Cl

(C) NaBr

Page # 157 Sol.

(D) NaI

Sol.

57. An aqueous solution of FeSO4. Al 2(SO4 )3 and chrome alum is heated with excess of Na2O2 and filtered. The materials obtained are : (A) a colourless filtrate and a green residue

54. A white ppt obtained in a analysis of a mixture becomes black on treatment with NH4OH. It may be(A) PbCl2

(B) AgCl

(C) HgCl2

(B) a yellow filtrate and a green residue (C) a yellow filtrate and a brown residue

(D) Hg2Cl2

(D) a green filtrate and a brown residue

Sol.

Sol.

55. A salt on treatment with dil. HCl gives a pungent smelling gas and a yellow precipitate. The salt gives green flame when tested. The solution gives a yellow precipitate with potassium chromate. The salt is :

58. Which of the following compound on reaction with NaOH and Na2O2 gives yellow colour?

(A) NiSO4

(B) BaS2O3

(C) PbS2O3

(D) CuSO4

(A) Cr(OH)3

(B)Zn(OH)2

(C)Al(OH)3

(D) None of these

Sol.

Sol.

56. Which compound does not dissolve in hot dilute HNO3 ? (A) HgS

(B) PbS

(C) CuS

(D) CdS

59. CrO3 dissolves in aqueous NaOH to give : (A) Cr2O72–

(B) CrO42–

(C)Cr(OH)3

(D) Cr(OH)2

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Page # 158 Sol.

SALT ANALYSIS 62. An aqueous solution of a substance gives a white ppt. on treatment with dil. HCl, which dissolves on heating. When hydrogen sulphide is passed through the hot acidic solution, a black ppt. is obtained. The substance is a(A) Hg2+salt

(B)Cu2+ salt

(C) Ag+ salt

(D)Pb2+ salt

Sol. 60. B(OH)3 + NaOH

NaBO2+ Na[B(OH)4] + H2O

How can this reaction is made to proceed in forward direction ? (A) addition of cis 1,2 diol (B) additition of borax (C) addition of trans 1,2 diol (D) addition of Na2HPO4 Sol.

63. Which of the following does not produce metallic sulphide with H2S? (A) ZnCl2 61. Statement-1 : On passing CO2 gas through lime water, the solution turns milky.

(C) CoCl2

(B) CdCl2 (D) FeCl2

Sol.

because Statement-2 Acid Base (neutralisation) reaction takes place. (A) Statement-1 is tru, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1 (B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1. (C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false. (D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true. Sol. 64. A pale yellow crystalline solid insoluble in water but soluble in CS2 is allowed to react with nitric oxide to give X and Y.X is a colourless gas with pungent odour. X is further allowed to react in aqueous medium with nitric oxide to yield Z and T. Compounds X,Z and T are(A) SO3,H2SO3

(B) SO2,H2SO4,N2O

(C) SiO2, H2SO4,N2

(D) SO3,H2SO3,N2

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SALT ANALYSIS

Page # 159 67. Which of the following is soluble in yellow ammonium sulphide ?

Sol.

(A) CuS

(B) CdS

(C) SnS

(D) PbS

Sol.

68. A chloride dissolves appreciable in cold water. When placed on a platinum wire in Bunsen flame to distinctive colour is noticed, the cation would be : 65. Which metal salt gives a violet coloured bead in the borax bead test ? (A) Fe2+

(B)Ni2+

(C) Co2+

(A) Mg2+

(B) Ba2+

(C) Pb2+

(D) Ca2+

Sol.

(D) Mn2+

Sol.

69. A white salt is readily soluble in water and gives a colourless solution with a pH of about 9. The salt could be(A) NH4NO3

(B) CH3COONa

(C) CH3COONH4

(D)CaCO3

Sol. 66. Which of the following gives a precipitate with Pb(NO3)2 but no with Ba(NO3)2 ? (A) Sodium chloride (B) Sodium acetate (C) Sodium nitrate (D) Sodium hydrogen phosphate Sol.

70. An element (X) forms compounds of the formula XCl3, X2O5 and Ca3X2, but does not form XCl5. Which of the following is the element X ? (A) B

(B) Al

(C) N

(D) P

Sol.

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Page # 160

EXERCISE – II 1.

SALT ANALYSIS

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

A white sodium salt dissolves readily in water to give a solution which is neutral to litmus. When silver nitrate solution is added to the solution, a white precipitate is obtained which does not dissolve in dil. HNO3. The anion could be : (A) CO32– (B) Cl– (C) SO42– (D) S2–

5.

Sol.

2.

A mixture of two salts is not water soluble but dissolves completely in dil HCl to form a colourless solution. The mixture could be : (A) AgNO3 and KBr (B) BaCO3 and ZnS (C) FeCl5 and CaCO3 (D) Mn(NO3)2 MgSO4

Sol.

When a substance A reacts with water it produces a combustible gas B and a solution of substance C in water. When another substance D reacts with this solution of C, it also produces the same gas B on warming but D can produce gasB on reaction with dilute sulphuric acid at room temperature. A imparts a deep golden yellow colour a smokeless flame to Bunsen burner. A,B,C and D respectively are : (A) Na,H2 NaOH, Zn (B) K,H2 , KOH, Al (C) Ca, H2, Ca(OH)2 ,Sn (D) CaC2,C2H2, Ca(OH)2,Fe

Sol.

6.

Which is not dissolved by dil HCl ? (A) ZnS (B) MnS (C) BaSO3 (D) BaSO4

Sol.

3.

Three separate samples of a solution of a single salt gave these results. One formed a white precipitate with excess of ammonia solution, one formed a white precipitate with dil NaCl solution and one formed a black precipitate with H2S. The salt could be : (A) AgNO3 (B) Pb(NO3)2 (C) Hg(NO3)2 (D) MnSO4

7.

The brown ring test for NO2– and NO3– is due to the formation of complex ion with formula : (A) [Fe(H2O)6]2+ (B) [Fe(NO)(CN)5]2– 2+ (C) [Fe(H2O)5(NO)] (D) [Fe(H2O)(NO)5]2+

Sol.

Sol.

8.

In Nessler’s reagents, the ion present is : (A) HgI2– (B) HgI42– (C) Hg+ (D) Hg2+

Sol. 4.

Sol.

Which one of the following ionic species will impart colour to an aqueous solution ? (A) Ti4+ (B) Cu+ (C) Zn2+ (D) Cr3+

9.

The cations present in slightly acidic solution are Fe3+, Zn2+ and Cu2+. The reagent which when added in excess to this solution would identify and separate Fe3+ in one step is : (A) 2 M HCl (B) 6 M NH3 (C) 6 M NaOH (D) H2S gas

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SALT ANALYSIS

Page # 161 14. Which of the following sulphate is insoluble in water ?

Sol.

10. Which of the following leaves no residue on heating ? (A) Pb(NO3)2 (B) NH4NO3 (C) Cu(NO3)2 (D) NaNO3 Sol.

(A)CuSO4

(B)CdSO4

(C) PbSO4

(D) Bi2(SO4)3

Sol.

15. A metal X on heating in nitrogen gas gives Y.Y. on treatment with H2O gives a colourless gas which when passed through CuSO4 solution gives a blue colour Y is : 11. When I2 is passed through KCl, KF, KBr : (A) Cl2 and Br2 are evolved (B) Cl2 is evolved (C) Cl2, F2 and Br2 are evolved (D) None of these Sol.

(A) Mg(NO3)2

(B) Mg3N2

(C) NH3

(D) MgO

Sol.

16. Which of the following gives blood red colour with KCNS ? (A) Cu2+

(B) Fe3+

(C) Al3+

(D) Zn2+

Sol. 12. In the separation of Cu2+ and Cd2+ in 2nd group qualitative analysis of cations tetrammine copper (II) sulphate and tetrammine cadmium (II) sulphate react with KCN to form the corresponding cyano complexes. Which one of the following pairs of the complexes and their relative stability enables the separation of Cu2+ and Cd2+ ? (A) K3[Cu(CN)4] more stable and K2[Cd(CN)4] less stable (B) K2[Cu(CN)4] less stable and K2 [Cd(CN)4] more stable (C) K2 [Cu(CN)4] more stable and K2[Cd(CN)4] less stable. (D) K3 [Cu(CN)4] less stable and K2[Cd(CN)4] more stable. Sol.

13. Which one has the minimum solubility product ? (A) AgCl

(B) AlCl3

(C) BaCl2

17. Which of the following is insoluble in excess of NaOH ? (A) Al(OH)3

(B) Cr(OH)3

(C) Fe(OH)3

(D) Zn(OH)2

Sol.

18. In the borax bead test of Co2+, the blue colour of bead is due to the formation of (A) B2O3

(B) Co3B2

(C) Co(BO2)2

(D) CoO

Sol.

(D) NH4Cl

Sol.

19. Mercurous ion is represented as : (A) Hg22+ : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

(B) Hg2+

(C) Hg + Hg2+ (D) Hg2+

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Page # 162 Sol.

SALT ANALYSIS 24. Statement-1 : NO2– ion can not be detected by brown ring test in presence of NO3– ion. Statement-2 : Both NO2– and NO3– ions are confirmed by brown ring test. (A) Statement-1 is tru, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is correct explanation for statement-1

20. The metal ion which is precipitated when H2S is passed with HCl : (A) Zn2+

(B) Ni2+

(C) Cd2+

(B) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and statement-2 is is NOT the correct explanation for statement-1.

(D) Mn2+

(C) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

Sol.

(D) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true. Sol.

21. Which of the following is not a preliminary test used to detect ions : (A) borax bead test

(B) flame test

(C) brown ring test

(D) cobalt nitrate test

25. Read of the following statements and choose the correct code w.r.t. true(T) and false (F). (I) manganese salts give a violet borax bead test in reducing flame (II) from a mixed precipitate of AgCl and AgI, ammonia solution dissolves only AgCl

Sol.

(III) ferric ions give a deep green precipitate, on adding potassium ferrocyanide solution (IV) on boiling the solution having K+, Ca2+ and HCO3– we get a precipitate of K2Ca(CO3)2 22. Which on of he following metal sulphides has maximum solubility in water ? (A) HgS, Ksp = 10–54

(B)CdS, Ksp = 10–30

(C) FeS, Ksp = 10–20

(D) ZnS, Ksp=10–22

(A) TTFF

(B) FTFT

(C) FTFF

(D) TTFT

Sol.

Sol.

23. The compound formed in the borax bead test of Cu2+ ion in oxidising flame is : (A) Cu

(B) CuBO2

(C) Cu(BO2)2

(D) None of these

26. Identify the correct order of solubility of Na2,S, CuS and ZnS in aqueous medium is : (A) CuS > ZnS > Na2S (B) ZnS > Na2S > CuS (C) Na2S > CuS > ZnS (D) Na2S > ZnS > CuS Sol.

Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS 27. When H2S gas is passed through the HCl containing aqueous solution of CuCl2, HgCl2, BiCl3 and CoCl2, it does not precipitate out : (A) CuS

(B) HgS

(C) Bi2S3

Page # 163 COMPREHENSION Q. NO. 31 to 33 (3 questions) C om pound

‘A’

(D) CoS





Ini t i al l y

s w el l e d



Sol.

  Amorphous powder strong heating

Lilac flame in the flame test. excess NaOH Compound ‘A’  ’B’ (No change in

28. Mark the correct statement : (A) I group basic radicals precipitate as chlorides (B) IV group basic radicals precipitates as sulphides. (C) V group basic radicals precipitates as carbonates. (D) All the above statement are correct.

H2O2 colour)    ‘C’ (Yellow solution )

31. Compound ‘A’ is having water of crystallization by the number of (A) 10

(B) 20

(C) 24

(D) 36

Sol.

Sol.

29. Potassium chromate solution is added to an aqueous solution of a metal chloride. The precipitate thus obtained are insoluble in acetic acid. These are subjected to flame test, the colour of the flame is : (A) Lilac

(B) Apple green

(C) Crimson red

(D) Golden yellow

32. The compound ‘B’ is having oxidation state of(A) zero

(B) II

(C) III

(D) IV

Sol.

Sol.

33. The hybridization of compound ‘C’ is 30.

MgSO4 on reaction with NH4OH and Na2HPO4 forms a white crystalline precipitate. What is its formula? (A) Mg(NH4)PO4

(B) Mg3(PO4)2

(C)MgCl2.MgSO4

(D) MgSO4

(A) sp3

(B) sp3d

(C) d2sp3 (D) d3s

Sol.

Sol.

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Page # 164 Q. NO. 34 to 36 (3 questions) A green ore (A) of a metal present as a double /mixed compound is treated with HCl and then H2S is passed in the solution. A back precipitate (B) is obtained, that is insoluble in yellow ammonium sulphide. The precipitate is dissolved in HNO3 and then excess of NH4OH is added. The solution becomes coloured but this colour is discharged upon addition of KCN in excess due to the formation of compound (C). The solution of (A) in H2O liberates a colourless and odourless gas on reaction with dilute H2SO4 and solution of (A) gives white precipitate on addition of BaCl2 solution. 34. The green ore (A) is ? (A) CuSO4. Cu(OH)2 (B) PbCO3.Pb(OH)2 (C) PbSO4.Pb(OH)2 (D) CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 Sol.

35.

After dissolving the precipitate in HNO3 aqueous K4[Fe(CN)6] is added and a precipitate is formed. (A) It is a reddish brown precipi tate of Cu2[Fe(CN)6]. (B) It is a reddish brown precipi tate of K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (C) It is a chocolate brown precipitate of Cu2[Fe(CN)6]. (D) It is a chocolate brown precipitate of K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2

Sol.

36.

SALT ANALYSIS MATCH THE COLUMN : 37. Column-I (A) Amphoteric metal oxide  (B) Metal acetate   acetone + metal carbonate  (C) Metal acetate   metal oxide + CO2  + acetone  (D) Metal nitrate   metal oxide + NO2  O2 

(P) (Q) (R) (S) Sol.

Column-II Pb Zn Na Li

38.Which of anions in the Column-I shows one or more observations from the column-II. Column-I (A) S2– (B) NO2– (C) SO32– (D) CH3COO– Column-II (P) White ppt. with AgNO3 (Q) Evolution of pungent smell gas with (R) Brown fumes with conc. H2SO4 (hot) (S) Decolourises acidified KMnO4 Sol.

The procedure used to estimate the metal ion of ore (A) gravimetrically, is ? (A) Treatement of ore with excess KCN (B) Treatement of solution of ore with Ag metal. (C) Treatement of ore with excess ammonia (D) Treatement of ore with excess KSCN.

Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS

Page # 165

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

EXERCISE – III 1.

Which one of the following does not react with AgCl ? (A) ZnCl2

(B) CdCl2

(C) CoCl2

Sol.

(D) CuCl2

Sol. 6.

A 2.

(Mixture of two anion)

Cold BaCl2

White ppt.

litmus tuns red

Filtered

H2O2

(A) Manganese salts give a violet borx bead test in reducing flame (B) From a mixed precipitate of AgCl and AgI, ammonia solution dissolves only AgCl (C) Feric ions give a deep green precipitate, on adding potassium ferrocyanide solution (D) On boiling the solution having K+, Ca2+ and HCO3– ions we get a precipitate of K2Ca(CO3)2

Blue

Filtrate

Mixture of A contain: (A) CO32– HCO3– anions (B) CO32–, HSO3– anions (C) SO32–, HSO3– anions (D) None of these Sol.

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect?

Sol.

7.

S2– and SO32– can be distinguished by using: (A) (CH3COO)2Pb (C) Cr2O72–

3.

The ions which can be precipitated with both HCl and H2S areA (A) Pb2+ (B) Cu2+ (C) Ag+ (D) Sn2+

(B) Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] (D) CaCl2

Sol.

Sol.

KMnO4

4.

When dimethyl glyxime solution is added to an aqueous solution of nickel (II) chloride followed by ammonium hydroxide then which of the following statements are incorrect? (A) No precipitate is obtained (B) A blue coloured ppt. is obtained (C) A rosy red coloured ppt. is obtained (D) A black coloured ppt. is obtained

8.

PurplecolourofKMnO4 decolourises Brown colour of Br2 water become colourless

Br2 water The gas will be : (A) CO2

(B) SO2

(C) H2S

(D) SO3

Sol.

Sol.

Subjective

5.

1. (i) An inorganic compound (A) is formed on passing a gas (B) through a conc. liquor containing Na2S and sodium sulphite. (ii) On additing (A) into a dilute solution of silver nitrate a white precipitate appears which quickly changes into a black coloured compound. (C)

The brown ring test is performed for the qualitative detection of: (A) Bromides (B) iodides (C) nitrates (D) nitrite

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Page # 166 (iii) On adding two or three drops of FeCl3 into the excess of solution (A) a violet coloured compound (D) is formed. This colour disapperars quickly. (iv) On adding a solution of (A) into the solution of cupric chloride, a white precipitate is first formed which dissolves on adding excess of (A) forming a compound (E). Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations for the reactions at steps (i) to (iv). Sol.

2. (i) A black coloured compound (B) is formed on passing H2S through the solution of a compound (A) in NH4OH. (ii) (B) on treatment with HCl and potassium chlorate gives (A). (iii) (A) on treatment with KCN gives a buff coloured precipitate which dissolves in excess of this reagent forming a compound (C). (iv) The compound (C) is changed into a compound (D) when its aqueous solution is boiled. (v) The solution of (A) was treated with excess of NaHCO3 & then with bromine water. On cooling & shaking for some time, a green colour of compound (E) is formed. No changes is observed on heating. Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations. Sol.

3. (i) A blue coloured compound (A) on heating gives two of the products (B) & (C). (ii) A metal (D) is deposited on passing hydrogen through heated (B). (iii) The solution of (B) in HCl on treatment with the K4[Fe(CN)6] is gives a chocolate brown coloured precipitate of compound (E). (iv) (C) turns lime water milky which disappears on continuous passage of (C) forming a compound

SALT ANALYSIS (F). Identify (A) to (F) and give chemical equations for the reactions at step (i) to (iv). Sol.

4. (i) An ore (A) on roasting with sodium carbonate and lime in the presence of air gives two compounds, (B) and (C). (ii) The solution of (B) in conc. HCl on treatment with potassium ferrocyanide gives a blue colour or precipitate of compound (D). (iii) The aqueous solution of (C) on treatment with conc. H2SO4 gives a orange coloured compound (E). (iv) Compound (E) when treated with KCl gives an orange red compound (F) which is used as an oxidising reagents. (v) The solution of (F) on treatment with oxalic acid and then with an excess of potassium oxalate gives blue crystals of compound (G). Identify (A) to (G) and give balanced chemical equations for reactions for reactions at step. (i) to (v). Sol.

5.

Complete the following by identifying (A) to (F).

(i)

100C 230C (B) 800C (C) CuSO45H2O   (A)     + (D)

Red hot (ii) AgNO3    (E) + (F) + O2

Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS

Q.1

Page # 167

EXERCISE – IV

PREVIOUS YEARS

LEVEL – I

JEE MAIN

HgCl2 on passing H2 S gives (A) HgS (C) Hg + HgS

[AIEEE-2002]

(B) Hg2 S (D) HgS + H2 S

Sol.

Q.3

Which statement is correct : [AIEEE-2003] (A) Fe3+ ions give deep green precipitate with K4[Fe(CN)6] solution (B) On heating K+ , Ca2+ and HCO3– ions, we get a precipitate of K2[Ca(CO3)2 ] (C) Manganess salts give a violet borax bead test in the reducing flame (D) From a mixed precipitate of AgCl and AgI ammonia solution dissolves only AgCl

Sol.

Q.2

How do we differentiate between Fe3+ and Cr3+ in qualitative analysis gp. III : [AIEEE-2002] (A) By taking excess of NH4OH (B) By increasing NH4 ion concentration (C) By decreasing OH– ion concentration (D) Both (B) and (C)

Sol.

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Page # 168

SALT ANALYSIS

LEVEL – II 1.

JEE ADVANCED

A compound (A) is greenish crystalline salt, which gave the following results.

3.

(i) Addition of BaCl2 solution to he solution of (A) results in the formation of white precipitate (B), which is insoluble in dil HCl. (ii) On heating (A), water vapours and two oxides of sulphur (C) & (D) are liberated leaving a red brown residue (E).

Calcium burns in nitrogen to produce a white powder which dissolves in sufficient water to produce a gas (A) and an alkaline solution. The solution on exposure to air produces a thin solid layer of (B) on the surface. Identify the compound (A) and (B). [JEE 1996]

Sol.

(iii) (E) dissolves in warm concentrated HCl to give a yellow solution (F). (iv) With H2S the solution (F) yields a pale yellow precipitate (G) which when filtered, leaves a greenish filrate (H). (v) Solution (F) with treatment of thiocyanate ion gives blood red coloured compound (I). Identify the substances from (A) to (D).

4.

Sol.

Gradual addition of KI solution to Bi(NO3)3 solution initially produces a dark brown precipitate which dissolves in excess of KI to give a clear yellow solution. Write equations for the above reactions. [JEE 1996]

Sol.

2.

A scarlet compound ‘A’ is treated with concentrated HNO3 to give a chocolate brown precipitate ‘B’. The precipitate is filtered and the filtrate is neutralised with NaOH. Addition of KI to the resulting solution gives a yellow precipitate ‘C’. The precipitate B on warming with concentrated HNO3 in the presence of Mn(NO3)2 produces a pink coloured solution due to the formation of ‘D’. Identify ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘C’ & ‘D’. Write the reaction sequence. [JEE 1995]

5.

A colurless inorganic salt [A] decomposes completely at about 250°C to give only two products, (B) and (C) leaving no residue. The oxide (C) is a liquid at room temperature and neutral to moist litmus paper while the gas (B) is neutral oxide. White phosphorus burns in excess of (B) to produce a strong white dehydrating agent. Write balanced equations for the following reactions involved in the above process. [JEE 1996]

Sol.

Sol.

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SALT ANALYSIS 6. (i) An aqueous solution of white coloured compound (A) on reaction with HCl gives a white precipitate of compound (B). (ii) (B) becomes soluble in chlorine water with formation of (C). (iii) (C) reacts with KI to give a precipitate which becomes soluble in excess of it forming a compound (D). Compound (D) is used for detecting ammonium salt. (iv) (B) and (C) both on treatment with SnCl2 give a grey precipitate of (E).

Page # 169 (iv) A solution of (D) in conc. HNO3 on treatment with lead peroxide at boiling emperatue produced a compoud (E) which was of the same colour as that of (C). (v) A solution of (A) in dilute HCl on treatment with a solution of barium chloride gave a white precipitate of compound (F) which was insoluble in conc. HNO3 and conc. HCl. Identify (A) of (F) and give balanced chemical equations for the reactions at steps (i) to (v). [JEE 2001] Sol.

(v) When conc. H2SO4 is added slowly into a mixture of cold solution of (A) and FeSO4 a brown ring of compound (F) is formed. Identify (A) to (F). [JEE 1997] Sol. 9.

Identify the following : SO

Na CO

Element S

I

2 2 3 2   B  C  D Na2CO3  A  

Also mention the oxidation sate of S in all the compounds. [JEE 2002] Sol. 7.

An aqueous blue coloured solution of a transition metal sulphate reacts with H2S in acidic medium to give a black precipitate (A) which is insoluble in warm aqueous solution of KOH. The blue solution on treatment with KI in weakly acidic medium turns yellow and produces a white precipitate (B). Identify the transition metal ion. Write the chemical reactions involved in the formation of (A) and (B). [JEE 2000]

Sol.

10. A mi xture consists A (yellow solid) and B (colourless solid) which gives lilac colour in flame. (a) Mixtue gies blak precipitate C on passing H2S (g). (b) C is soluble in aqua-regia and on evaporation of aqua-regia and adding SnCl2 gives greyish black. precipitate D.

8. (i) A powdered substance (A) on treatment with fusion mixture gives a green coloured compound(B). (ii) The solution of (B) in boiling water on acidification with dilute H2SO4 gives a pink coloured compound (C). (iii) The aqueous solution of (A) on treatment with NaOH an Br2– water gives a compound (D).

The salt solution withNH4OH gives a brown precipitate. (i) The sodium extract of the salt with CCl4/FeCl3 gives a violet layer. (ii) The sodium extract gives yellow precipitate with AgNO3 solution which is insoluble in NH3. Identiy A and B, and the precipitates C and D. [JEE 2003]

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Page # 170 Sol.

SALT ANALYSIS Sol.

11. Dimethyl glyoxime is addd to alcoholic solution of NiCl2. When ammonium ydroxide is slowly added to it a rosy red precipitate of a complex appears. (i) Give the structure of complex showing hydrogen bonds.

14.

(ii) Give oxidation state and hybridization of central metal ion.



CH3



NaBr MnO 2 conc.HNO3 Brown fumes and B   A    C(Intermediate) pungent smell

(produt)

(iii) Identify whether i is paramagnetic or diamagnetic [JEE 2004]

Find A,B,C and D. Also write equations A to B and A t C. [JEE 2005]

Sol. Sol.

12. There are two ores (A1) and (A2) of metal (M). When ore (A1) is calcinated a black solid (S) is obtained along with the liberation of CO2 and water. The ore (A1) on treatment with HCl and Ki gives a precipitate (P) and iodine is liberated. Another ore (A2) on roasting gives a gas(G) and metal (M) is set free. When gas (G) is passed through K2Cr2O7 i turns green. Idenify (M),(A1), (A2),(S), (P) and (G). [JEE 004]

15

(B)

Moist air

white fumes having pungent smell

MCl4

Zn

(M = transition element colourless)

(A) (purple colour)

Identify the metal M and hence MCl4. Explain the difference in colours of MCl4 and A. [JEE 2005] Sol.

Sol.

13. SCN(excess)

F(excess)

Fe3   bloodred(A)  colourless(B)

Identify A and B (a) Write IUPAC name of A and B (b) Find out spin only magnetic moment of (b) [JEE 2005]

16. In nitroprusside ion the iron and NO exist. No exist as FeII and NO+ rather than FeIII and NO. These forms can be differentiated by : [JEE 1998] (A) estimating the concentration of iron (B) measuring the concentration of CN (C) measuring the solid state magnetic moment (D) thermally decomposing the compound

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SALT ANALYSIS Sol.

17. Assertion : Sulphate is estimated as BaSO4 and not as MgSO4. [JEE 1998]

Page # 171 19. An aqueous solution of a substance gives a white precipitate on treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid, which dissolves on heating. When hydrogen sulphide is passed through the hot acidic solution, a black precipitate is obtained. The substance is a: [JEE 2000] (A) Hg2+ salt

(B) Cr2+ salt

(C) Ag+ salt

(D) Pb2+ salt

Sol.

Reason : Ionic radius of Mg2+ is smaller than that of Ba2+. (A) Both assertion and reason are correct, and reason is the correct explanation of the assertion (B) Both assertion and reason are correct, but reason is not the correct explanation of the assertion. (C) Assertion is correct but reason is incorrect. (D) Assertion is incorrect but reason is correct. Sol.

20. A gas ‘X’ is passed through water to form a saturated solution. The aqueous solution on treatment with silver nitrate gives a white precipitate. the saturated aqueous solution also dissolves magnesium ribbon with evolution of a colourless gas ‘Y’. Identify ‘X’ and ‘Y’: [JEE 2002( Mains)] (A) X = CO2, Y = Cl2

(B) X= Cl2, Y= CO2

(C) X = Cl2, Y =H2

(D) X = H2, Y = Cl2

Sol.

18. Which of the following statement (s) is (are) correct with reference to the ferrous and ferric ions

21. [X] + H2SO4  [Y] a colourless gas with irritating smell [JEE 2003] [Y] + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4  green solution

(A) Fe3+ gives brown colour with potassium ferricyanide [JEE 1998]

[X] and [Y] are :

(B) Fe2+ gives blue precipitate with potassium ferricyanide (C) Fe 3+ give red colour wi th potassi um thiocyanate

(A) SO22–, SO2

(B) Cl–, HCl

(C) S2–, H2S

(D) CO32–, CO2

Sol.

(D) Fe2+ gives brown colour with ammonium thiocyanate Sol.

22. A sodium salt of an unknown anion when treated with MgCl2 with precipitate only on boiling. The anion is : [JEE 2004] (A) SO42– (B) HCO3– (C) CO32– (D) NO3–

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Page # 172 Sol.

SALT ANALYSIS 26. Consider a titration of potassium dichromate solution with acidified Mohr’s salt solution using diphenylamine as indicator. The number of moles of Mohr’s salt required per mole of dichromate is : (A) 3 (B) 4 (C) 5 (D) 6 [JEE 2007] Sol.

23. A metal nitrate reacts with KI to give a black precipitate which on addition of excess of KI convert into orange colour solution. The cation of metal nitrate is : [JEE 2005] (A) Hg2+ (B) Bi3+ (C) Pb2+ (D) Cu+ Sol.

24. A solution when diluted with H2O and boiled, it gives a white precipitate. On addition of excess NH4Cl/ NH4OH, the volume of precipitate decreases leaving behind a white gelatinous precipitate. Identify the precipitate which dissolves in NH4OH/ NH4Cl. [JEE 2006] (A) Zn(OH)2

(B) Al(OH)3

(C) Mg(OH)2

(D) Ca(OH)2

27. The species present in solution when CO2 is dissolved in water are [JEE 2007] (A) CO2, H2CO3, HCO3–, CO32– (B) H2CO3,CO32– (C) CO32–, HCO3– (D) CO2,H2CO3 Sol.

28. A solution of colourless salt H on boiling with excess NaOH produces a non- flammable gas. The gas evolution ceases after sometime. Upon addition of Zn dust to the same solution, the gas evolution restarts. The colourless salt(s) H is (are)(A) NH4NO3 (B) NH4NO2– [JEE 2008] (C) NH4Cl (D) (NH4)2SO4 Sol.

Sol.

25. CuSO4 decolourises product is :

on addition of KCN, the [JEE 2006]

(A) [Cu(CN)4]2– (B) Cu2+ get reduced to form [Cu(CN)4]3–’ (C) Cu(CN)2

Paragraph for Question Nos. 29 to 31 When a metal rod M is dipped into an aqueous concentrated solution of compound N, the solution turns light blue. Addition of aqueous NaCl to the blue solution gives a white precipitate O. Addition of aqueous NH3 dissolves O and gives an intense blue solution. [JEE 2011] 29. The metal rod M is (A) Fe (B) Cu (C) Ni (D) Co Sol.

(D) CuCN Sol.

30. The compound N is (A) AgNO3 (B) Zn(NO3)2 (C) Al(NO3)3 (D) Pb(NO3)2 Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

SALT ANALYSIS

Page # 173 Sol.

Sol.

31. The final solution contains (A) [Pb(NH3)4]2+ and [CoCl4]2– (B) [Al(NH3)4]3+ and [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (C) [Ag(NH3)2]+ and [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (D) [Ag(NH3)2]+ and [Ni(NH3)6]2+ Sol.

32. Passing H2S gas into a mixture of Mn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions in an acidified aqueous solution precipitates [JEE 2011] (A) CuS and HgS (B) MnS and CuS (C) MnS and NiS (D) NiS and HgS Sol.

Paragraph for Question Nos. 35 to 36 An aqueous solution of a mixture of two inorganic saits, when treated with dilute HCl. gave a precipilate (P) and a filtrate (Q). The precipitate P was found to dissolve in hot water. The filtrate (Q) remained unchanged, when treated with H2S in a dilute mineral acid medium. However, it gave a precipitate (R) with H2S in an ammoniacal medium. The precipitate R gave a coloured solution (S), when treated with H2O2 in an aqueous NaOH medium. 35. The precipitate P contains (A) Pb2+ (B) Hg22+ (C) Ag+ (D) Hg2+ Sol.

33. For the given aqueous reaction, which of the statement(s) is (are) true ? [JEE 2012] excess KI + K3[Fe(CN)6]

dil.H2SO4

brownish-yellow

36.

solution ZnSO4

The coloured solution S contains (A) Fe2(SO4)3 (B) CuSO4 (C) ZnSO4 (D) Na2CrO4

Sol.

white precipitate + brownish-yellow filtrate Na2S2O 3

colourless solution (A) The first reaction is a redox reaction (B) White precipitate is Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 (C) Addition of filtrate to starch solution gives blue colour. (D) White precipitate is solution in NaOH solution. Sol.

34.

Upon treatment with ammoniacal H2S, the metal ion that precipitates as a sulfide is (A) Fe(III) (B) Al(III) (C) Mg(II) (D) Zn(II) : 0744-2209671, 08003899588 | url : www.motioniitjee.com,

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Page # 174

SALT ANALYSIS

AAnswers NSWER-KEY OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE MAIN)

Answer Ex–I Q.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

A

A 16

B 17

B 18

B 19

D 20

B 21

C 22

B 23

A 24

C 25

A 26

B 27

C 28

B 29

A 30

D 31

C 32

D 33

C 34

B 35

B 36

A 37

C 38

C 39

B 40

B 41

D 42

B 43

B 44

B 45

B 46

D 47

C 48

D 49

C 50

D 51

D 52

B 53

D 54

C 55

B 56

D 57

D 58

C 59

B 60

D 61

B 62

D 63

A 64

D 65

B 66

C 67

A 68

D 69

B 70

A

C

A

B

A

Q. A

A

D

B

B

D

A

C

A

B

C

Q. A Q. A Q. A

OBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Answer Ex–II

1

2

3

4

5

B

B

B

D

A

Q.

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

A

D

C

B

B

B

D

A

A

C

B

B

C

C

A

C

Q.

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

A

C

C

D

C

D

D

D

B

A

C

C

D

C

B

Q.

C 36

37

38

A

D

(A) P,Q; (B) R; (C) P,Q,S; (D) P,Q,S

(A) S ; (B) P ,Q,R,S; (C) P,S; (D) P

SUBJECTIVE PROBLEMS (JEE ADVANCED)

Answer Ex–III Q.1 A,C

Q.2

B,C

Q.3

A,C

Q.4

A,B,C

Q.5 C,D

Q.6

A,C,D

Q.7

A,B,D

Q.8

B,C

Subjective Q.1

The reactions indicate that the compound (A) is sodium thiosulphate. It is formed in step (i) by passing gas (B) which is either I2.  Na2S2O3 + 2NaI (i) Na2S + Na2 SO3 + I2  (B)  Ag2S2O3+ 2NaNO3 (ii) 2AgNO3 + Na2S2O3  (White ppt)  Ag2S + H2SO4 Ag2S2O3 + H2O  (C) black  [Fe3+ (S2O3)2]– (iii) S2O32– + Fe3+  (D) violet  2Fe2+ + S4O62– [Fe(S2O3)2]– + Fe3+   Cu2S2O3  + S4O62– (iv) 2Cu2+ + 3S2O32–  white ppt.  Na4[Cu6(S2O3)5] 3Cu2S2O3  + 2Na2S2O3  white ppt. (excess) (E) soluble complex

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174

SALT ANALYSIS

Page # 175

2.

A = CoCl2, B = CoS, C=K4[Co(CN)6], D = K3[Co(CN)6], E = Na3[Co(CO3)3]

3.

A = 2CuCO3.Cu(OH)2, B=CuO,C=CO2, D=Du, E=Cu2[Fe(CN)6], F = Ca(HCO3)2. Azurite

4.

The ors is chromite FeOCr2O3. Lime (i) 4FeO, Cr2O3 + 8Na2CO3 + 7O2  2Fe2O3 + 8Na2CrO4 (B) (C)  2FeCl3 + 3H2O (ii) Fe2O3 + 6HCl  (B)  Fe[Fe(CN)6]3+ 12 KCl 4FeCl3 + 4K4Fe(CN)6  (D) Prussian blue  Na2Cr2O7 + Na2SO4 + H2O (iii) 2Na2CrO4 + H2SO4  (E)  K2Cr2O7+ 2NaCl (iv) Na2Cr2O7+ 2KCl  (F) orange red  K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 6CO2 + 7H2O (v) K2Cr2O7 + 4H2SO4 + 3H2C2O4   2K3[Cr(C2O4)3] + 3K2SO4 Cr2(SO4)3 + 6K2C2O4  (G) Blue crystal

5.

A = CuSO4, H2O, B = CuSO4, C= CuO, D = SO3, E = Ag, F= NO2

Answer Ex–IV

PREVIOUS YEARS PROBLEMS

LEVEL – I 1.

A

2.

D

JEE MAIN 3.

D

LEVEL – II 1.

JEE ADVANCED

 FeCl2 + BaSO4 (i) FeSO4 + BaCl2  (A) white ppt. (B)  (ii) FeSO4.7H2O   FeSO4+ SO2 + SO3 (E) (C) (D) brown residue  2FeCl3 + 3H2O (iii) Fe2O3 + 6HCl  (E) (F) yellow solution  2FeCl2 + 2HCl + S  (iv) 2FeCl3 + H2S  (H) (G)  Fe(SCN)3+ 3NH4Cl (v) FeCl3 + 3NH4SCN 

2.

Pb3O4 + 4HNO3  PbO2 + Pb (NO3)2 + 2H2O (A) (B) 2KI

Pb(NO3 )2  2H2O   PbI2  2KNO3 (C) 2Mn(NO3 )

 HMnO + 4 Pb (NO ) + 2H O PbO2  4 3 3 2 4HNO 3

(B) 3. 4.

(pink colour) (D) A  NH3 B  CaCO3

Bi(NO3 )3  3K  BiI3  3KNO3 Black BiI3 + KI  K[BiI4] (excess) orang complex

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Page # 176

SALT ANALYSIS A –[Ti(H2O)6]3+ B– HCl MCl4 – TiCl4 Purple colour of [Ti (H2O)6]3+ is due to d- transition.

5.

A = NH4NO3 ; B =N2O & C= H2O NH4NO3  N2O + 2H2O P4 + 10N2O  P4O10 + 10N2 (D)

15.

6.

(A) Hg2 (NO3)2

(B) Hg2Cl2

16

C

17.

B

18.

B,C

(C) HgCl2

(D) K2HgI4

19.

D

20.

C

21.

A

(E) Hg

(F) [Fe (H2O)5(NO)]2+

22.

B

23.

B

24.

A

25.

D

26.

D

27.

A

28.

A,B

29.

B

30.

A

31.

C

32.

A

33.

ACD KI + K3[Fe(CN)6] dil. H2SO4 I2 + K4[Fe(CN)6]

7.

Metal ion, Cu2+ Cu2+(aq) + H2S(aq)  CuS + 2H+ (A) 2Cu2+ + 4I–(aq)  Cu2I2 + I2 (B) A = MnSO4, B = Na2MnO4,

8.

9.

10.

C= NaMnO4,

D = MnO2,

E = HMnO4,

F = BaSO4

A = NaHSO3,

B = Na2SO3,

C = Na2S2O3,

D = Na2S4O6

(excess)

I2 + KI KI3 (brown -yellow sol)' Zn2+ + K4[Fe(CN)6]  K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 + K+ (white ppt) or Zn2[Fe(CN)6] + K+ (white ppt) I2 + Na2S2O3  NaI + Na2S4O6 K2Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2 + NaOH  K+ + [Zn(OH)4]2– (white ppt) + [Fe(CN)6]4–

A = HgI2, B = KI, C = HgS, D= Hg O H3CC=N

H

+2

 O N=CCH3

34.

D Upon treatment with ammionical H2S ZnS ppt as NH4OH + H2S in group reagent for IVth group radicals.

35.

A Pb2+ + Cr3+

Ni

11.

H3CC=N

N=CCH3

H O O hybridisation - dsp2, M.M = 0, Diamagnetic

12.

A1 = CuCO3.Cu(OH)2 (malachite) A2 = Cu2S (copper glance) P = CuI2

36.

G  SO 2 

13.

14.

A = [Fe(SCN)(H2O)5]2+, M.M.  35 Pentaaquathiocyanato-S-iron (III) iron B = [FeF6]3–, M.M.  35 hexaflouroferrate (III) ion A = conc. H2SO4 B = Br2 CH3

O2N

NO2

D=

(T.N.T.)

C = NO2+

dil. HCl

PbCl2  + CrCl3 (Q) white ppt. soluble in hot water insoluble in cold

D CrCl3 + H2S + dil HCl CrCl3 + H2S + NH4OH H2S

2H

+

No ppt. Cr(OH)3(s) Green (R)

+S

2–

+

NH4OH

NH4 + OH

+

H2O

2H + OH 2–

S ion conc. increases which causes ppt. ion

Cr(OH)3(s) +

NaOH + H2O2 oxidising agent

Na2CrO4 Yellow solution (R)

NO2 (Explosive) Corporate Head Office : Motion Education Pvt. Ltd., 394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar, Kota-5 (Raj.)

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