Chemistry of Paper (Roberts J.C.)

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THE CHEMISTRY OF PAPER

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THE CHEMISTRY OF PAPER

J.C. ROBERTS Department of Paper Science, UMIST, Manchester

SOCIETY OF C H EMISTRY Information Services

ISBN 0-85404-518-X A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

0The Royal Society of Chemistry

1996

All rights reserved. Apart from any f a i r dealing f o r the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review as permitted under the t e r n of the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may not be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of The Royal Society of Chemistry, or in the case of reprographic reproduction only in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing A g m y in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to The Royal Society of Chemistly at the address printed on this page. Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 4WF, UK Typeset by Keytec Typesetting Ltd, Bridport, Dorset Printed and Bound By Athenaeum Press Ltd, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear

Preface

For what is usually thought of as an essentially mechanical process, paper manufacture involves a surprisingly large amount of chemistry. From the conversion of wood into pulp to the formation of the final sheet, chemical principles are important. The delignification of a suitable plant source, usually wood, is a chemically heterogeneous process which is performed a t elevated temperature and pressure. The lignin of the lignified plant tissue is solubilised from the wood matrix, thereby liberating the component fibres as a cellulose-rich pulp from which the paper or board will be made. The pulp is then often bleached, and the chemistry of this process has changed considerably over the past decade because of the adverse environmental impact of chlorine-based bleaching systems. The component fibres are finally formed from a wet suspension into a bonded network sheet structure whose mechanical strength is provided by both the fibres themselves and by extensive inter-fibre hydrogen bonding. A great deal of chemistry is involved in this formation process, especially as it is often necessary for the sheet to be modified in order to give it properties which are appropriate to its end use. The chemistry is both wide ranging and interesting. I t involves carbohydrate chemistry, the chemistry of inorganic pigments, organic resins- both natural and synthetic-and many other organic and polymeric additives. The sheet formation process also involves a considerable amount of colloid and surface chemistry. Polymer chemistry and environmental and analytical chemistry also play an important part. My primary objective has been to provide an introduction to the most important parts of the process of making paper in which chemistry plays a role, and I have attempted to deal with the chemistry of the process in more or less chronological order. Because V

vi

Preface

of the complexity of many of the processes, and also the abundance of available literature, the subjects are necessarily covered somewhat briefly. However, I have attempted, where possible, to emphasise important principles, and the reader is directed to other recommended reading for a more comprehensive coverage. This book should be suitable to anyone who has a reasonable knowledge of chemistry to around degree level but who requires an introduction to the chemistry of paper manufacture.

Dedication

To Francis John and Christopher Leslie.

vii

Contents

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Paper

1

Introduction Definition of Paper Production and Consumption Fibre Sources Product Types Chemical Composition of Paper Conversion of Natural Fibres into Paper

Chapter 2 The Material of Paper

11

Introduction Fibre Morphology and Wood Cell Structure Chemical Composition of Paper

11 11 17

Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

26

Introduction Lignin Structure The Biosynthesis and Biogenesis of Lignin in Plant Cell Walls Dissolution of Lignin during Pulping Carbohydrate Degradation during Delignification

26 26 27 35 44

ix

X

Contents

Bleaching High Purity Dissolving Pulps

48 51

Chapter 4 Cellulose Fibre Networks

52

Introduction The Structure of Cellulose Bonding in Paper Mechanical Strength Liquid Penetration into Paper

52 54 56 59 66

Chapter 5 The Paper Formation Process

69

Introduction Fibre Pretreat men t The Effects of Refining The Sheet-forming Process

69 69 72 86

Chapter 6 The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-making System

89

Introduction Surface Chemistry of Fibres and Fillers Polyelectrolytes in Paper Making

89 89 100

Chapter 7 Chemical Additives in the Paper Formation Process

109

Introduction Paper Chemical Use in Specific Product Grades Retention and Drainage Aids Dry Strength Additives Internal Sizing Wet Strength

109 110 111 117 124 131

Contents

xi

Chapter 8 The Surface Modification of Paper

141

Introduction Surface Sizing Pigment Coating

141 142 148

Chapter 9 Recycling of Cellulose

153

Introduction Grades of Waste Paper Changes in Paper and Fibres during Recycling Preparation of Waste Paper for Paper Making

153 153 155 158

Chapter I0 Paper Making and the Environment

161

Introduction The Fibre Resource Waste Disposal

161 161 165

Recommended Reading

176

Subject Index

178

Acknowledgements

My grateful thanks are extended to Guomei Peng who gave me enormous help with collecting data and constructing tables and graphs; to Dr. Chris Wilkins for contributing the photomicrographs; and to Huguette Chatterton, Pam Kirk and Rachel Parker who, a t various times, converted my rather confused dictations into a workable format. I would also like to thank Professor Kit Dodson (University of Toronto), Dr. Derek Priest (UMIST) and the staff of Weyerhaeuser Technical Centre in Seattle for many valuable discussions. I would also like to thank UMIST for granting me a year of study leave to prepare this book, and my colleagues in the Paper Science Department of UMIST for shouldering many of my normal responsibilities during that year. Last but not least I am indebted to my wife, Lesley, and my children for their patience in bearing with my absence for many hours during the preparation of the manuscript.

...

Xlll

Chapter I

An Introduction to Paper

INTRODUCTION Paper has been an essential part of our civilisation for at least two thousand years and, perhaps because of our familiarity with it, we do not tend to think of it as a particularly complex material. However nothing could be further from the truth. I t is derived from plant sources and therefore has both morphological complexity and physical and chemical complexity. Even our understanding of its load-elongation behaviour, which might be expected to be relatively simple, is still far from complete. The production process itself is also highly sophisticated, involving what is in essence a high-speed filtration process yielding a weak wet fibrous network. This wet web, despite its weakness, must then be pulled continuously through the pressing and drying sections of the paper machine to the reel a t speeds which these days approach 60 km h-I, during which the web undergoes some extension. T o avoid frequent breaks, and to obtain good product uniformity therefore requires some of the most advanced control engineering technology available today. This opening chapter is a brief introduction to the nature of paper, its history and to its modern day use.

DEFINITION OF PAPER When we think of paper we think of it primarily as a writing and printing medium, and then perhaps as a wrapping and packaging material. However, because many other products -for example, tissue, board, filtration media, surgical wrap, etc. -are made by essentially the same process, a broader definition is more appropriate. For the purpose of this text therefore, paper will be defined in 1

2

Chapter 1

terms of its method of production, that is a sheet material made up of a network of natural cellulosic fibres which have been deposited from an aqueous suspension. The product which is obtained is a network of interlocking fibres with an approximately layered s tructure about 30-300 pm thick. The width of an individual fibre is in the range 10 to 50 pm, and a sheet of writing paper of 100 pm thickness would therefore be expected to be about 5 to 10 fibres thick (Figure 1.1). The precise time and place at which paper was introduced into our civilisation is not known with any certainty. Before 700 BC, animals skins were certainly the medium of written communication, but these were displaced by papyrus by the Egyptians at some time around 600 BC. Papyrus, although derived from a plant source, is not strictly paper as defined above, as it is made by separating and spreading the pellicles of the aquatic papyrus plant on to a flat surface sprinkled with water rather than by depositing a network of fibres from an aqueous suspension. Various forms of parchment, which are close relatives of papyrus, were used by the Greeks and Chinese for the next 800 years, but it was not until around 200 AD that the Chinese introduced the art of making paper by reducing fibrous matter to a pulp in water and then forming it as a network. The Chinese are thus usually credited with the invention of modern paper manufacture.

Figure 1.1

Scanning electron photomicrograph of a cross section of a national newspaper comprising 90% spruce and 10% pine thermomechanical pulp (TMP) jibres (45 g m-2 and -8jibres thick). Scale bar = 25 pm.

3

A n Introduction to Paper

The fibres from which paper is made are the structural cells of plants, and paper could therefore be made, in principle, from a wide variety of plant sources. In practice, the sources are limited by factors such as availability, crop yield per hectare, and quality of the fibre. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries cotton in the form of rags was the main fibre source, and the pioneer paper-making factories grew up around the sites of the textile manufacturing industry. Since the early part of the twentieth century, as the demand for paper grew and the waste from the textile industry was no longer able to satisfy the demand, wood became increasingly used, so that now over 90% of virgin fibre (that is excluding any recycled fibre) is derived from wood.

PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION The annual world production of paper and board is around 250 million metric tonnes, and well over half of this is produced in the US and EEC countries. A mere 1.2 million tonnes is produced in the whole of Africa. It is also consumed almost totally by the developed world and the per capita consumption of paper and board products varies hugely throughout the world (Table 1.1). In addition to fibre obtained directly from plant sources by chemical or mechanical treatment (virgin fibre), recycled fibre is also used and to an increasing extent for paper and board production. A breakdown of world fibre usage is given in Table 1.2 and the subject

Table 1.1 Annual per capita consumption (1991) of paper and board products in various regions world-wide. (Source: 1993 USA Pulp and Paper Fact Book). Region

Annual per capita consumption Ofpaper and boardkg

USA and Canada Japan Nordic Countries EEC Australasia S. Africa Eastern Europe S. America Asia Africa (excl. S. Africa)

294 248 213 156 126 43 29 28 21 3

4

Chapter 1

Table 1.2

The source offibre world-wide f o r paper and board production. (Source: Pulp and Paper International, ‘International Fact and Price Book’, 1994).

~~

Year

World pulp World paper and production from board consumption virgin fibre (million tonnes) (million tonnes)

1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1983 1978

163.5 162.6 162.6 164.1 161.7 154.3 131.1 122.2

245.7 239.4 238.1 231.7 225.3 214.3 176.9 157.6

Reycled fibre usage (million tonnes)

Recycledjbre usage (Yo)

82.2 76.8 75.5 67.6 63.6 60.0 45.8 35.4

33.5 32.1 31.2 29.2 28.2 28.0 25.9 22.5

of paper recycling and its chemistry is discussed more fully in Chapter 9. Recycled fibre now accounts for over a third of all fibrous raw material and, over the past few years, its use has steadily increased whilst that of virgin pulp has remained fairly constant. The extent to which recycled fibre is used varies greatly from country to country. In Europe, where there is a fibre deficiency, it accounts for over half of the total fibrous raw material whereas in North America and Canada, where wood is plentiful, recycling levels are much lower. There is still scope therefore to increase further the use of recycled fibre and, as the consumer is increasingly demanding it in paper and board products, the upward trend is expected to continue for some time yet. Recycled fibre is not distributed uniformly through all grades of products; some grades-for example many types of board-use 100% whereas others, such as speciality grades and some high quality writing grades use none at all. This subject is discussed more fully in Chapter 9.

FIBRE SOURCES Although the amount of recycling could still be increased, there is almost certainly an ultimate limit to the extent to which recycled fibre can be used, and it is difficult to foresee a totally ‘closed fibre’

5

A n Introduction to Paper

industry in which no new fibre is introduced. Most of the newly introduced fibre will also probably continue to be derived from wood, although annual crops can be expected to play an increasingly important role. Approximately 30% of the earth’s land surface is forested, and around half of this is harvested commercially. Over 80% of the wood for all industrial uses comes from the forests of North America, Europe and what was formerly the Soviet Union. Approximately two thirds of this is either sawn or peeled. Paper is generally made either from logs that are unsuitable for sawing or peeling or from residues arising from these processes. Both hardwoods and softwoods are used for making paper and they have very different fibre morphologies and thus very different paper-making properties. The fibres of softwoods are longer and stronger than those of hardwoods and they make up the bulk of paper-making fibre world-wide (Table 1.3). However, because they easily form macroscopic flocs of entangled fibres during the sheet forming process, they tend to produce a sheet with a relatively non-uniform mass distribution and hence a poorer quality of appearance (this is known by paper technologists as formation). It is common therefore to use blends of softwood and hardwood fibres to give an appropriate compromise between strength and formation. The characteristics of hardwood and softwood fibres are discussed at greater length in Chapter 2. Non-woody fibre, although relatively small in volume is nevertheless important, particularly in the developing world where the use of indigenous raw materials can substantially reduce the amount of foreign exchange spent on importing costly wood pulp. The main sources of these fibres are bagasse, bamboo, jute, ramie, hemp, flax and cotton, and also various grasses and straws, such as esparto,

Table 1.3

World-wide hardwood, softwood and non-wood Pulp production (1988). (Source: S . Dillen and H . Norstrom. Pulp and Paper International, 1990, 32 (lo), p. 61-65). Million tonnes

Softwood pulp Hardwood pulp Non-wood pulp Total

99.2 41.6 19.2 160

%

62 26 12 100

6

Chapter 1

wheat, barley or rice. Their main advantage over wood is that they can frequently be grown in areas which will not support trees, and in limited rainfall in low quality soil. In general, they produce an annual crop with a higher yield than wood. For example, straw can he produced at yields as high as 20 metric tons per hectare, which is considerably greater than the annual growth of most tree species. Non-woody plants can also be harvested relatively quickly- usually one or two years after planting-whereas trees require ten to twenty years to reach sufficient maturity. The paper-making properties of all of these fibres are quite different from each other and also from wood. This is mostly due to the differing morphology and to some extent the differing chemistry of the fibre cells. The photomicrograph (Figure 1.2), shows a comparison between various non-woody fibre types.

PRODUCT TYPES Just over 40% of all the paper which is produced throughout the world is used for communication purposes (newsprint and printing and writing), and over 50% is used for packaging and tissue (Figure 1.3). The remainder is used in rather specialised applications such as filtration media, tea bags and electrical insulation in transformers. Paper is classified in terms of its weight per unit area (basis weight or grammage). Tissue grades are generally in the range 10-40 g m-2, newsprint around 40-50 g m-*, printing and writing grades around 60-90 gm-*, and boards are usually in excess of 100 gm-2. Because of the need to obtain specific characteristics in the final product, for example water absorbency or wet strength, there is a great difference in the chemistry and method of production of these grades.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PAPER As paper is obtained from fibres which were, before chemical and mechanical treatment, the cells of land plants, it does not have a fixed chemical composition but one which is largely pre-determined by the fibre source. The cells of land plants are mostly composed of carbohydrate polymers (polysaccharides) which are impregnated to varying degrees, with lignin- a complex aromatic polymer the amount of which generally increases with the age of the plant and which is biosynthesised during the process of lignification. These

A n Introduction to Paper

h

v

7

Chapter I

8 Grade

MillionTonnes

Newsprint Printing & Writing Tissue Packaging Other

70.2 14.2 112.8 17.5

Printing & Writing t8.S%

Packaging 45.8%

Figure 1.3

World-wide distribution of paper and board product types (1992). (Source: Pulp and Paper International, ‘International Fact and Price Book’, 1994).

components and their chemical structures and functions are discussed more fully in Chapters 2 and 4. The carbohydrate part of the cell is dominated by the structural polysaccharide cellulose, but there are also other polysaccharides of a non-structural nature and with a very much lower molecular weight which are known, somewhat misleadingly, as hemicelluloses and which play an important part in pulp and paper properties. The term hemicellulose seems to imply some relationship to cellulose and, at one time, they were thought to be biosynthetic precursors of cellulose. However, it is now well established that these polysaccharides are not involved in the biosynthesis of cellulose, but are a discrete group of polymers with their own specific function in the plant cell wall. In addition to these main components there are also relatively small amounts of organic extractives and trace inorganic materials. The approximate distribution of the three main groups of components together with other trace materials is given in Table 1.4. The overall composition of plant fibre cells in terms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is variable and dependent on the degree of lignification. For wood it is approximately 50% carbon, 6% hy-

9

A n Introduction to Paper

Table 1.4 Distribution o f main chemical components of wood.

Softwood Hardwood

Cellulose

Hemicelldoses

Lignin

(Yo)

(Yo)

(Yo)

40-45 40-45

20 15-35

25-35 17-25

Extractiues and trace materials

(W < 10 < 10

drogen and 44% oxygen. Carbohydrates, because they all have more or less the same elemental composition of (CH20),, have a more or less uniform carbon content of around 40%. Lignin, on the other hand, is an aromatic polymer with the approximate composition C l o H l 1 O 4and therefore has a much higher average carbon content of about 60-65% (Table 1.5).

CONVERSION OF NATURAL FIBRES INTO PAPER Paper can be made from fibre cells in their more or less unmodified form, by simple mechanical disintegration to disperse them in water, and then forming them into a web by the process described in Chapter 5. This process of mechanical pulping is suitable only for products with a short life span-because the lignin (which is not removed) discolours in sunlight as a result of photochemically catalysed oxidation processes, and the paper becomes yellow and brittle. The use of lignin-containing fibres is therefore restricted to products such as newsprint and disposable light-weight coated paper. For higher quality papers which are required to have a longer lifetime, it is necessary to remove the lignin by a chemical pulping

Table 1.5

Approximate C, H, 0 content of lignin from spruce and beech. (Source: ‘Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, C hemistry and Potential Applications’ eds. J. Kirk Kent, T. Higuchi and H. M. Chang, Vol. 1, CRC Press, Florida, 1980).

Spruce lignin (softwood) Beech lignin (hardwood)

Formula

C(Y0)

H

C9.92H10.6803.32

65.1

5.8

29.1

C10.39H1 1.6603.92

62.6

5.9

31.5

(Yo)

0 (%)

10

Chapter I

process. This involves a high temperature and pressure reaction in which the lignin is solubilised under aqueous alkaline, neutral or acidic conditions. Non-aqueous solvent pulping procedures have also been developed but are not yet in full commercial use. The chemical removal of lignin produces a brown pulp, the colour of which is mostly due to chromophores associated with small amounts of residual lignin. It is therefore often followed by a bleaching operation which, in the past, has been almost exclusively chlorine-based but, as a result of environmental pressures, is being superseded by other methods. Chemical delignification and subsequent bleaching are discussed more fully in Chapter 3. Such fibres will be used in high quality printing and writing grades, and in high added-value speciality applications.

Chapter 2

The Material of Paper

INTRODUCTION Unlike most chemical raw materials, the fibres which are used for paper making are produced not synthetically but biosynthetically as plant cells. The paper maker therefore, apart from using crop selection and strategies for growth and harvesting, has little control over fibre shape and chemical composition. As these have a profound influence upon the subsequent chemistry of the paper-making process, and also upon the physical and mechanical properties of the end product, it is important to understand something of the morphology, structure and chemical composition of paper-making fibres.

FIBRE MORPHOLOGY AND WOOD CELL STRUCTURE Plant cell walls may have shapes varying from spherical to cylindrical, and sizes varying from under 1 mm to several centimetres. I n higher plants, two types of functional cell walls can be distinguished. These are the primary cell wall, which surround the growing cell, and the secondary cell wall, which is laid down when growth has ceased. The cell wall is a complex composite material and contains both structural and non-structural components. These components are mainly polysaccharides, although lignin and proteins also play an important part. The structural component is usually partly crystalline, and exists in the form of microfibrils. The most common of these is cellulose, which is a linear /3- 1,4-1inked polysaccharide of /3-D-glucopyranose, the molecular and crystal structure of which is discussed more fully in Chapter 4. Some algae contain structural polysaccharides composed of mannose and xylose units, but these 11

12

Chapter 2

have no industrial importance in paper manufacture. The nonstructural polysaccharides are chemically more complex, and their function in the plant cell wall is still poorly understood. The cellulose in wood and other species is present as microfibrils which are arranged in parallel lamellae and which occur in a number of orientations with respect to the cell axis. In various species of green algae, there are two main microfibrillar orientations, which are arranged in a shallow and a steep helix running round the vesicles. I n the higher plants such as wood, the cell wall is made of co-axial layers of cellulose microfibrils, embedded in an amorphous matrix of hemicellulose and, in the later stages of the growing cycle, of lignin. Predominantly two types of wood -hardwood and softwood -are used for paper making. Softwoods are used more frequently because of their relatively long fibre length but hardwoods, although shorter in fibre length, play an important role in assisting the formation of the sheet. The relative amounts of each of these types of wood used for paper making world-wide are given in Table 1.3 (Chapter 1) . The terms hardwood and softwood are not well-defined and do not, as might be imagined, reflect the physical properties of the timber. Some hardwoods are relatively soft, and some softwoods may be relatively hard. Strictly, the correct definition is a botanical one. Gymnosperms (softwoods) are species in which the seed is exposed and which are evolutionary older and therefore simpler in structure than the angiosperms (hardwoods), which have their seeds enclosed. The terms conifer (softwood, gymnosperms) and broadleaf (hardwood, angiosperms) are also often used in place of these more precise botanical definitions. The anatomical structures of hardwoods and softwoods are quite different as demonstrated by the photomicrographs in Figure 2.1. The dominant cells of each type of wood are also very different (Figure 2.2). In softwoods, the main cell type is the tracheid, which is often mistakenly referred to as a fibre. Tracheids constitute over 90% of the volume of most softwoods, and are the principal paper-making cells of softwoods. Their average length is usually between 2 and 4 mm, with a 1ength:width ratio (aspect ratio) often in excess of 100 to 1, but there is a wide distribution of tracheid lengths, and it is possible for some to be as short as 1 mm and for others to be as long as 5 mm (Table 2.1). The lumen, or central cavity, is several times wider than the cell wall thickness. There is also a difference between spring wood (i.e. cells synthesised in the early part of the annual

The Material of Paper

13

(a)

Figure 2.1

Light photomicrographs of wood cross-sections illustrating dgferent anatomical features of softwood and hardwood: (a) pine (softwood), (b) birch (diffuse porous hardwood), ( c ) oak (ring porous hardwood). Scale bar = 200 pm.

Chapter 2

Figure 2.2

Table 2.1

Light photomicrographs of jibre preparations illustrating the morphological differences between softwood and hardwood commercial pulps: (a) bleached sulfate pine (softwood), (b) bleached sulfate eucalyptus (hardwood). Scale bar = 200 pm.

The cell dimensions of ppical hardwood and softwood.

Softwood tracheids Hardwood tracheids

hngth (mm)

Width (mm)

Asfed ratio

2-4 1.1-1.2

0.02-0.04 0.014-0.04

50-200 28-86

growing season) and summer wood (cells synthesised in the later part of the season). Usually spring wood tracheids have thinner walls and larger diameters than summer wood tracheids. In addition to tracheids, there is a small number (less than lo%), of ray cells.

The Material

15

of Paper

These are narrow short cells (usually less than 0.2 mm in length) which are often lost in screening of chemical pulps, but are usually found in mechanical pulps. In addition, there are also epithelial cells which, in the original wood, are found surrounding the spaces which make up the resin canals. These canals may be up to 0.3 mm in diameter, and contain large quantities of resin, the chemistry of which is discussed more fully later in this chapter. In hardwoods, about 50% of the volume of the wood is made up of fibres and fibre tracheids, which are considerably shorter than softwood tracheids, being of the order of 0.5 to 3 mm, with an average of around 1 mm and with a very narrow width of around 20 pm. In addition to these cells, there are also vessel elements which are large empty cells and which vary considerably in size and shape. They are a series of broad, articulated cells (around 100 pm), which are very long (many centimetres) and their function is to channel sap in almost straight lines. In some species, they may account for up to 50 to 60% of the volumetric composition, but usually less than 10% by weight. Ray and parenchyma cells are also present in hardwoods, as they are in softwoods, although they are more abundant and exhibit a greater variety of form. The ray cells are thin-walled rectangular shaped cells which grow at right angles to the wood fibre. They may constitute from 5 to 35% of the volume of the original wood.

Softwood Structure Four distinguishable layers or groups of lamellae can be identified in mature softwood cells. These are the primary cell walls, and the three parts of the secondary cell wall (the outer, the middle and the inner secondary cell wall-sometimes referred to as S1, S2 and S3 layers). The primary cell wall is a thin membrane which surrounds the protoplast during cell division and subsequent enlargement. In the developing cell, it mostly consists of water but a substantial proportion of the solid material is cellulose in the form of microfibrils which are widely spaced and partially interwoven. These microfibrils must have the ability to move relative to one another as the cell enlarges. The microfibrils are believed to be deposited transversely but, as the cell elongates, the orientation becomes much less marked, due to longitudinal displacement. The secondary cell wall is formed within the primary wall and comprises a series of lamellae, which are much more ordered than in the primary cell. A schematic representation of the structures of the primary and secondary cell walls of a softwood tracheid is shown in Figure 2.3.

16

Figure2.3

Chapter 2

A schematic representation of the structure of the primary (P) and secondary (Sl, S2 and S3) cell walls of a softwood tracheid (ML = middle lamella). (Source: Reproduced from 'Wood Ultrastructure', W.A. Cote Jr., University of Washington Press, Syracuse, NY, 1967).

The outer secondary cell wall ( S l ) is comparable in thickness to the primary wall and consists of four to six lamellae which spiral in opposite directions around the longitudinal axis of the tracheid. The main bulk of the secondary wall is contained in the middle secondary cell wall (S2), and may be as little as 1 pm thick in early woods and up to 5 pm in summer wood. The microfibrils of this part of the wall spiral steeply about the axial direction at an angle of around 10 to 20". The inner secondary wall (S3), sometimes also known as the tertiary wall, is not always well developed, and is of no great technological importance.

The Material of Paper

17

The orientation of the microfibrils within the S2 layer has an important bearing on mechanical properties of the fibre such as its modulus of elasticity. In general, the smaller the angle that the microfibrils of the S2 layer make with the fibre axis, the greater is the stiffness of the fibre and the greater is its resistance to creep in response to axial stress. Figure 2.4 shows the relationship between the mechanical properties of single cotton fibres (elastic modulus and extension at break) and the mean fibrillar orientation of microfibrils within various layers of the cell wall as measured by the X-ray angle. The molecular architecture of the cellulose molecule in relationship to the microfibrils and the total cell wall is shown in Figure 2.5. ,

Hardwood Structure Although there are about twice as many hardwood as softwood trees throughout the world, hardwoods provide only around 25% of the world’s wood pulp for paper making. This is because hardwood forests usually contain many different species and these have varying chemical requirements for pulping. The wood in the stem of hardwood trees is also usually a smaller proportion of the entire tree than in softwoods and, in addition, hardwood fibres are shorter and thicker walled and tend to have a higher hemicellulose content than softwood tracheids. This gives rise to a weaker fibre and therefore has an influence upon strength. Because of the presence of vessel elements there is also a relatively low yield of elongated cells.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PAPER The chemical composition of paper will depend greatly upon the chemical treatment which the wood has been subjected to during its conversion to pulp, When the pulp has received little or no chemical treatment, as in the case of pulp for newsprint, the chemical composition is very similar to that of the native wood. However, in those papers which have been chemically delignified, the composition may be very different. The natural compositions of native wood (softwoods and hardwoods) and the chemical pulps derived from them are shown in Table 2.2. In general, these chemical treatments reduce the percentage of lignin, hemicellulose and extractives and increase that of cellulose. The chemistry of these processes is discussed more fully in Chapter

loo

n

t

80

3

3 m

a a

60

. I

BE U

. I

bQ 40

I

a4

20

24

Figure 2.4

28

36 X-ray angle 32

40

44

0 24

28

32 36. X-ray angle

40

44

T h effect ofjibrillar angle upon the mechanical Properties of the jibres when they are used to make paper. (Source: Adapted from ( i ) ‘Cell Wall Mechanics of Trecheids’, M.R.E. London, Yale University, 1967, p. 169-170; ( i i ) ‘A Microscopic Study of Coniferous Wood in Relation to its Strength Properties’, H. Garland. Ann. Missouri Botan. Card., 1939, 26, 1-95; ( i i i ) ‘Morphological Foundations of Fibre Properties’, L.J. Rebenfeld, J . Polymer Sci., 1965, C9, p. 91-112).

19

The Material of Paper

/ .j

Plant cell with part of wall cut away

/ ,

Macrofibril -0.5pm wide

Microfibril -25 nm diameter

//H

Paracrystalline region

Elementary fibril - 7 ~ 3 x 6 0nm

Cellulose chains arranged in a crystalline lattice

Figure 2.5

The molecular architecture of the cellulose molecule showing its relationship to the micro3brils and to the total cell wall. (Source: Adapted from various sources including: P.A. MOSS, PhD Thesis, University of Manchester, 1990; 'Electron Microscopy and Plant Ultrastructure', A.W. Robards, McGraw-Hill, NY,1970).

20

Chapter 2

Table 2.2

The natural composition of native wood and the pulps derived from them.

(Dated collected from various sources). Pulping Tree process species

Sulfite Kraft

Cellulose ( '/o )

Hemicellulose ("10)

Lignin (O/O )

Extractives

Wood Pulp

Wood Pulp

Wood Pulp

Wood Pulp

27 20 27 20

2 3 4 3

Spruce 41 Birch 40 Pine 39 Birch 40

78.1 81.6 73.3 63.6

30 37 30 37

17.1 12.2 18.9 31.8

(Yo)

3.8 4.1 6.3 3.7

1 .o 2.1 1.1 0.9

3. For the moment, the chemistry of each of the individual groups of components will be considered.

Cellulose Cellulose is the primary structural component of the cell wall and, after removal of lignin and various other extractives, it is also the primary structural component of paper. Chemically, it is a semicrystalline microfibrillar linear polysaccharide of p- 1,4.-linked Dglucopyranose (Figure 2.6). Like most polysaccharides it is polydisperse with a high molecular weight. Its degree of polymerisation is typically between 10000 and 15 000 glucose residues depending upon source and it is never found in a completely crystalline form, but occurs as a partly crystalline

Figure 2.6

The molecular structure of cellulose.

21

The Material of Paper

and partly amorphous material. The degree of crystallinity is dependent upon the source of the cellulose. Cotton and various algal celluloses such as Valonia, are highly crystalline, whereas wood cellulose tends to be less so. Cellulose can also originate from bacterial sources, although these have no commercial use as fibre in paper manufacture, the best known example being Acetobacter ~$inum which produces extra cellular cellulose as a small pellicle extending from its cell. I t is not known why bacteria biosynthesise extra cellular cellulose, but it does not seem to have a structural function as it does in plants. Cellulose biogenesis in Acetobacter has been studied extensively and there are many parallels to its formation in plants where it is biosynthesised from uridine diphosphate-D-glucose (UDP-D-glucose) which is able to add one glucose unit to the growing polymer chain (Figure 2.7). The polysaccharide chains form crystalline domains after biosynthesis. The detailed molecular and crystal structure of cellulose is discussed more fully in Chapter 4.

Hernicelluloses The hemicelluloses are a group of non-structural, low molecular weight, mostly heterogeneous polysaccharides which are unrelated tu cellulose and are formed biosynthetically by a separate route. They are not, as the name seems to imply, biosynthetic precursors of cellulose. Their function in the cell wall is poorly understood, but their molecular weight is too low for them to be major structural components (their degree of polymerisation is between 150 and 200). There has been speculation that they may have some function in water transport. They are most usually based upon polysaccharides of the hexoses D-glucopyranose, D-mannopyranose and D-galactopyranose and the pentoses D-xylopyranose and L-arabinofuranose. Smaller amounts of D-glucuronic and/or D-galacturonic acid and their 4- 0-methylated derivatives are also usually present and the monosaccharide units are often partly acetylated. As can be seen from Table 2.2 a substantial amount of hemicellulose is retained in pulp even after its chemical delignification. The principal hemicellulose present in softwoods is galactoglucomannan which constitutes about 20% of the diy weight. This consists of a linear /3- 1,4-linked D-glucopyranose and D-mannopyranose backbone with a-1,6-linked D-galactopyranose residues as single side chain substituents. The galactose substituents may be of high or low frequency depending upon the source of the galactoglucomannan. In the low galactose containing types, the ratio of galactose

Chapter 2

22

D-glucopyranose

llridine triphosphate (1JTP)

acD-glucopyranosyl-1-phosphate

HO

OH

Uridine diphosphate-D-glucose (UDP-D-glucose)

1

Figure 2.7

Transported to site of chain synthesis

Biosynthesis of cellulosefrom D-glucopyranose in land plants. (Source: Adapted from various sources including: (i) 'Wood chemistry', E. Sjostrom, 2nd edition, 1993, p. 52; (ii) 'Cellulose Biosynthesis', D.F. Delmer, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol., 1987, 38, 259-290; (iii) Biosynthesis in Plant Cell Walls', D.F. Delmer, in 'The Biochemistry of Plants', vol. 14, Academic Press, San Diego, 1988, pp. 373-420).

The Material of Paper

23

to glucose to mannose is about 0.1:1:4, whereas in the high galactose containing variety the ratio is 1:1:3. In addition, the polysaccharide is usually partially acetylated. The second important group of hemicelluloses found in softwoods are the arabino-(4- 0-methylglucurono)xylans, which may make up from 5 to 10% of the dry weight of the wood. These consist of /3-1,4-linked D-xylopyranose units, partially substituted by L-arabinofuranose (at the 3 position) and by 4-0-methyl D-glucuronic acid (at the 2 position). The frequency of these substituent groups is around 1 to 2 residues per 10 xylose units. Smaller amounts of other hemicellulose polysaccharides are also found in softwoods. In particular, larch contains an unusually large amount of arabinogalactan, which is usually only a minor components of other wood species. The major group of hemicelluloses found in hardwoods are the glucuronoxylans. These consist of a /3- 1,4-1inked D-xylopyranose backbone with 4- 0-methyl D-glucuronic acid substituents linked a-1,2. I n addition, the 2,3 positions of the xylose backbone may be partially acetylated. The glucuronoxylan content of hardwood is typically between 15 and 30% by weight of the wood. Hardwoods also often contain small amounts of glucomannan, typically around 2 to 5% by weight. This is very similar to the galactoglucomannan found in softwoods, in that the backbone consists of P-D-glucopyranose and fi-D-mannopyranose units 1,4-linked to each other. The proportion of glucose and mannose may vary from 1:2 to 1:l depending on wood species. The hemicelluloses are much more easily hydrolysed by acids than cellulose, but they tend to be more stable to alkali. It is widely recognised that they are beneficial to pulp and paper properties, although the reasons are not well understood. The tensile strength of paper, for example, generally correlates positively with the hemicellulose content. There is some evidence that they become adsorbed to fibre surfaces during pulping and mechanical refining where they might be expected to assist in inter-fibre bonding. They may also, because of their non-crystalline hydrophilic nature, contribute towards the swelling of the pulp and hence the conformability of the wet fibres during sheet formation. The hemicelluloses are soluble in alkali, and can therefore be readily separated from the cellulose component by alkali extraction. However, this can only be done when the wood has first been delignified. This is because they are probably linked to lignin via covalent ester linkages (see Chapter 3) which need to be cleaved

Chapter 2

24

before the hemicelluloses can be solubilised. It might therefore be expected that they would be solubilised and removed from the wood during alkaline pulping. However, this is not the case. The glucuronoxylans for example are solubilised in the early stages of alkali pulping, but are then reprecipitated onto the fibre surfaces and presumably also back into the cell wall in the later stages of pulping. This is due partly to a decrease in their solubility as the alkali is consumed during the pulping process, and partly to structural modifications such as the removal of uronic acid groups which make the polysaccharide less soluble in alkali. Because of this, the hemicellulose content of alkaline pulps (Kraft) is higher than that of acidic sulfite pulps (Table 2.2). This reprecipitation may also be a contributory factor in making Kraft pulps stronger than sulfite pulps. However, it is not the only explanation and this point is discussed more fully in Chapter 3.

Lignin Lignin is an aromatic polymer, the structure of which is extremely complex and is discussed more fully in the following chapter. Almost all of its properties are undesirable for paper-making applications, and the highest qualities of paper are usually made from pulps from which most of the lignin has been removed. I t causes paper to become brittle, and it is also oxidised photochemically to form coloured by-products which give rise to yellowing and discoloration. Newsprint is the best example of this, but all mechanical pulps in which the lignin is still largely present display this effect.

Resins and Extractives Wood contains a small proportion (usually less than 5%) of components which are extractable by organic solvents such as ethanol or dichloromethane. The proportion of these extractives varies in hardwoods and softwoods and also between species. Although many of these substances are removed during the chemical pulping process, some may still be retained in the final sheet of paper. Their chemical composition is very varied, and they include alkanes, fatty alcohols and acids (both saturated and unsaturated), glycerol esters, waxes, resin acids, terpene and phenolic components. The proportion which remains in pulp and paper depends upon the pulping process used. I n general, acidic components such as the resin and fatty acids are relatively easily removed by alkali by conversion to their soluble

T h Material of Paper

25

carboxylate salt form but, in acidic pulping, they are not so readily solubilised. Some useful by-products of pulping are derived from these extractives, the most important of which are turpentine and tall oil. Turpentine is a mixture of bicyclic hydrocarbons with the empirical formula C10H16,the dominant components of which are CY- and /3-pinene (Figure 2.8). They are produced as volatile by-products at a yield of around 4-5 litres per tonne of wood (for pine) and are used as a solvent and as a chemical feedstock. Tall oil is made up mostly of resin acids with around 10% of neutral components. These resin acids are isomers or structurally close relatives of abietic acid (Figure 2.9) and are used as antislip agents, as a chemical feedstock and as paper-sizing agents (see Chapter 7).

a - Pinene

fiPinene

Figure 2.8 a-and /3-pinene obtained as by-products from the pulping of wood.

Figure 2.9

The molecular structure of abietic acid-the dominant component of wood rosin.

Chapter 3

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

INTRODUCTION In order to produce high quality paper with good strength properties it is necessary to remove the lignin from the wood or fibre matrix. Lignin, by virtue of photooxidation, discolours with age and causes the sheet to become brittle. The ideal pulping process would therefore completely dissolve it, whilst causing no loss or degradation to the carbohydrate component. However, ideal processes do not exist and all the current methods of pulping are a compromise. In order to understand the chemistry of lignin dissolution it is helpful to understand its molecular structure and something of its distribution within the cell wall.

LIGNIN STRUCTURE Lignin comprises about 17-33% of the dry weight of wood. It is a complex aromatic polymer which appears to function both as a strengthening agent in the composite wood structure and also as a component which assists in the resistance of the wood towards attack by micro-organisms and decay. Whilst it is not possible to give a completely detailed structure for lignin, a great deal is known about the molecule. All lignins appear to be polymers of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (p-coumaryl alcohol) or its 3- and/or 3,5-methoxylated derivatives, respectively coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol (Figure 3.1). The contribution of each of these three monomers to the lignin macromolecule differs depending on the source of the lignin. Gymnosperm (softwood) lignin is based only on coniferyl alcohol, 26

The C h i s t r y of Lignin and i:s Removal CH20H

I

CH

CH20H I

CH20H

II CH

CH

CH

II CH

0

27 I II

CH

OH

pCoumaryl alcohol

Figure 3.1

OH Coniferyl alcohol

OH

Sinapyl alcohol

The three monomer repeat units of lignin.

whereas angiosperm (hardwood) lignin is a mixed polymer based on both coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols, and lignin obtained from grasses contains all three alcohols. Structural studies of lignin have proved to be extremely difficult and have been complicated by the fact that there are many bond types in the polymer. These bond types are either carbon-carbon or carbon-oxygen-carbon (ether) and they may involve both the aromatic rings and the three carbon atoms in the side chain. Figure 3.2 and Table 3.1 show the main linkage types in lignin and also the approximate frequency of occurrence in softwoods and hardwoods. O n the basis of analytical and degradative investigations, a partial structure has been proposed for a spruce lignin fragment of 16 aromatic units (Figure 3.3). The average number of methoxy groups is one per aromatic ring and, in addition, there are approximately 0.1 to 0.3 free phenolic groups per aromatic ring in the molecule.

THE BIOSYNTHESIS AND BIOGENESIS OF LIGNIN IN PLANT CELL WALLS Lignification The formation of lignin is unique to vascular plants and, in the case of wood, it provides the tree with unique strength and elastic properties. Primitive plants such as fungi and algae, which do not have differentiated cell tissues, do not contain lignin. Lignin is not uniformly distributed throughout wood, and the use of ultraviolet microscopy shows that it is concentrated in the inter-cellular spaces and is also present, but at a lower concentration, in the cell walls. The distribution of lignin in early wood tracheids of black spruce is shown in Figure 3.4.

bec Chapter 3

28

F

-

O

O

C

C

Lo+-

F

I

C 0 A

c

B

c I

c

c6

C-0

Q 0

0

D

c cII

C

0

0

64 I

F

E C I C

I

C

c

y

I C-C I

66 0

0

G

Figure 3.2

I

0

H

0

I

The main linkage gpes in softwood and hardwood lignin. (Source: E. Alder, Wood Science and Technology, 1977, 11, 169-2 18).

Although rich in lignin, the middle lamella, because of its relatively small volume, is not the region in which most of the lignin is located. The secondary cell wall is lignified to a significant degree and, because of its relatively large tissue volume in comparison to the middle lamella, most of the lignin in wood is in fact located here (Table 3.2). This fact has important consequences for, pulping chemistry, because pulping chemicals, if they are to attack the lignin macromolecule effectively, must be able to penetrate the cell wall and allow dissolution of the lignin.

The C h i s t r y of Lignin and its Remoual

Table 3.1

29

Frequency of occurrence of bond ppes A-I (see Figure 3.2) in softwood and hardwood lignin. (Source: E. Alder, Wood Science and Technology 1977, 11, 169-2 18). ~~

Bond

~

Percentage ( % ) Softwood

Hardwood

48

60

2

2

6-8

6-8 6

9-12

2.5-3

1.5-2.5

9.5- 11

4.5 6.5 7 3

3.5-4 7 2

Biosynthesis A clear understanding of lignin deposition in the cell wall is not yet possible, but a number of facts are known. Lignin precursors of the phenylglucoside type are formed either in the region of the cambium (the zone of new cell synthesis) or within the 1ignift.ing cell itself. Lignification is thus initiated in the differentiated wood cells from the primary walls adjacent to the cell corners and then extends into the inter-cellular area, the lamella, and thereafter to the primary and secondary cell walls. The primary pathway to lignin biosynthesis is the formation of the two key amino acids: L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine, both of which are formed from shikimic acid (Figure 3.5). In wood, lignin is synthesised from L-phenylalanine only, but the grasses do so frofn. both L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. The 4-hydroxycinnamic acid which is formed from these amino acids can then be consecutively hydroxylated and methoxylated at the 3- and 5-positions to give ferrulic and sinapic acids which are then reduced to the corresponding alcohols -p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol (Figure 3.1). The next stage in the biosynthesis is the polymerisation, by dehydrogenation, of these three alcohols by either laccase/oxygen or peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide. These reactions produce phenoxide radicals in which the unpaired electron may be delocalised (Figure 3.6).

30

Chapter 3

s

cI

c

He-

0

0 - k H

HCOH

I

HCOH

HC I C=O

0

Figure 3.3 Partial structure (16 aromatic units) of a spruce lignin fragment. (Source: E. Alder, Wood Science and Technology, 1977, 11, 169-2 18).

The radicals thus formed may then couple non-enzymically in an apparently random fashion to give dimers, trimers and higher oligomers (Figure 3.7). These oligomers and also the lignin produced by their further coupling are optically inactive, despite the presence of chiral centres in the side chain of the phenylpropane units. This makes lignin one of the most unusual of all natural products and it is atypical of many biopolymers such as nucleic acids, proteins and polysaccharides which are all chiral in nature. It is possible to prepare a lignin-like polymer, known as dehydrogenated polymerisate (DHP) in the laboratory by treating coniferyl alcohol in uitro under aerobic conditions with a phenoloxidase

31

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Remoual

Figure 3.4

Distribution of lignin in earlywood tracheids of black spruce. (Source: Reproduced from ‘Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology’, ed. J.P. Casey, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 4. Adapted originally from: (i) B.J. Fergus, A.R. Procter, J.A.N. Scott and D.A.I. Goring, Wood Science and Technology, 1969, 3, 117-138 and (ii) K.V. Sarkanen and C .H. Ludwig (eds.) in, ‘Lignins-Occurrence, Formation, Structure and Reactions’, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971).

Table 3.2 Distribution of lignin in softwoods and hardwoods in the various morphological zones. (Source: B.J. Fergus, A.R. Procter, J.A.N. Scott and D.A.I. Goring, Wood Science and Technology 1969, 3, 117-138). Wood

Morphological region

Tissue volume Lignin Lignin (o/‘ of total) concentration

(1 ‘0 )

(W Softwoods

Hardwoods

Secondary wall Compound middle 1ame11a Cell corner Secondary wall Compound middle lamella Cell corner

91 7

77 13

23 55

3 73 5

11 60 9

93 19 40

2

9

85

enzyme. The DHP thus formed appears to be closely related to natural lignins in terms of its functional group content, and its UV, IR and ’H and 13C NMR spectra. DHP has been used as a model substrate for studies in lignin biodegradation, and it is hoped that

Chapter 3

32

Carbon dioxide

OH Shikimic acid

0

OH

Prephenic acid

OH phydroxyphenylpyruvic acid

1

6'" OH

Ltyrosine

Figure 3.5

Phenylpyruvic acid

1 o y OH

dNH2 Lphenylalanine

The primary pathway to the biosynthesis of the lignin precursors L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine. (Source: H. Higuchi, M. Shimada, F. Nakatsubo and M. Tanahashi, Wood Science and Technology, 1977, 11, 155).

The C h i s t r y of Lignin and its Removal 7

33

CH20H

__c

0

Figure 3.6

0

0

ksonance form-s of phnoxide radicals generated in biosynthesis. (Source: Reproduced from ‘Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, Chemistry and Potential Applications’, eds., T.K. Kirk et al, CRC Press, Florida, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 6).

such studies will in due course lead to the development of commercial biochemical and biotechnological approaches to lignin dissolution from wood. However, at the moment, this seems some years away. If the five resonance forms of the phenoxy radical (Figure 3.6) can couple to any other phenoxy radical, the theoretical number of dimeric structures possible is 25. The relative frequency of involvement of individual sites in the phenolic coupling reaction depends on their relative electron densities. Quantum mechanical calculations predict that the high electron densities at the phenolic oxygen atom and the /? carbon atom would give rise to a high proportion of /?-0-4 linkages, which is indeed observed to be the case (Table 3.1). These lignin precursors then continue to polymerise by a similar mechanism leading to a three-dimensional branched network polymer. The size of this polymer is one of the most difficult problems to resolve in lignin chemistry. The largest computer-simulated model which is in keeping with the all experimental observations of lignin biosynthesis is based on 81 phenylpropane units and has a total molecular weight of about 15 000. However, molecular weights of isolated lignins have been determined within the range 2000 to over 1 million. Although a great deal of work has been done in attempting to determine the molecular distribution of lignin within wood, the resolution of this problem has been difficult and it has even been suggested that lignin may exist as one single molecule in its native environment. Since it is formed by enzymatic dehydrogenation, followed by random coupling reactions, it is possible because of the presence of free phenolic hydroxyl groups that its structure never ceases to grow. However, this fact although important in many ways may not be too important from the perspective of the pulping

Chapter 3

34

CHzOH I CH

CH

0

Hk-

HCOH

OH

OH 2

1

H2COH I

FH

4

Figure 3.7

Formation of oligolignols ly non-engnutic coupling of phenoxide radicals. (Source: 'Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, Chemistry and Potential Applications', eds., T.K. Kirk et a l , CRC Press, Florida, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 6).

chemist, whose main aim is to degrade the lignin structure in order to achieve dissolution.

The Association of Lignin and Carbohydrates Lignin and carbohydrates exist in close association in the wood structure and there is now strong evidence to suggest that formal covalent links exist between the lignin macromolecule and carbo-

35

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

hydrate components of the wood structure. More probably, lignin is bound by an ester linkage to 4- 0-methyh-glucuronic acid residues which decorate the xylan backbone [Figure 3.8(a)]. Perhaps the most convincing evidence for this is the demonstration that guaiacylglycerol-/3-guaiacyl ether reacts a t the C-aposition with the carboxy group of tetra- O-acetyl-/3-D-glucuronicacid to give an ester linkage. The NMR spectrum of this product is shown in Figure 3.8(b).

DISSOLUTION OF LIGNIN DURING PULPING The mechanical and chemi-mechanical pulping processes remove very little lignin and these will be discussed only briefly here. The most widely used commercial methods of more extensive lignin removal are based on aqueous, high temperature extraction procedures at acidic, neutral or alkaline pH. A discussion of the chemistry of these processes follows. Large-scale delignification is not currently carried out by the use of organic solvents, although this is perfectly possible and well-suited to take advantage of the structural differences between the carbohydrates and lignin. The main obstacle to their commercial use is the recovery of very large quantities of organic solvents. However, in recent years pilot-scale operations of several thousand tonnes per year of pulp produced by organic solvent processes have been successfully employed.

Mechanical Pulping In its simplest form, mechanical pulping involves the conversion of raw wood into paper-making pulp by use of mechanical means only and does not involve the removal of lignin. There are many -y XYLANCHAIN

Figure3.8(a) Possible ester linkage between an a-OH of lignin and a carboxyl group of a ~-O-methyl-B-o-gluMlronic acid residue on t h y l a n backbone.

w

Q,

(PPm)

7.0

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0

Figure 3.8(b) The ' H NMR spectrum of the ester formed between guaiacylglycerol-/3-guaiacyZand tetra- O-acetyG/?-D-glucuronic acid. (Source: K. Tanaka, F. Nalatsubo and T. Higuchi, Moluzai, Gakkaishi, 1976, 22, 58).

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

37

variations of the basic method which, in some cases, include mild chemical pretreatments. Until 1960, virtually all mechanical pulps were produced by what was known as the stone-ground wood process (SGW). In this process, blocks of wood are pressed against an abrasive rotating stone surface in an orientation parallel to the axis of the stone, so that the grinding process does as little damage as possible to the fibres. A typical grinder arrangement is shown in Figure 3.9. Since 1960, mechanical pulps have been increasingly produced by refining processes in which the wood is introduced into a disk refiner via a screw feeder. As the wood moves into the refining zone, it is progressively broken down into smaller fragments and finally into fibres. Water is supplied to the refiner to control the consistency, and in some cases, chemicals are also added. Sometimes, the wood is steamed under pressure for a short period before the refining process. This softens the chips and produces pulp with a higher percentage of long fibres, and which is therefore stronger. This process is known as thermo-mechanical pulping and is now one of the major processes for the production of newsprint. The addition of

applied pressure

J

h

1 wA 1 inn

I I

LL

tinger bars

wood magazine

shamening lathe -

shower

I

burr

pit

Figure 3.9

A typical grinder arrangement for the stone-ground wood (SG W) process. (Source: Adapted from ‘Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists’, G.A. Smook, Angus Wilde Publications, Vancouver, 1992, p. 47).

38

Chapter 3

chemicals, either prior to or during the refining process can significantly improve the quality of the resulting pulp. Sulfonation, using sodium sulfite, at typically between 1 and 5% based on the dry weight of the wood, is often used. The lignin, although not significantly removed, becomes partially sulfonated which has the effect of softening the wood in a permanent way. This sulfonation process may also be carried out at an intermediate stage in the pulping process, when the pulp has a larger surface area, and this produces a pulp with improved printing qualities and with improved wet web strength.

Chemical Pulping: General Principles of Aqueous Lignin Dissolution In the chemical pulping processes lignin is dissolved from wood at high pressures and temperatures under aqueous alkaline, neutral or acidic conditions. However, these conditions are severe and also cause degradation of the carbohydrate component by both lowering its molecular weight, hence reducing its strength, and by causing it to be partially solubilised, thus reducing the pulp yield. The aim of an ideal aqueous lignin extraction procedure would be to render the lignin soluble without causing any degradation to the carbohydrate components. This is not a t the present time achievable, and all processes attempt to minimise the amount of carbohydrate degradation and maximise the amount of lignin dissolution (Figure 3.10). Lignin is water-insoluble and it contains only a few hydrophilic functionalities (primarily the phenolic groups). In order to increase its solubility, aqueous pulping processes therefore seek either to introduce water solubilising groups, or to reduce the degree of polymerisation or both.

Lignin Dissolution in Acidic Systems Although acidic pulping methods have largely been displaced over the past 50 years by neutral and alkaline processes, there is still a significant amount carried out. Acid sulfite pulping uses combinations of sulfur dioxide and water at high temperatures and pressures. An appropriate base is used to control the p H and, although usually acidic, it is possible to perform these reactions at neutral or even alkaline pH. The most active nucleophile present is the bisulfite ion,

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal 35

39

I

30 0

$ (cl

g 25 O

U'

2

E"

20 15

c,

a

U

z

a

10

5

n 0

Figure3.10

10 15 20 25 Lignia removed (YOof wood)

5

30

Relative amounts of lignin and carbohydrate removed during the Kraft and acid suljite processes. (Source: Adapted from E. Sjostrom, 'Wood Chemistry', Academic Press, London, 1992, p. 124).

which arises via the following equilibria when sulfur dioxide is dissolved in water:

SO2

+ H 2 0 e H2S03 H 2 S 0 3e H + + H S 0 3 -

The concentration of sulfur dioxide, bisulfite ion and sulfite ion will be a function of pH, and the mole percent of the bisulfite ion is a maximum at around pH 4 (Figure 3.1 1). At lower pH, sulfur dioxide is mostly present and, as the p H increases from 4 to 9, the proportion of sulfite ion increases and that of the bisulfite ion decreases. Usually either calcium or magnesium bases are used to control the pH within the acidic range. The pH is dependent upon the relative solubility of the calcium or magnesium sulfite, and upon the excess of sulfur dioxide which is used. Because of the greater solubility of magnesium sulfite, the magnesium-based

Chapter 3 100

90

80 .m

70

#

60

tcl

g

50 40

v

Z 30 6 20 10

n Y

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

PH Figure 3.11

The mole percent of the bisuljte ion as a function of p H for an aqueous solution of [email protected] dioxide. (Source: E. Sjostrom, P. Haglund, and J. Janson, S u e d Papperstidning, 1962, 65, 855-869).

process can operate at a p H of around 4 to 5, whereas the calcium-based process operates at a lower pH. At these p H values in both the calcium- and magnesium-based processes, the dominant species is the bisulfite ion, and it is this which is the primary nucleophile involved in delignification. The chemical treatment begins with an impregnation stage, essential for satisfactory delignification, in which the chips are submerged in the cooking liquor. Some degradation of the carbohydrate component occurs and the hemicelluloses are particularly vulnerable to acid hydrolysis, and are easily lost during acidic pulping processes. Cellulose, on the other hand, although partially depolymerised via acid hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages, is not dissolved to any great extent. This is because of its relative insolubility even a t a low degree of polymerisation (DP). Cellulose oligomers are significantly soluble only at a DP below 6. Depolymerisation does lead to some strength loss, and this point is discussed more fully later in this chapter. Delignification produces soluble lignin sulfonic acids which retain a high degree of polymerisation. The rate of diffusion of the active chemicals into the reaction zone as well as the transport of products into solution are important factors in influencing the rate of

The Chemistty of Lignin and its Removal

41

delignification and, because of its high molecular weight, the molecule has difficulty in diffusing through the cell wall of the fibres and into solution, and this limits the extent of delignification. Lignin is solubilised not only by sulfonation but also to a lesser extent by hydrolysis. Sulfonation allows the introduction of hydrophilic sulfonic acid groups, whilst hydrolysis assists in cleaving ether linkages and thereby reducing molecular weight and creating new free phenolic groups. Both of these reactions increase the solubility of the lignin and their relative rates are a function of pH. Two important categories of hydrolysis and sulfonation reactions are shown in Figures 3.12 and 3.13. The sulfonation reaction frequently involves the displacement of a

I -C-

SO,’-

Q

- ROH

I

c - so,’

6 I1

+

OQ

Oe

Figure 3.12

Cleavage of ether linkages during suljte pulping. (Source: Adapted from E. Sjostrom, ‘Wood Chemistry’, Academic Press, London, 1992, p. 1 12). I

1

-C-

-C-

-C-

-C-

I

I

Figure 3.13 Sulfomtion of lignin a-carbon atoms during suljte pulping. (Source: Adapted from E. Sjostrom, ‘Wood Chemistry’, Academic Press, London, 1992, p. 112).

42

Chapter 3

hydroxy or alkoxy group from the &-carbon atom of the phenylpropane side chain to form a carbonium ion which may then react with a bisulfite ion to introduce a solubilising group into the lignin molecule. However, other nucleophilic groups such as benzylium ions are present in the cooking liquor and it is possible for condensation reactions to take place with these which may lead to an increase in molecular weight and a decrease in solubility (Figure 3.14).

Lignin Dissolution in Aqueous Alkaline Systems Alkaline delignification in the form of the Kraft or Sulfate process is now the most widely used method of lignin removal. I t uses a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide- the latter being produced in the recovery process by the reduction of sodium sulfate I

H

-CI -C-

-q-I

SO3H

I -CI

- cI

H-C-OR

I [email protected]

Solii ble

Insoluble

Figure 3.14

Mechanism of nucleophilic substitution reactions of lignin during sulfte pulping. (Source: Adapted from ‘Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology’, ed. J.P. Casey, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 67).

The C h i s t r y of Lignin and its Removal

43

(hence the name Sulfate process). The presence of sodium sulfide improves the eficiency of the process but it is not essential and, when it is absent, the process is simply referred to as alkaline pulping. The chemistry is substantially more complicated than that of the acidic sulfite process. In contrast to sulfite pulping, where the site of attack is usually the &-carbon atom of the side chain of the phenylpropane unit, in alkaline pulping the primary site of attack is the phenolic hydroxy group. The phenoxide ion which is generated is then able to eliminate an alkoxy group from the a-carbon atom and undergo nucleophilic attack at the same carbon atom by an OH- or SH- ion. This is followed by formation of an epoxide ring and cleavage of the /3-aryl ether linkage (Figure 3.15). The effect of this reaction is to depolymerise the lignin molecule and to generate free phenolic groups, both of which assist in its solubilisation. There is also some cleavage of methoxy groups on the aromatic rings which also leads to the formation of more solubilising phenolic groups. The chemistry of this process is considerably more complex than described here and involves many other reactions including some

H-C-0 I

Q

. H-C%

- KOQ

[email protected]

I

Oe

Figure 3.15

Mechanism of aryl ether cleavage during alkalim pulping. (Source: Adapted from E. Sjostrom, 'Wood Chemistry', Academic Press, London, 1992, p. 146).

Chapter 3

44

repolymerisation via condensation reactions. However, the types of depolymerisation processes outlined in Figure 3.15 are probably very important and almost certainly make a major contribution to the dissolution process. Recovery of inorganic chemicals is crucial to the cost effectiveness of the Kraft process. The black liquor which is obtained from delignification is rich in solubilised lignin and carbohydrate degradation products and, after concentration, is combusted in a recovery furnace. The carbon dioxide which is produced during combustion converts unused sodium hydroxide into sodium carbonate. In addition, the sodium sulfate is converted, under the reducing atmosphere of the furnace, to sodium sulfide. The inorganic ash from the recovery furnace is then dissolved in water, and calcium hydroxide is added to precipitate out calcium carbonate and to convert the sodium carbonate to sodium hydroxide for reuse. The calcium carbonate is then separated out by sedimentation and is combusted to give calcium oxide which provides the calcium hydroxide which is used in the precipitation process.

Solvent Pulping Processes Although at the present time there are no commercial processes for the removal of lignin using organic solvents, this approach to delignification has been extensively researched, even as far as pilot-scale operations. The attraction of these processes is the avoidance of the production of a n aqueous lignin-rich black liquor from which inorganics must be recovered, and also the advantages of relatively low energy solvent recovery. The basic principle is to dissolve the lignin in an organic solvent and recover the volatile solvents for further processing. A number of methods have been tried, the most commercially viable of which has been the use of methanol at high temperatures and pressures. This process allows the recovery of cellulose pulp after dissolution of the lignin in a mostly non-depolymerised form. Furfural derivatives are also produced as by-products from the breakdown of hemicelluloses.

CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING DELIGNIFICATION The effect of chemical delignification on the carbohydrate fraction is predominantly that of pH, and it is important therefore to consider separately degradation in alkali and in acidic pulping systems.

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

45

Carbohydrate Degradation during Alkali Pulping When wood is subjected to the high temperature and pH of alkaline pulping processes, the carbohydrate components (celluloses and hemicelluloses) undergo various changes. Some is dissolved in the cooking liquors, particularly the readily alkali-soluble hemicelluloses, and some is degraded to form lower molecular weight products which may either remain in an insoluble form within the fibre matrix or be dissolved into the cooking liquors. The hemicelluloses have a relatively low DP to begin with (150-200) but this may be further reduced to about 40 during alkaline pulping. Many are also partially acetylated in their natural state, but these acetyl groups are very quickly cleaved under alkaline conditions. However, the most important degradative process in alkali pulping is that which is known as peeling, in which single monosaccharide units are sequentially removed from the reducing end of the chain. Both cellulose and hemicelluloses are susceptible to these reactions, and the pathway for cellulose is shown in Figure 3.16. The reducing end of the polysaccharide isomerises to the ketoform, and this is followed by cleavage of the glycosidic linkage, thus leaving the chain shorter by one glucose residue but still with an exposed reducing end group. The product is soluble and undergoes further degradation to form a variety of soluble acids which exist in the cooking liquors as their carboxylate salts. The DP of the carbohydrates is reduced but not severely because the cleavage of glycosidic linkages is a sequential not a random process. O n the other hand, these products of degradation, being of low molecular weight, are soluble and give rise to a loss of yield from the wood. The extent to which peeling occurs is controlled by a much slower reaction, known as the stopping reaction. This also involves the reducing end of the molecule but in either an isomerised or a non-isomerised form (Figure 3.1 7). The end group which is produced contains a carboxylic acid functionality which has an influence on the anionicity of pulp fibres (Chapter 6) but, in this form, it is resistant to further alkaline degradation. The hemicelluloses are also able to undergo the same type of peeling reaction but at different rates from each other and from cellulose. The /3-1,4-xylans, for example, are more stable to alkaline degradation than the glucomannans. Some cleavage of internal glycosidic linkages of cellulose does occur in alkaline pulping but only when temperatures are fairly high, and these cleavages are probably due to alkaline hydrolysis reactions involving the formation of 1,2-epoxides (Figure 3.18).

Chapter 3

46

-

Cellulose -0

H

Celldose - 0

H

OH

OH

Cellulose - OH

+ H I HOCI HOH2C

H OH l l C - C - C- CH20H I I I I OH H 0

I

Further degradation

COOH I

COOH

HCOH I

COOH I

CH2 I

Soluble acids

Figure 3.16

Depolymerisation of cellulose iy alkaline peeling reactions.

(Source: Adapted from E. Sjostrom, ‘Wood Chemistry’, Academic Press, London, 1992, p. 151).

Carbohydrate Degradation during Acidic Pulping I n contrast to alkaline pulping, the acetyl groups of the hemicelluloses are relatively stable at low pH, as are the glucuronic acid residues of the xylans. The main effect of high temperature and low pH is the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages in the polysaccharide

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

47

CH20H

CH20H

--

L H , O H Cellulose - 0G OH H

Cellulose - O

OH

G HO

H

OH

CHzOH Cellulose -O

e

w

A

OH

H

Cellulose -0 H

Stabilised end group

COOH I HO- C- CH3

I

Cellulose - 0 - CHI Stabilised end group

Figure 3.17

Alkaline chain stabilisation (stopping) reactions of cellulose. (Source: Adapted from E. Sjostrom, ‘Wood Chemistry’, Academic Press, London, 1992, p. 151).

chain. These processes seem not to be selective to the chain end but occur relatively randomly along the polysaccharide backbone. Because cellulose is extremely insoluble a t degrees of polymerisation above 6, a substantial amount of depolymerisation may take place without very much solubilisation. However, the depolymerised pulp is significantly weakened and this probably accounts for the difference in strength between pulps from the acid and alkaline processes. The chemistry of the hydrolysis reaction is show in Figure 3.19. Hemicelluloses are particularly vulnerable to acid hydrolysis and undergo substantial depolymerisation and dissolution, which probably accounts for the lower levels of hemicelluloses in these pulps (Table 2.2, Chapter 2).

Chpter 3

48

/OH-

H

OH

CH2OH

1

1

CH20H I

OH

Figure 3.18

Alkaline hydrohsis reactions of cellulose via I,,?-epoxides. (Source: Adapted from 'Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology', ed. J.P. Casey, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 141).

BLEACHING The pulps obtained from chemical pulping are brown in colour and, whilst suitable for many applications, are unsuitable for printing and writing papers which require a bright white pulp. Both chemical and mechanical pulps often require bleaching for many end uses. The colour of these pulps is mainly due to residual lignin (-3-6%, see Table 2.2 in Chapter 2) although products derived from carbohydrate may also make a contribution. The approach to removal of colour is different in each case.

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

49

1 "+

Celldose

-

0 -

Ho Figure 3.19

OH, OH

The 4drolysi.s of carbohydrate during acid pulping.

The chemical reactions which are involved in the natural discoloration of wood during storage are extremely complex and poorly understood but are probably very similar to those involved in the discoloration of lignin-containing pulp and paper. Mechanical pulps retain a high proportion of the lignin in the original wood, and therefore have a much greater tendency towards discoloration than chemical pulps. However, the brightness of these pulps immediately after delignification is generally much lower than that of the wood from which they were produced because of the large increase in light absorption of the remaining lignin.

Bleaching of Mechanical Pulp There are two approaches to the bleaching of mechanical pulps. They may be either reductive or oxidative in nature. The reductive bleaching agents are usually bisulfite, dithionite or borohydride, and the oxidising agents are normally peroxide, hypochlorite, peracetic

50

Chapter 3

acid or ozone. In dithionite and bisulfite reductive bleaching, the most important active component is probably the bisulfite ion. Although very little is known about the chemistry of the colour removal process, it seems probable that the addition of bisulfite ion to carbonyl groups is one reason for colour removal ?nd, the reduction of o-quinones and coniferaldehyde groups is also possible. Quinoid structures are easily reduced by dithionite, but condensed quinones react more slowly. In the oxidative bleaching processes, the decoloration of p - and o-quinones and of coniferaldehyde structures also seems to be involved. In the case of coniferaldehyde, the removal of the conjugated side chain is probably involved (Figure 3.20).

Bleaching of Chemical Pulp The bleaching of chemical pulps mainly involves the removal of residual lignin, and the lignin content of these pulps therefore gives a fairly good indication of the amount of bleaching chemical which will be required. Until recently, chlorine and compounds of chlorine have been the most widely used bleaching agents for chemical pulps but this situation is changing rapidly as environmental pressure builds for the use of non-chlorine bleaching systems (for a further discussion see Chapter 10). The most common approach is to use either chlorine in aqueous solution or chlorine dioxide, in combination with alkaline extraction stages. Various combinations of sequences are used to achieve different levels of brightness for different pulps. Chlorination of pulp is usually carried out at fairly low consistency and its function is to convert the residual insoluble lignin in the pulp to compounds which are water or alkali soluble. Chlorine reacts very rapidly with pulp and most of it is consumed within a few minutes.

CHO

I OH-

-

CHO

Figure 3.20

Removal of conjugation in coniferaldehyde by peroxide bleaching. (Source: Adapted from ‘Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Chemical Technology’, ed. J.P. Casey, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980, Vol. 1, p. 657).

The Chemistry of Lignin and its Removal

51

The correct dosage is very important and enough chlorine is needed to achieve the required brightness, too much can result in degradation of the carbohydrates and a reduction in physical strength of the fibres. Chlorination with molecular chlorine tends to substitute the aromatic ring in lignin directly and to give products which are not soluble in water but which are soluble in alkali. Chlorinated iignin also contains a high proportion of acidic groups which makes it amenable to alkaline extraction. Chlorine dioxide is often used because it is less damaging to the carbohydrate fraction than chlorine. It is, however, a rather unstable and very reactive compound, having an unpaired electron, and at concentrations above around 12-15% it is explosive. I t tends to react with the aromatic rings in lignin not by substitution but by destruction of its aromaticity to produce charge transfer complexes via free radical mechanisms. For this reason, chlorine dioxide produces only about 10% of the amount of organochlorine compounds which are found in chlorine-bleached pulps. Most of the colour removal seems to be due to the opening of the aromatic ring.

HIGH PURITY DISSOLVING PULPS An important use of wood pulp, which does not involve paper, is in the preparation of soluble cellulose derivatives such as ethers and esters, and for the preparation of regenerated cellulose fibres such as viscose rayon. These products require a pulp with a high cellulose content with as high a molecular weight as possible and which is free of lignin and low molecular weight hemicelluloses. These dissolving pulps, as they are known, are made by the pulp industry and have a high degree of brightness. They are most commonly prepared by removing the remaining lignin, hemicellulose and resins from hardwoods which have been pulped by the sulfite process. The acidic conditions of the sulfite process are particularly suitable as they remove much of the hemicellulose, which is very sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Alkali-based processes can be used, but a pre-hydrolysis step is normally required. Extensive purification via bleaching and extraction with dilute alkali a t elevated temperatures and with concentrated alkali at room temperature is then required. The main application of these pulps is in producing soluble derivatives such as ethers (e.g. carboxymethyl cellulose) or esters (e.g. cellulose acetate) and in the production of cellulose 11, a different polymorphic form of cellulose which is obtained by dissolving native cellulose (cellulose I) and regenerating it as a filament or as a film.

Chapter 4

Cellulose Fibre Networks INTRODUCTION Paper is a layered fibrous network structure and its mechanical, optical and other properties are therefore highly dependent upon the nature of this network. It is layered in the sense that the fibres lie predominantly in the plane of the sheet and are broadly parallel to each other in the z-direction (i.e. through the thickness of the sheet). However, the distribution of the fibres in the x-y plane is responsible for the areal mass distribution. Figure 4.1 (a) shows a simulated sheet structure arising from the random distribution of 970 straight fibres of uniform length. It is instructive to see the similarity between this and a photomicrograph of a 2.5 gm-* sheet of paper [Figure 4.l(b)] in which the mean fibre length and density correspond to that of the comparable randomly distributed network. Thin sheets made from dilute suspensions can quite closely resemble ideal random slructures but commercial processes must use less water and result in more ‘clumpy’ structures. The randomly distributed sheet clearly exhibits areas of low and high density but it still remains a good target and a unique reference structure in making paper. The small scale non-uniformities of paper structure are particularly important in their influence on pore size distribution and the distribution of areal mass density, and both of these properties have an influence on mechanical and other properties of the final sheet, At the point of contact between the cellulosic fibres a strong bond is formed once the fibres have been dried. These bonds are formed by hydrogen bonds between the polysaccharides at the fibre surface. Mechanical and other properties of paper are not only dependent on the nature of the fibre distribution but also on the bonding between the fibres and the inherent fibre strength itself. Bonding between 52

Cellulose Fibre Networks

53

(a)

Figure4.1 Sheet structures arising from (a) the random distribution of 970 straight fibres of unijioon length, (b) a photomicrograph of a 2 . . 5 g n ~ -sheet ~ of paper in which the mean jibre length and density correspond to that

of (4.

(Source: Reproduced from 0. Kallmes and H. Corte, Tappi, 1960, 43, 738).

fibres and also fibre strength are influenced by the pulping and bleaching and fibre preparation conditions employed prior to sheet formation. This chapter attempts to describe the structure of paper at both the molecular level of bonding and at a more macroscopic

54

Chapter 4

structural level. The structure of the primary component polysaccharide, cellulose, is discussed in some detail and this is followed by a discussion of the general structural features of cellulose and their relationship to physical properties of the sheet.

THE STRUCTURE OF CELLULOSE Molecular Structure The primary structural component of paper is cellulose but nonstructural polysaccharides (hemicelluloses) and sometimes lignin may also be present in paper. The physical and mechanical properties of a sheet are, however, in large measure due to the cellulosic fibres. Naturally occurring cellulose is a polydisperse linear homogeneous polysaccharide based on p- 1,4-D-glUCOpyranOSe repeat units, with an average degree of polymerisation variously estimated to be in the range 3000 to 15 000 depending upon source. Wood cellulose does not have a particularly high molecular weight and the highest molecular weight celluloses are generally obtained from non-woody sources such as flax and cotton. Each D-glucopyranose unit is in the 4CI conformation and the chain is in a highly extended conformation exhibiting two-fold symmetry (i.e. every glucose unit is rotated by approximately 180" relative to its neighbour) . Conformational analysis predicts reasonably accurately the two torsion angles around the glycosidic linkage (@ and v) and these are consistent with those expected for a highly extended chain and similar to those found in other structural polysaccharides such as cellobiose (Figure 4.2). The torsion angles predicted by conformational analysis agree closely with those of crystalline cellobiose as measured by X-ray diffraction, the conformation of which is restricted by two chainstabilising intramolecular hydrogen bonds between O(3') -H and O(5) and also between O(2')-H and O(6) (Figure 4.3). These are also found in cellulose and they assist in maintaining the highly extended conformation which allows it to function as a structural polymer. Crystal Structure Cellulose is partly crystalline and partly amorphous, the percentage crystallinity varying between 50 and 90% depending upon source and also upon the method of crystallinity measurement. Numerous theoretical models have been proposed for the molecular organisa-

55

Cellulose Fibre Networks

h

180 -

120 60

-

: --- Cellulose crystal structure 0

Figure 4.2

--- Cellobiose crystal structure

Conformation map of cellobiose. Enclosed area dejines allowed confomations in which there are no major conformational restrictions arising from interactions between non-bonded atoms.

tion of these amorphous and crystalline regions. In some of these approaches, single cellulose molecules are considered to pass through regions of high and low lattice order, and in others, highly crystalline units are considered to be embedded in amorphous regions. The crystal structure of native cellulose (cellulose I) itself is still an unresolved subject. It is generally accepted to have a parallel chain orientation and to exist in at least two allomorphic forms: I a (monoclinic) and I/3 (triclinic), the proportions of which vary from source to source. The algal and bacterial celluloses are rich in the I a allomorph, and cotton and higher plants are rich in the I/3 form. The 13C NMR solid-state spectrum can be used to observe the two forms, but the hemicelluloses in wood pulp tend to interfere with spectral definition. The Ia! form exhibits a C-1 singlet and the I/3 form a doublet. The C-1 signal of mixtures is therefore a linear combinations of these two signals (Figure 4.4). In addition, cellulose undergoes changes in crystalline structure with relative ease. The most common modification is the conversion of cellulose I (ie. ILYand IP) to cellulose 11. This can be achieved by dissolution and regeneration or by simply treating cellulose I with sodium hydroxide. Cellulose I1 is usually considered to be more thermodynamically stable than biosynthesised cellulose I. However,

Chapter 4

56

Figure 4.3

Inter- and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds of native cellulose. (Source: Adapted from ‘Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard’, ed. R.E. Mark, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983, p. 413).

the recent in uitro synthesis of cellulose I from /3-cellobiosyl fluoride must raise doubts about this assumption.

BONDING IN PAPER It is clear from our knowledge of material science that the physical properties of materials are dependent upon the nature of the chemical bonding and also upon the type of defects which are present. Paper is a heterogeneous material and its properties are

Cellulose Fibre Networks

Figure4.4

57

Theoretically predicted I3C NMR CP-MAS spectra of Irx and Ip cellulose.

(Source: Adapted from D.L. Vanderhart and R.H. Atalla, Macromolecules, 1983, 17(8), 1465).

dependent both upon the character of the fibres themselves and also upon the characteristics of the bonds between them. In addition to this, there is the added complication of the distribution of the fibres and the bonds within the sheet structure. The continuous filtration nature of the paper-making process, which has been discussed briefly in Chapter 1, results in a layered structure and, because of the flow characteristics of the paper machine, there is also a preferential orientation of the fibres in the direction of flow on to the machine (machine direction) which gives rise to physical anisotropy in the sheet. To complicate matters, during drying the sheet undergoes local shrinkages of as much as 20%.

Chapter 4

58

The Inter-fibre Bonding of Cellulose The remarkable property of cellulose fibres which gives rise to their widespread use in paper and board products is their ability, when dried in contact with each other from water, to form a strong bond. Perhaps more importantly, this bond can be completely disrupted by the re-addition of water and this is the essential property which allows cellulosic fibres to be relatively easily recycled. The bonds between fibres are generally accepted to be due to multiple hydrogen bonds within the bonded area between contacting fibres. Because the bond lengths of hydrogen bonds are of the order of only a few nanometres, the two surfaces must come into very close contact for bonding to occur. Surface tension forces are responsible for bringing the wet fibres together so that this bonding can take place, and these forces become quite large as water is removed from the wet web. Hydrogen bonding is thought to occur as the water removal reaches a point of about 10-25% solids. At about 25% solids, the surface tension forces are dependent inversely upon the thickness of the water film. The pressure difference Ap between two surfaces separated by a water film of thickness x is given by:

where cr is the surface tension of the water. Decreasing the water film thickness leads to a very high differential pressure allowing the surfaces to approach close enough for hydrogen bonding to occur. The extent of hydrogen bonding over the area of contact is clearly important, and depends on the ability of the two surfaces to conform to each other. Thus, the flexibility of the fibres in the wet state is an important characteristic and is influenced by the extent of swelling of the fibre cell wall. This point is discussed more fully in Chapter 5. The nature of the bonds between cellulosic fibres in paper has been the subject of some controversy over many years. The early and now largely discredited view was that paper derived its strength merely from mechanical entanglement of the fibres. However, experiments in which paper is formed from non-aqueous solvents produce sheets with very poor strength properties and have thus tended to disprove this conjecture. I n the mid- 1950s deuteration experiments were carried out which demonstrated that of the order of 0.4-2O/0 of all hydroxy groups are additionally bonded in paper as compared with the unbonded fibres. This observation led to the view that

Cellulose Fibre Networks

59

hydrogen bonding was the primary mechanism for bond formation between cellulosic fibres. However, the precise molecular species involved in hydrogen bonding is a more difficult question. I n general, pure cellulosic surfaces such as those found in cotton or bacterial cellulose exhibit rather poor bonding characteristics, whereas fibres derived from wood sources show much better bonding characteristics. This gave rise to the view that adsorbed polysaccharides of the hemicellulose type might also be involved in the formation of inter-fibre hydrogen bonds, or that some form of molecular disruption of the crystalline surface occurred during mechanical action.

Bonding and Mechanical Strength Although there is now wide agreement that hydrogen bonding is the primary mechanism of inter-fibre bonding, there is still much dispute over the precise contribution that it makes towards the overall mechanical strength of paper. Two theoretical approaches have been used to explain the mechanical properties of paper. The first considers paper as a continuously hydrogen bonded solid, and the second considers the mechanical strength of paper as being due partly to the inter-fibre bonds and partly to the inherent strength of individual fibres. The latter view has largely prevailed, probably as a result of experiments such as the one shown in Figure 4.5 which demonstrates that the tensile strength of paper is a linear function of the number of fibres which fail during the test. The ultimate strength of paper may therefore be regarded as that in which 100% of fibres break during failure. This value can be determined experimentally by measuring the tensile strength at zero span. In this test a sample of paper is held between jaws at notionally zero span causing a high proportion of fibres across the line of failure to be fractured during the measurement.

MECHANICAL STRENGTH Directional Anisotropy Because paper is made from a flowing suspension, fibres tend to be laid down preferentially with their long axis in the plane of the sheet (layered structure), and with the axis aligned broadly parallel to the flow of the paper through the machine. In addition, there is also some web tension and drying restraint which gives rise to an

Chapter 4

60

100

it

a

. I

k

20

0

0

5

10

15

Breaking length (Km)

Figure 4.5

Relationship between tensile strength of paper (expressed as a breaking length) and the number offibres which f a i l during the test. (Source: T. Helle, Suensk Papperstidning, 1963, 66 (24), 1015).

orthotropic material response. Three mutually perpendicular directions may therefore be identified: the machine direction (MD), the cross machine direction (CD) and the thickness (or z direction). These are shown schematically in Figure 4.6. Paper made on a paper machine exhibits quite different properties in the x and y directions (the machine and cross machine directions), a n example of which is a difference in stiffness which can be demonstrated by plotting the specific elastic stiffness in the x-y plane as a function of the machine direction and cross machine direction co-ordinates in the form of a polar diagram (Figure 4.7). The area of the polar diagram is related to variables such as refining and wet press pressure. The load-elongation curve during tensile testing also shows marked differences in the two directions (Figure 4.8). I t is obvious that the response to tensile forces applied on each of the principle directions will be different due to the orientation of the fibre segments and of the bonded areas connecting them. Forces acting on a hypothetical diamond-shaped portion of the fibre net-

61

Cellulose Fibre Networks Z

t

Direction of paper flow through paper machine

Figure 4.6

The machine direction (MD), cross machine direction (CD) and thickness direction (z) of a sheet of paper.

(Source: Adapted from ‘Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard’, ed. R.E. Mark, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983, p. 157). work are clearly different when loaded in the machine and cross machine directions (Figure 4.9).

The Effect of Moisture on Mechanical Strength One of the most important problem areas in many commercial paper products is the loss of strength which occurs on increasing the moisture content. In products such as tissue, sacking, wall paper, etc., it is necessary to use chemical means to enhance artificially the so-called ‘wet strength’ of paper, and this subject is discussed more fully in Chapter 7. Water competes for sites of hydrogen bonding between fibre surfaces and thus reduces the strength of inter-fibre bonding leading to a sharp change in the load-elongation curve at different moisture contents (Figure 4.10).

Paper Formation It is important that high quality grades of paper, such as those used for printing, writing and artwork, should have as uniform a fibre

62

Figure 4.7

Chapter 4

Difference in rigidip between the machine and cross machine directions. (Source: ‘Subfracture Mechanical Properties’, G.A. Baum, in ‘Products of Paper Making’, Trans. 10th Fundamental Research Symp., PIRA International, 1993, p. 53).

distribution as possible. Paper makers refer to this property as the formation of the sheet, and it manifests itself visually as a variable distribution of opacity of the sheet in the x-y plane which makes the sheet appear ‘blotchy’ when held to the light. It is caused by flocs of fibres forming in the fibre suspension during the sheet-forming process and the problem is more severe when long fibres are used as these have a greater tendency to mechanical entanglement. The problem is also exacerbated by the use of polymeric flocculants as retention aids (this subject is discussed more fully in Chapter 7). More correctly, formation is a variance in mass distribution in the x-y plane and this is the basis of quantitative methods for its measurement. Examples of poorly and well-formed sheets of paper and also the fibre suspension from which these were made are shown in Figure 4.11. Formation is important not only because of its impact on the aesthetic appearance of the sheet but also because it adversely affects both mechanical and optical properties. A more uniform mass

Cellulose Fibre Networks

0

Figure4.8

63

1

2 Strain (YO)

3.

4

The load-elongation curves for paper in the machine and cross machine directions. (Source: ‘Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard’, ed. R.E. Mark, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983, p. 181).

distribution would lead to a sheet of higher tensile strength and higher opacity. The relationship between opacity and grammage (mass per unit sheet area) is not a linear one and therefore care must be taken in interpretation of the relationship between formation and mechanical properties, when data is used which is based on transmission measurements.

Descriptive Models of Paper Strength Two types of models have been applied to the mechanical strength of paper. The first assumes paper to be a continuous network of hydrogen bonds with no other type of bond contributing to its mechanical properties, and the second describes its mechanical strength in terms of a combination of fibre strength and fibre-to-fibre bonds. In the first approach, Young’s modulus is related to the number and strength of effective hydrogen bonds taking part in storing the mechanical energy during any axial straining per unit volume of sample, and the model behaves reasonably well in describing the weakening effect of paper which arises from an increase in both

Chapter 4

64

1 fibre force \

fibre force

Y (Cross machine direction)

X (Machine direction)

2 direction

Figure4.9 Forces acting in the x, y and z directions on a hypothetical diamondshaped portion of a fibre network. (Source: Adapted from ‘Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard’, ed. R.E. Mark, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983, p. 157).

temperature and moisture content. However, only the very early stages of straining are similar in all papers and it eappears that, in the later stages of straining, the hydrogen bond model works less well, and structural considerations become more important. The structural approaches assume that a combination of fibre strength and fibre-to-fibre bonds are responsible for the mechanical strength of paper but, whilst fibre strength is relatively easy to determine, the bonding strength is more difficult. It is generally accepted that, for fibre-to-fibre bonding to occur, the fibres must be in close optical contact. The relative bonded area (RBA) may be defined as the proportion of the total surface area in optical contact. For two fibres of length A and width o the total surface area if it is assumed that they are flat rectangular ribbons is 4Aw. If they overlap at right

Cellulose Fibre Networks

65

700 22%

600

g 500 s

g 400 v1 m

5-2 300

. I

v1

g

200 100 0

b

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

Strain (YO)

Figure 4.10

The effect of relative humidity (“Yo) on the stress-strain curve of paper. (Source: ‘Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard’, ed. R.E. Mark, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1983, p. 169).

angles, the total area in contact is 2w2. If a fraction, p, of this contacting area is in close optical contact, then the relative bonded area is given by:

2w2p

RBA = 4Aw The experimental determination of RBA, however, is difficult but some attempts have been made and these include direct observation, measurements of electrical conductivity, shrinkage energy, gas adsorption and light scattering. The linear elastic response of paper has been explained in terms of various micromechanical models which take into account both fibre and network properties, including RBA. An example of one which predicts the sheet modulus, E , is given below:

E, =

(i)E,[ 1 - (w/L.RBA) ( E,/2 G,)

tanh { (L.RBA/w). (2 Gf/Ef)‘/‘}I

where Ef and Gf are the fibre elastic and shear modulii, the mean fibre width and ‘effective’ length.

ze,

and L are

Chapter 4

66

Figure 4.1 1 Flocculation and formation effects in a chemically pulped bleached softwood pulp (slightly refzned) . Fibre suspensions settled f o r 40 min. Sheets (60 g mV2)photographed in transmitted light: (a) no additives, (b) polyelectrolyte added to induceflocculation. Scale bar = 2 cm.

LIQUID PENETRATION INTO PAPER The penetration of fluids into paper is also a very important material property for many product types. It is influenced by a number of factors, not least of which is the sheet structure and porosity. In

67

Cellulose Fibre Networks

some cases these can be more dominant than the surface energy of the component fibres. The sheet structure can be controlled to a large extent by the selection and refining of the pulp. Structural considerations notwithstanding, the absorption of fluids by paper should be considered to be a combination of both surface wetting and capillary pore penetration. If, when a liquid drop is placed on a smooth surface, the forces of adhesion between the solid and the liquid are greater than the forces of cohesion of the liquid, then the liquid will spread and will perfectly wet the surface spontaneously. If the forces reach an intermediate balance determined by the interfacial energies ylv, ysl and ysv, then the liquid drop will form a definite contact angle (8) with the solid surface (Figure 4.12). This wetting process may be described in terms of a balance of specific surface energies -the Young equation: cos 8 =

Ysv

-

Ysl

Ylv

where ysv, ysl and ylv are respectively, the solid-vapour, solid-liquid and liquid-vapour interfacial energies. However, paper is a porous material and when a liquid contacts a porous solid, the liquid in contact with the pore becomes curved due to differential surface tensions. For a pore of cylindrical cross-section, the pressure difference, Ap, across the curved surface may be expressed in terms of the contact angle, 8, the liquid-vapour interfacial tension, ylv, and the radius of the cylindrical pore, rc:

Ap =

2y1, cos 8 TC

Clearly, if the contact angle between the solid and the liquid is

Figure 4.12

Contact angle (8) formed ly a liquid droplet in contact with a solid sugace.

68

Chapter 4

greater than go", Ap is zero and the liquid will not penetrate by capillary action. However, this equation defines an equilibrium position, and paper makers are more concerned with the dynamic process of penetration. The dynamic rate of capillary suction of fluids into paper has been effectively described by models of penetration of fluids into a single capillary (the Washburn equation). This gives a good approximation to the rate of capillary intrusion of non-swelling fluids into paper. Modifications of the basic equation are necessary, however, to describe the behaviour of swelling fluids such as water:

where I is the distance penetrated into a cylindrical capillary of radius r in time t by a liquid of surface tension ylv and viscosity q. Retardation of the rate of penetration is necessary for many products and this can be brought about by the creation of a low energy, hydrophobic surface at the fibre-water interface which increases the contact angle formed between the drop of liquid and the surface. This important change can be achieved .chemically in the process known as sizing which is discussed more fully in Chapter 7. If the surface of paper has been modified by coating or by the application of a film-forming polymer, there will be a relatively dense layer of material on the surface of the sheet through which the test fluid will have to penetrate. This will cause a significant difference in the rate a t which a test fluid will penetrate the surface layers of the web and the rate at which it penetrates the inner layers of the web. The size of the pores in the paper are also important. An aqueous test fluid can penetrate a sheet of paper either via the pores in the sheet (the areas between the fibres in the web) or via the fibres. The larger the average pore size in a given sheet of paper, the greater will be the probability that the fluid will penetrate the sheet via the pores rather than the fibres. If the fibres in the paper have been rendered hydrophobic by sizing, but the sheet has an open structure and there has been no surface treatment to cover the sized fibres, then the web will show a high contact angle. However, if the same web is tested by a penetration-type test, the sizing level will be low.

Chapter 5

The Paper Formation Process

INTRODUCTION Once the wood has been converted into pulp by either mechanical or chemical means, it is then ready to be formed into paper. This may be done on the same site as the pulping operation, in what is known as an ‘integrated mill’, or the pulp may be dried and transported to another manufacturing site for subsequent processing. The conversion to paper involves many steps, each of which has an impact upon the properties and character of the final product. For example, it is possible by manipulation of either or both of the chemical and mechanical processes to produce products as wide ranging as grease-proof paper to highly absorbent tissue. There are three important stages in the treatment of the pulp prior ‘to its delivery to the paper machine, and these are known collectively as stock preparation. The first is the dispersion of the pulp as a slurry in water (this is not necessary for an integrated process in which the pulp has never been dried), the second is the mechanical refining or beating of the fibres to develop appropriate physical and mechanical properties for the product being made, and the third is the addition of chemical additives which impart specific product properties or facilitate the paper-making processes itself. After these processes, the pulp suspension is then usually diluted and flows on to the paper machine for the paper forming part of the process. The chemical aspects of these stages are discussed in this chapter.

FIBRE PRETREATMENT Dispersion This process is somewhat ambiguously referred to as pulping, but should not be confused with the chemical delignification process 69

Chapter 5

70

which is also referred to as pulping. The dispersion of the fibre in water may be carried out as a continuous or as a batch process, and it is common for different pulp types (e.g. chemical or mechanical pulp, recycled fibre) to be processed separately and then mixed at a later stage. The purpose of this process is to ensure the total and separate dispersion of individual fibres of the pulp sheets into an aqueous suspension. The equipment employed usually consists of a large circular tank with a revolving rotor at the base to provide the turbulence and circulation necessary to disintegrate the fibres. Rotor design has changed substantially in recent years to facilitate dispersion at higher consistency (as high as 15 to 18%). The pulp bales are normally fed into the top of the open pulper tank. I t is not the purpose of this book, however, to discuss the detailed mechanics of this process and the reader is directed to other texts in this area (see Recommended reading).

Refining This process, when conducted as a batch operation, is known as ‘beating’, and the two terms ‘refining’ and ‘beating’ are sometimes used synonymously. It is common these days to consider refining as a continuous operation and beating as a batch operation, however, the two processes in terms of their mechanical effect upon the fibres are essentially the same. Details of the mechanical design of beaters and refiners can be found elsewhere, and the purpose of this chapter is to discuss the physical and chemical effects of this process on the fibre and also its effect upon ultimate sheet properties. The refining process involves the circulation of the fibre suspension in such a way as to force the fibres between a stationary metal plate (the stator) and a moving metal plate (the rotor). As the fibres are wet at this stage, both mechanical and hydraulic forces are involved in altering fibre characteristics. Both shear and normal stresses (either tensional or compressive) are imposed on the fibres in this process, and the mechanical action is shown diagramatically in Figure 5.1. Refining is the most important of all the processes to which fibres are subjected, in terms of developing pulp suspension characteristics and final sheet properties, and a great deal of research has been carried out into understanding the process more fundamen tally. Whilst there is still much controversy about certain aspects of the refining process and its effects upon the fibres, a number of things are widely accepted. Firstly the primary cell wall, which does not

71

The Paper Formation Process

I

Rotor

Figure 5.1 Schematic representation of the mechanical action of the rejner. (Source: Adapted from ‘Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists’, G . Smook, Angus Wilde Publications, Vancouver, 1992, p. 200).

normally swell easily and therefore tends to prevent the rest of the fibre from swelling, is partially removed, thus allowing the secondary cell wall to become exposed and a t the same time allowing water to be absorbed into it. The swelling which takes place at this stage causes the fibres to become soft and more flexible (‘internal fibrillation’). In addition, some of the microfibrillar structural components of the cell wall are loosened from the surface giving rise to a very large increase in the surface area of the fibre (‘external fibrillation’). As the fibre becomes more flexible, the cell walls, on drying, tend to collapse into the lumen, giving a more ribbon-like structure. The effects of this process can be seen more clearly in Figure 5.2 which show the changes in individual fibres as a result of refining. There is inevitably some fibre shortening during the refining process which is caused by the shearing action on the fibres during their passage between the rotor and stator. This tends to reduce strength and contributes to slower drainage, and this has implications for the maximum speed at which the sheet can be made. However, fibre shortening is not always undesirable, and the mass distribution of the fibre within the sheet is generally improved by it. After refining, the fibre suspension is then cleaned to remove particles of grit, etc. This is essentially a mechanical process which involves no chemistry and is not discussed further here. Refining on the other hand has a very influential effect on the fibres. The changes in fibre swelling, length and flexibility give rise to important changes in both pulp and paper properties and these are now discussed in more detail.

Chapter 5

Figure 5.2

Environmental scanning electron photomicrographs of fibres of a chemica l b Pulped (sulJite process) softwood (a) before refining and (b) after refining. Scale bar = 20 ym.

THE EFFECTS OF REFINING

Pulp Surface Area The surface area of fibres increases during refining. However, the definition of surface area for cellulose is not straightforward and it is necessary to define it a little more precisely. I t can be measured when the pulp is in either the wet or the dry state and very different

73

The Paper Formation Process

values are obtained. The method of sample preparation thus affects results dramatically. Attempts to preserve the water-swollen state (e.g. by solvent exchange) give much higher results than for fibres dried from water where no attempt has been made to preserve the water-swollen state. Surface area measurements of the latter give values between 0.5 and 3 m’g-l, whereas those of the former lie in the range 100 to 150 m2g-’. It is has been established by X-ray diffraction that water does not penetrate the crystalline regions of cellulose (the X-ray diffraction spacing of the crystalline lattice is independent of relative humidity) and refining is therefore considered to cause water to enter the cell wall only in the amorphous regions between crystalline zones (‘intercrystalline swelling’). Some solvents are known to swell the crystalline zones (‘intracrystalline swelling’) but, although this is important in other areas of cellulose science and technology, it is not particularly relevant to paper making which is done in an exclusively aqueous environment. The actual method of determining the surface area also causes some wide variation. The methods of measurement may be chemical (for example by reaction of accessible OH groups) or physical [usually N2 adsorption using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm]. Some comparison of surface area measurements for cellulose samples prepared in the same way by N2 adsorption and by thallation (i.e. by reaction of available OH groups with thallium (I) ethylate in benzene then replacement of thallium by methyl groups using Me1 followed by measurement of M e 0 content) are shown in Table 5.1. It is also possible to measure surface area from the water adsorption isotherm, and this is arguably more relevant to aqueous pulp suspensions as it measures the surface area which is accessible to water. Values of up to 140 m2 g-’ have been obtained from the

Table 5.1

Effect of swelling on the surface area of cotton as measured by chemical (thallation) and physical (N2 adsorption) methods. (Source: G.A. Roberts, ‘Accessibility of Cellulose’, in ‘Paper Chemistry’, ed. J.C. Roberts, ch. 2, Blackie, Glasgow, 1991).

Fibre y p e

Cotton fibre Cotton fibre swollen in water

Surface area (m* Thallation

N2

Adsorption

16 263

0.55 137

74

Chapter 5

analysis of water vapour adsorption isotherms which reflect the water-swollen state of the fibres. It is difficult, however, to distinguish between ‘adsorption’ and ‘absorption’ processes when pulps interact with water. Water is first adsorbed monomolecularly by hydrogen bonding to accessible OH groups of the cellulose (i.e. those not engaged in holding the crystalline matrix together) and, with increasing adsorption, the degree of coverage of the monolayer increases. Finally, several layers are adsorbed successively and, as the thickness of the layers increases, the size of the pores increases (amorphous regions). At high vapour pressures, water is gradually condensed in the capillaries. Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain the water adsorption isotherm. These are based either upon adsorption (of the BET type) or upon solution theories (for example, using the Flory Huggins equation). The most widely used of these has been the BET approach, which extends the monomolecular Langmuirtype adsorption of gases on surfaces to include multilayer adsorption. Given a knowledge of the effective cross-section of the adsorbing molecule it is possible to calculate the surface area of the adsorbent. Although the BET theory has been criticised for ignoring adsorbate interactions and also the heterogeneity of the substrate, surface area values have been obtained which are in good agreement with other methods. Some examples are given in Table 5.2. Water which is bound to cellulose (or any other natural polymer) has properties different from those of unbound (bulk) water. For example, it has a higher density and a lower freezing point. The

Table 5.2

Comparison of speczjic surface areas calculated from the ascending branch of the water isotherms of selected cellulosic materials ty the BET theory, the ‘t’procedure and the Zimm and Lundberg (ZL) cluster theory. (Source: T.P. Nevell and S.H. Zeronian, ‘Cellulose Chemistry and its Applications’, p. 147, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1985).

Sample

Cellophane Filter paper Delignified maple holocellulose Delignified aspen holocellulose

Surface area (m* g-1)

BET

t

ZL

2 16 128 172 234

233 128 177 202

216 113 179 20 1

75

The Paper Formation Process

density increase can be explained by the fact that accessible OH groups strongly attract the dipoles of the water molecules, and the water molecules will therefore be oriented close to these hydroxy groups and will consequently lose some of their mobility. They will therefore be packed more efficiently and their density will exceed that of free water. Subsequent molecules will not be so strongly bound, and will have a higher mobility and, hence, a lower density. The density of water thus decreases with increasing distance from the surface.

Water Sorption Sorption of water vapour by cellulose is an exothermic process but, because it is a slow process and the energy is easily dissipated, it is difficult to measure quantitatively. However, the heat of wetting, A H, (Jg-'), can be measured calorimetrically by submerging cellulose which has been equilibrated in air in an excess of water and measuring the temperature rise. The total heat of wetting (AH,") is the amount of energy released when a completely dry sample is submerged in water. Some examples of cellulosic heats of wetting properties are given in Table 5.3. The relationship between the heat of adsorption and the heats of wetting is shown in Figure 5.3. AH,", the total heat of wetting, must equal the pure heat of adsorption of water ( A H ) and the energy which is consumed to wet the sample (AH,): AH," = AH -k AH, Hence, A H can be calculated from AH," and AH,.

Table 5.3

Total heats of wetting (AH,") of some cellulose samples. (Source: D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom, 'Paper Chemistry- An Introduction', DT Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, p. 36).

Type of cellulose

Total heat of wetting (Jg-1)

Chemical pulps Cotton Viscose Ramie Spruce wood meal

53-58 44.1 106 44 83

Chapter 5

76

l o Figure 5.3

H20

Relationship between heat of adsorption and heats of wetting. (Source: Adapted from ‘Paper Chemistry- An Introduction’,

eds. D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom, DT Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, p. 37).

Adsorption of water by cellulose displays hysteresis. The adsorption isotherm is not identical to the desorption isotherm and the amount of adsorbed water in equilibrium with the atmosphere at a particular relative humidity is higher during desorption from a higher humidity than during adsorption from a lower humidity. A plot of the adsorption/desorption isotherm is shown in Figure 5.4. Hysteresis is observed not only in the sorption isotherms but also in calorimetric measurements of heat of wetting at different moisture contents, and it is thus a combined entropy and enthalpy phenomenon. A reliable explanation for this effect is not currently available, but there is speculation that it is due to the stresses which are induced as the cellulose swells. Since the swelling of cellulose is not completely reversible, mechanical recovery is incomplete and hysteresis will therefore be present both in the internal stress-strain curve of the sample, and also in the water adsorption isotherm. As water swells cellulose in an intercrystalline way ( i . e . only within the non-crystalline amorphous regions), a relationship would be expected between accessibility and moisture uptake, and this is indeed found (Figure 5 . 5 ) . Refining causes cellulosic fibres to swell and it would therefore be expected to cause a change in the water adsorption isotherm. This is indeed observed (Figure 5.6). The surface area increase during refining is also easily demonstrated experimentally. The BET adsorption isotherm, for example, shows that there is an approximately 250% increase in specific

The Paper Formation Process

Figure 5.4

77

Water adsorption and desorption isotherms f o r cellulose. (Source: Adapted from ‘Paper Chemistry- An Introduction’, eds. D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom, DT Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, p. 41).

100

80 A

& .-._ s a

60

. a

8 40

2

20

0

Figure 5.5

Relationship between accessibility and moisture uptake at different relative humidities. (Source: ‘Paper Chemistry- An Introduction’, eds. D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom, DT Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, p. 46).

78

Chapter 5 60 50 40 W

c,

e

Q)

c,

30 V

L Y

g 20 10

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

I

Relative humidity

Figure 5.6

Effect of re$ning (number of revolutions in a adsorption isotherm of an unbleached pulp.

PFZ mill) on the water

(Source: L.T. Qiang, U. Henriksson, J.C. Eriksson and L. Odberg, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, p. 45).

surface area going from pulp which has been refined for 500 revolutions in a PFI mill (a small scale laboratory refiner) to pulp which has been refined for 25000 revolutions. This surface area change can also be observed by deteurium NMR experiments. Figure 5.7 shows the 2H NMR spectrum for D 2 0 adsorption by sheets which have been orientated perpendicularly to the magnetic field, Bo. The spectrum displays a quadrupole doublet centred a t the Lamor frequency, and the magnitude of the splitting gives information about the time-averaged orientation of the absorbed water molecule with respect to the magnetic field. The quadrupolar splitting varies as a function of relative humidity for pulps which have been refined to different extents (Figure 5.8). I n addition to the use of quadrupolar splitting, the spin relaxation rate can also be used to calculate the specific surface area ratios for pulps beaten to different degrees and the results for an unbleached pulp agree closely and confirm the 250% increase in surface area measured by isotherm data (Table 5.4).

The Paper Formation Process

1400 1200 1000 800

79

600 400

200

0

-200 -400 -600 -800

HERTZ Figure5.7

The 2H NMR spectrum of D20 adsorbed on pulp sheets oriented Perpendicular to the magnetic _field. (Source: L.T. Qiang, U. Henriksson, J.C. Eriksson and L. Odberg, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, p. 49).

Changes in Internal Structure of the Cell Wall The most important change occurring during refining in terms of its effect upon paper properties is the change in the internal structure of the cell wall. The combined mechanical and hydraulic forces cause the cell wall to delaminate and create voids in which water can be accommodated. The overall process is referred to loosely as the swelling of the cell wall, but the nature and form of the water and also the nature and form of the pores and cracks have been the subject of considerable discussion and controversy. Swelling confers a greater degree of flexibility on the fibres, thus allowing them to conform better in the final sheet. This can easily be observed by comparing sheets made from wet-laid fibres to those formed from fibres which have been laid down in their dry state. The changes in fibre flexibility may affect not only the rigidity of the fibre but also the local plasticity of the cell wall, and this may be important in determining the ease with which the inter-fibre hydrogen bonds are formed during drying. Pulp types also differ in

Chapter 5

80 1

A

G

0.8

z. .z.-- 0.6 bt

CI

-3 0.4 0

L

U

0.2

0

Figure 5.8

0.5

0.6

0.7 0.8 Relative humidity

0.9

1

NMR quadrupole splittings for D20 adsorbed on to neuer dried bleached Kraft softwood pulp rejhed to different degrees (2.5000 and 500 revolutions in a PFI mill). (Source: L.T. Qiang, U. Henriksson, J.C. Eriksson and L. Odberg, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, p. 51).

2H

Table 5.4 A comparison of speczq$c surface area ratio calculated from quadrupole splitting (Ad, spin-lattice relaxation rate (Rl), half-height linewidth (Au112) and isotherm data for an unbleached linerboard pulp beaten to various degrees. (Source: L.T. Qiang, U. Henriksson, J.C. Eriksson and L. Odberg in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton; Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, Vol. 1, pp. 39-65). Degree of beating (revolution in a PFI mill)

Relative surfce area from

A , data

R1 data ~~

500 25 000

A0112 data ~~

1.o

1.o

1.o

2.3

2.4

2.4

Isotherm data

~

1 .o 2.50

their degree of swelling, sulfite pulps swell more rapidly than sulfate pulps, and this can easily be visualised (Figure 5.9). The initial adsorption of water by fibres up to a relative humidity of 80% is only around 10 to 15%, but paper makers are concerned

The Paper Formation Process

81

(a)

Figure 5.9

Cross section of (a) a Kraft pulp and (b) a s u p t e pulp, demonstrating the greater delamination of the cell wall of the latter. (Source: Reproduced from D.H. Page, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, p. 18).

with fibres in aqueous suspension where, because of water condensation in the capillary pores of the cell wall, much higher levels of water uptake are observed. It is this water which has always been considered by paper makers to be of vital importance both to the performance of the fibre suspension during the sheet formation process -particularly drainage- and also to final sheet properties. Various techniques have been designed for its measurement. The two methods most popularly used for measurement of the cell

82

Chapter 5

wall water content are the water retention value and the fibre saturation point. I n the former the water content of the fibres is determined after removal of interstitial water by centrifugation of a wet sample, whereas in the latter the principle of solute exclusion from the cell wall of a high molecular weight polymer is used. In the latter procedure, a wet sample of pulp is introduced to a known mass of a non-adsorbing high molecular weight polymer solution of known concentration. The cell wall water is not available for dilution of the polymer solution because of the exclusion of the large polymer from the cell wall micropores. The amount of cell wall water can therefore be determined by measuring the change in polymer concentration. During the delamination of the cell wall which takes place during refining (Figure 5.9), there is an increase in the water accommodated within non-crystalline zones, and the cell wall water content typically rises from around 1 to 3 g per g of dry fibre (Figure 5.10).

2.2 n

M

$

2

I

Q

5

3 1.8 I

c

. I

L P) c)

2 1.4

1.2

Figure 5.10

0

5 10 15 20 25 No of revolution in P.F.I. mill (~0.001)

The effect of refining on the cell wall water content of a Kraft and a suljite pulp. (Source: Adapted from A.M. Scallan, in ‘Fibre- Water Interactions in Paper Making’, in Trans. 6th Fundamental Research Symp.’, Technical Division of British Paper and Board Federation, London, 1977).

83

The Paper Formation Process

Sheet Properties A sheet of paper made from unrefined fibres would have poor tensile strength and poor burst characteristics. It would also be poorly bonded, bulky, absorbent to fluid and have a high porosity and opacity. It would in fact have a very open and irregular structure probably with relatively poor formation (mass distribution). A sheet of paper made from refined fibres, on the other hand, has much greater mechanical strength, high density, low opacity, a smoother surface and a more regular formation. The resistance of the paper to tearing however decreases. These property changes are summarised in Figure 5.1 1. A very large number of changes take place within the whole fibre suspension during the refining process and a precise interpretation of the influence of the process upon mechanical and other sheet properties therefore becomes extremely dificul t. The more important effects can be summarised as follows. There is a shortening of the fibres arising from a cutting effect and part of the fibre cell wall is

220 200

I80 160

g 140 3

2

I

120

CI

cc

100

80 60 40

20

0

0

15

30 15 Beating time (min)

60

7s

Figure 5.1 1 The effect of beating on various paper properties. (Source: Adapted from ‘Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists’, G. Smook, Angus Wilde Publications, Vancouver, 1992, p. 7).

Chapter 5

84

removed, giving rise to debris known as ‘fines’ in the suspension. Partial removal of the fibre cell wall takes place without complete detachment from the fibre (external fibrillation) and delamination of the internal cell wall structure also occurs allowing an increased uptake of water (internal fibrillation). There is also a change in the degree of curl of the fibres and also changes in the number of nodes, kinks, slip planes and microcompressions in the cell wall. Some dissolution of partially soluble or colloidal material into the bulk solution also takes place and there is a redistribution of soluble polysaccharides from the cell wall to other surfaces. Some of these changes can be considered in a little more detail.

Fibre Shortening Before the advent of wood pulps, long fibres such as cotton were used and cutting was an important aspect of the beating operation and was used to reduce the fibre length. Although this still happens to some extent during beating and refining, fibre shortening now tends to be achieved by blending long-fibred softwood with shortfibred hardwood pulps, thus obviating the need for any cutting effect. There is some evidence from the appearance of the cuts in fibres during refining that the fibres fail in a tensile mode rather than by a scissor-like action.

Generation of Fines Fragments of the primary and secondary cell wall are generated by the shearing action of the refiner bars, and pulps differ greatly in their tendency to produce these fines. Unbleached sulfate (Kraft) pulps, for example, are much more resistant to the removal of the primary and secondary cell wall than bleached sulfite pulps (Figure 5.12), which may be attributed to the more degrading effect of sulfite pulping and subsequent bleaching on the S1 layer.

Curling of Fibres Fibres become curled (Figure 5.13) when they are subjected to high shear and when refining is carried out at relatively high consistency. This curling appears to be due to the repeated flexing and bending of the fibres beyond their yield point. Low yield chemical pulps (ie. those with high levels of delignification) curl more easily than high yield pulps. The former also retain their curled state, whereas high yield pulps tend to straighten spontaneously under fairly mild

T h Paper Formation Process

0

20

40

60

Revolution in a PFI mill xlO00 ,

Figure 5.12

The removal of the primary (P) and outer secondary (Sl) cell wall during rejning.

(Source: D.H. Page, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, p. 12).

Figure 5.13

Curled j b r e s .

(Source: Reproduced from D.H. Page, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publicationi, London, 1989, p. 21).

Chapter 5

86

conditions of agitation, When pulp fibres become curled, the sheet becomes more bulky and less dense, the tear resistance of the sheet is improved, and there is a reduction in tensile strength. I n other words, the curling of the fibres tends to work in an opposite direction to beating.

Creation of Dislocations and Microcompressions Fibres which are refined at high consistency (around 20%) experience repeated bending and axial compressive stresses throughout their length, which give rise to microcompressions within the cell wall. These microcompressions may reduce the apparent fibre length by as much as 5% (Figure 5.14) and they tend to influence the degree of extensibility and dimensional stability of the final sheet.

THE SHEET-FORMINGPROCESS Once the pulp fibres have been refined to the necessary degree, they are then formed into a sheet of paper on the paper machine. The paper formation process itself is essentially a fast filtration process and involves the delivery of a dilute fibre suspension in water on to a woven endless plastic wire belt, through which it drains to form a wet fibre network. The Fourdrinier paper machine is the most well-established system for forming the wet web, but there are now many variations of this basic principle. A schematic diagram of the Fourdrinier formation process is shown in Figure 5.15.

Figure 5.14

Microcompressions in a single fibre. (Source: Reproduced from D.H. Page, in Trans. 9th Fundamental Research Symp., eds. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Mech. Eng. Publications, London, 1989, p. 21).

The Paper Formation Process

Head box

87

Fourdrinier formation table

Press section

dryer

t White water

Figure 5.15

Paper-forming section of a paper machine.

The fibre suspension is pumped to the head box of the paper machine which, in modern machines, is usually under pressure; it is discharged from the head box through a narrow orifice extending across the width of the paper machine, known as the slice. The concentration of fibres in water (consistency) would, at this stage, usually be between 0.1 and 1%. Clearly the rate at which the fibre suspension drains is an important factor in influencing the sheet formation process. Because fibres which have been heavily refined have a high surface area and are swollen, they drain slowly, whereas unrefined fibres drain very quickly. Many types of de-watering aids are used to assist the drainage process but these are essentially mechanical and it is beyond the scope of this book to discuss them in detail. Models have been developed for this drainage process which are based upon theories of filtration. The Kozeny-Karmen equation is the most common rate expression used as a model for this filtration process. It can be expressed as: d Q - 1 (1 - C)3 1 -AP dt K S2C2 ,u where d a d t = rate of drainage per unit cross-sectional area of the web, Ap = pressure gradient across the web, C = volume fraction of the web occupied by solids, S = specific surface area of the solids per unit volume and p = viscosity of the liquid. There are a number of weaknesses in this approach, amongst

88

Chapter 5

which are that the flow may not be laminar in the case of medium to fast machines, and that the mat is also not incompressible. The wet web after the formation process is typically around 85% moisture and yet it is a characteristic of such networks that they have enough physical strength to be transferred a t high speeds to the pressing section of the machine. During pressing, the sheet structure is consolidated by the physical expulsion of water, and the moisture content is reduced to around 65%. This is then followed by drying over steam-heated drying cylinders to produce the final sheet. There is a great deal of technology involved in these processes but little chemistry and the subject is not addressed further in this text.

Chapter 6

The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making System

INTRODUCTION The surface chemistry of the paper-making suspension is very important to the properties of the final sheet of paper and also to the smooth running of the paper-making process itself. The aqueous suspension of fibres and fillers and also the added chemicals need to be retained efficiently during sheet formation, and this retention process is controlled to a large extent by the surface characteristics of the individual components and by the molecular and colloidal interactions taking place in the aqueous phase. I n addition, the effective functioning of many of the chemicals which are added depends upon their adsorption, conformation and orientation at the fibre or pigment surface. The following chapter attempts to cover some of the more important surface chemical aspects of the papermaking systern.

SURFACE CHEMISTRY OF FIBRES AND FILLERS Surface Chemistry of Fibres The surface character of fibres influences their affinity towards various chemical additives by, for example, their adsorption properties and also in their tendency to flocculate. Cellulosic fibres, because of the presence of acidic groups which are introduced during chemical pulping and bleaching, are mildly anionic. These acidic groups may be carboxylic (COOH) or in some cases sulfonic acid (S0,H) and they are able to dissociate to leave a net negative 89

90

Chapter 6

charge on the fibre surface as the solvated acidic proton is released. Carboxylic acid groups in cellulose arise from a number of sources: they are introduced during alkaline degradation which produces carboxylic acid end groups on the reducing end of the cellulose and hemicellulose chains (see Chapter 3), they are produced in stopping reactions which stabilise the chain end to further degradation, they are introduced in oxidative treatments (e.g. bleaching), and they may be naturally present in hemicelluloses (e.g. the 4-0-methylD-glucuronic acid substituent groups in the glucuronoxylan of hardwoods). Sulfonic acid groups are introduced into the lignin of sulfite pulps and also sometimes into mechanical pulps by sulfite impregnation of the chips. The acidic group content of pulps may be expressed as a n ion exchange capacity, and typical values for Kraft and sulfite pulps are shown in Figure 6.1. As pulping progresses, the lignin content decreases and the acid group content also decreases. Lignin is not usually measured directly but by the degree of oxidisability of the pulp using, for example,

'/ 0

Figure 6.1

Sulfib (-COOH)

50 100 Kappa number

150

The acid group content of pulps expressed as an ion exchange capacig as a function of kappa number (measure of lignin content) f o r Kraft and [email protected] pulps. (Source: 'Paper Chemistry- An Introduction', ed. D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom. DT Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, p. 20).

The Surface Chemistry of Papior and the Paper-Making 5jtstem

91

acidified permanganate. Kraft pulps have a higher carboxy content than sulfite pulps because they have undergone high-temperature alkaline degradation, but sulfite pulps contain higher levels of sulfonic acid groups. Bleached pulps also have a lower acid content than unbleached pulps, primarily because lignin and hemicelluloses are dissolved during the bleaching process. The anionic nature of the fibres manifests itself as a negative surface potential which can be demonstrated by measuring either streaming potential or microelectrophoretic mobility (Figure 6.2). As would be expected, the surface charge is a function of the carboxyl content of the pulp (Figure 6.3). The surface charge of a fibre has an important influence on its interaction with chemicals (both particulate and soluble) which are added to the aqueous fibre suspension. Their anionicity gives them a high affinity towards cationic additives, and many additives are produced in a cationic form in order to maximise their retention. The pH of the aqueous paper-making system is also important in these interactions. The surface charge of cellulose, because it arises from the dissociation of acidic groups, is dependent upon pH (see

Streaming potential 0

Electrophoresis

I

Figure 6.2

0

The effect of PH on the zeta potential of cellulosic fines and fibres as measured by streaming potential and microelectrophoresis cfisures in brackets are negative). (Source: M.J. Jaycock and J.L. Pearson, J . Coll. Interface Sci., 1976, 55( l), 181 and Svensk Papperstidning, 1975, 5 , 167).

Chapter 6

‘0

10

20 30 Carboxyl content (meq/l00 g)

40

so

Figure 6.3 Effect of carboxy group content on the microelectrophoretic mobility of microcrystalline cellulose @gures in brackets are negative). (Source: L.J. Sandell and P. Luner, J . Appl. Polymer Sci., 1974, 18, 2075).

Figure 6.2). At high p H the acidic groups exist in their dissociated salt form and the surface charge is substantially negative, whereas at low pH the acid groups exist in a largely undissociated form and the surface charge is closer to zero (the isoelectric point) or may even become positive. However, paper-making is not usually carried out at acidities low enough for the isoelectric point to be reached.

The Surface Chemistry of Fillers and Pigments Many inert pigments (often known as fillers) are incorporated into paper in addition to the cellulosic fibres. They may be added to improve certain optical properties -in particular opacity and brightness-or simply as a cheap replacement for costly fibre. The two most common pigments are kaolin (china clay) and chalk (limestone), but talc and speciality pigments such as titanium dioxide are also used. The particle size for general purpose fillers is normally expressed as an equivalent spherical diameter (esd) and this is determined from sedimentation data. Values for the common paper-

The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making System

93

making pigments are usually in the range 0.5-10 esd, but more specialised fillers ( Ti 02, calcined clay, precipitated silica, etc.) often have more carefully controlled particle size distributions. The determination of esd assumes spherical geometry, but filler particles are not spherical and some consideration should therefore be given to the significance of this measurement. I t is derived from sedimentation velocity measurements using Stokes’ Law:

=

(

where d = the equivalent spherical diameter of the particle, r] = the viscosity of the solution, and p and ps = the specific gravities of particle and solution respectively, u = the sedimentation velocity, g = acceleration due to gravity. The problem with the measurement is that the relationship between d and the actual particle dimensions is not clear, and the apparent value of p for aggregated or porous particles is also difficult to obtain. It is also important to realise that, even if the particles were spherical, the relationship between actual diameter ( d ) , surface area per unit mass (S)and particle numbers per unit mass ( N ) for particles of equal specific gravity would also not necessarily be linear (Table 6.1). In practice, many fillers are either disc or rod-shaped and the relationship between actual diameter, surface area per unit mass and particle numbers per unit mass may be quite different from that of idealised spherical particles of the same esd and specific gravity (Table 6.2). Particle sizes and surface areas for some common fillers which have been measured experimentally are shown in Table 6.3. It is clear from Tables 6.1 to 6.3, that the effects of particle size

Table 6.1 Relationship between diameter, surface area and number of particles per unit mass f o r idealised spherical particles. (Source: R. Bown, ‘Physical and Chemical Aspects of the Use of Fillers in Paper’, in ‘Paper Chemistry’, ed. J.C. Roberts, Blackie, Glasgow, 1992, pp. 162- 196). Actual diameter Surface area per unit mass Particle numbers per unit mass

d S N

0.5d

2s BN

0.25d 4s

O.ld 10s

6 4 ~ 103~

Chapter 6

94

Table 6.2

Theoretical multiplication factors f o r anisometric particles with an aspect ratio r >> 1. (Note: For a disc-shaped particle the aspect ratio is the ratio of disc diameter:disk thickness and f o r a rod-shaped particle it is the ratio of rod length: rod diameter). (Source: R. Bown, ‘Physical and Chemical Aspects of the Use of Fillers in Paper’, in ‘Paper Chemistry’, ed. J.C. Roberts, Blackie, Glasgow, 1992, pp. 162- 196). Spherical

Actual diameter (disc diameter or rod length) Surface area per unit mass Particle numbers per unit mass

d

S N

Discshaped r=20

Rodshaped

2.96d 2.48s 0.51N

3.69d 3.70s 5.32N

r=20

Table 6.3 Particle size distributions and surface areas of some common _fillers. (Source: R. Bown, ‘Physical and Chemical Aspects of the Use of Fillers in Paper’, in ‘Paper Chemistry’, ed. J.C. Roberts, Blackie, Glasgow, 1992, pp. 162- 196). Filler

Standard kaolin Fine kaolin Ground limestone Precipitated calcium carbonate Talc Ti02 (Anatase) Silica

BET

Particle size (mass “/o)

N2

> 10 pm < 2 pm < 1 pm < 0.2 pm

surface area (m2/g)

10

80

35 60 35 50

10 10

17 96 40

5 94 30

0 8 18

50 80

0 1

60

0 30 0 6

8 15

9 12 7

7 6 23 150

and shape on surface area are of a similar order of magnitude. However, particle size is much more important than particle shape in influencing the numbers of particles per unit mass. Phenomena which are therefore dependent upon surface area will be influenced by shape and particle size, whereas those which are dependent upon particle numbers will be influenced more by size than shape. Many fillers and pigments are cationic at acidic pH and thus can be deposited on to negatively charged cellulose fibres relatively

The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making System

95

easily. The isoelectric points of some common minerals used in paper making are shown in Table 6.4. The charge or zeta ( I ; ) potential of the filler particle ( i e . the charge at the plane of shear between the particle’s diffuse double layer and the bulk liquid phase) can be obtained by measuring its mobility in an applied electric field of known magnitude. The mobility is a function of the field gradient and is therefore expressed as a speed per unit potential gradient (pm/s/v/cm). Mobility and therefore zeta potential are both a function of p H (Figure 6.4). This means that the retention of fillers is likely to be very sensitive to p H and this is indeed found to be the case in commercial machine operation. There are also other important implications of the effect of p H on charge in the paper-making system, in particular on the interaction of fibre and filler components with cationic additives and these are discussed more fully both later in this chapter and in Chapter 7.

Furnish Charge Measurement Because of the importance of particle surface charge in chemical interactions of components of the aqueous fibre and filler suspension, paper makers would like to know the charge characteristics of all of the individual components of the aqueous suspension. However, such information is difficult to obtain experimentally, and some kind of average value is normally the best that can be hoped for in a multi-component system. The techniques used to determine furnish charge are usually one of those described below.

Table 6.4

Isoelectric points of some common j l l e r s . (Source: R. Bown, ‘Physical and Chemical Aspects of the Use of Fillers in Paper’, in ‘Paper Chemistry’, ed. J.C. Roberts, Blackie, Glasgow, 1992, pp. 162- 196).

Mineral

Isoelectric point (pH)

Ti02 (Anatase) Ti02 (Rutile) Alumina Silica Kaolin CaC03 (Calcite)

6.0 6.7 9.3 2.0 2.0 8.3

96

Chapter 6

3 T i q (Rutile) 0

(3)

;

I

I

4

5

,

T i q (Anatase)

/

I

1

6

7

8

1

,

9

10

PH Figure 6.4

The effect of p H on the microelectrophoretic mobility of titanium dioxide particles figures in brackets are negative). (Source: M.J. Jaycock, J.L. Pearson, R. Counter and F.W. Husband, J . Appl. Chem. BiotechnoE., 1975, 26, 370).

‘Microelectrophoresis (electrophoretic mobility)’. This involves the measurement of particle charge in an applied field. For paper furnishes, the supernatant solution -which contains finely divided colloidal matter, is usually removed and used to conduct the measurement. It must be questioned therefore as to how reflective this is of the charge characteristics of the larger particles and fibres which settle. However, as it is the colloidal fraction which requires to be flocculated to assist retention during drainage, it is still a useful measurement. The microelectrophoretic mobility (pe) is related to zeta potential via one of two equations. When the diameter of the particle is small relative to the thickness of the electrical double layer, the Huckel equation applies:

(c)

and for particles whose diameter is large relative to the thickness of the double layer, the Smoluchowski equation applies:

The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making @stem

where

E

97

= dielectric constant and q = viscosity.

‘Streaming potential’. This is the second commonly used method and is often the basis of on-line measurements. It involves forcing a liquid through a capillary or a plug of porous material (e.g. pulp) by applying a pressure difference Ap. This causes a potential difference to be established across the plug (the streaming potential V s ) . The streaming potential is related to zeta potential as follows:

where E is the dielectric constant of the medium, r) is the viscosity and k, is the electrical conductivity of the fluid. Attempts have been made to use streaming potential for continuous on-line charge measurement. These methods involve the automatic formation of a pad of the furnish components through which white water (the recirculating drainage water produced during sheet formation) is passed. The streaming potential is then measured across the pad. These devices are used over a consistency range 0.2-0.6O/0 and over a wide range of freeness (i.e. a measurement which is related to the speed of drainage of the suspension). The system then allows for regulation of the system zeta potential to what is considered to be an optimum level. ‘Colloid (or polyelectrolyte) titration’. Charge may also be measured volumetrically using the principle of colloid titration which relies upon the fact that polymers of opposite charge can be stoichiometrically ‘charge titrated’ in aqueous solution. A cationic polyelectrolyte (C) can be titrated with an anionic polyelectrolyte in the presence of an appropriate indicator (I) as follows: kl

A+CSAC

where A = an anionic polyelectrolyte, I = indicator, C = a cationic polyelectrolyte, AC = polyelectrolyte complex and A1 = dye complex. The anionic polyelectrolyte is usually potassium poylvinyl sulfate

98

Chapter 6

(KPVS) and the indicator is usually o-toluidine blue (OTB). It is necessary for k l to be much larger than k2 (which is usually the case for polyelectrolytes) . If for example a cationic polyelectrolyte together with O T B is titrated with KPVS, a polyelectrolyte complex is initially formed until no free polyelectrolyte is left to react with the KPVS. At this point, KPVS starts to react with OTB and a colour shift from light-blue to purplish-red indicates the end point. The titration relies upon the formation of a 1:l complex, which is generally true provided that the ionic strength is low. The method can be applied to charges of solids such as fibres and fillers by equilibrating a known excess of cationic polyelectrolyte (for anionic paper furnishes) with the furnish. The solid phase is then separated and the residual polyelectrolyte in the filtrate is backtitrated: Fibre or filler Filtrate

+C

+A

-+

-+

Filtrate

Complex

From a knowledge of the stoichiometry of the reaction between A and C, the charge of the furnish can be determined.

Dissolution from Pulps and Fibres During refining, soluble substances are dissolved from pulps to the extent of about 2-5% by weight of the pulp, but in some cases this may be higher. This is not simply residual material left from incomplete washing (although there may be some) because it is found even in well-washed pulps, but it is the result of the mechanical forces of refining. The extracted material is usually a mixture of lignin-type material and hemicelluloses, the most dominant component of which is xylan. The components are polymeric (although of fairly low DP) and, because they are usually highly anionic, they compete for cationic polymers. They exert a ‘cationic demand’ for added cationic polyelectrolytes, and it is important to have some knowledge of their contribution to the charge of the system so that an appropriate choice of polymer treatment may be used. It is common to use highly charged cationic polyelectrolytes as a pretreatment to reduce the anionicity of the system. Some typical lignin structures identified in extracts from the recirculatory water from a newsprint machine are shown in Figure 6.5.

The Surface Chemist9 of Paper and the Paper-Making System

99

“‘30T CH20H

HO

CH20H

OH Isolariciresinol

OH Lariciresinol

HOH2C

CH2OH I I C H -CH I I CH2 Cti2

I

I

OH

OH

Sccoisolariciresinol

Hot17

CH2 0*03‘“

OH

HO

OH OH

H ydroxymatairesinol

Figure 6.5

a - Conidendrin

Lignin structures [email protected] in extracts from the white water from a newsprint machine. (Source: ‘Paper Chemistry’, eds. D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom, DT Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, p. 55).

Chapter 6

100

POLYELECTROLYTES IN PAPER MAKING Polyelectrolytes are used widely in paper making, in order to assist retention by floccculation and aggregation of colloidal material, and also as additives for promoting wet and dry strength. A polyelectrolyte is simply a polymer which contains charged groups which may be anionic or cationic. The ones used in paper making are usually linear but may occasionally be branched. The presence of the charged groups makes the polymer water-soluble. A typical polyelectrolyte used in the process is shown in Figure 6.6.

Characterisation of Polyelectrolytes The way in which polyelectrolytes function is characterised primarily by two criteria, their molecular weight and their charge density. The charge density, which is also known as cationicity or anionicity depending upon the sign of the charge, is the ratio of the charged groups to the total number of repeat units in the polymer. This may not always be easy to determine for complex co-polymers with no clearly defined repeat unit. I t is usually measured by polyelectrolyte (colloid) titration, which has been discussed earlier in this chapter, and the result expressed as a mole percent of charged groups or as equivalents or milliequivalents per unit mass. The cationic polyacrylamide shown in Figure 6.7 is typical of many used in paper making, and would have a mole percent cationicity of m / ( m n).

+

Adsorption of Polyelectrolytes Polyelectrolytes are required to be adsorbed by fibres and fillers in order to perform their function, and the adsorption process is dependent upon both charge density and molecular weight. I n

r

Figure 6.6 A cationic polystyrene polyelectrolyte.

1

The &$ace

Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making System

101

Figure 6.7 A typical cationic polyacrylamide used in Paper making.

general, a plot of adsorption against charge density for polyelectrolytes of different molecular weight would take the form shown in Figure 6.8. Adsorption a t high cationicity is low and relatively independent of molecular weight because the polyelectrolyte is adsorbed in a relatively flat conformation. Adsorption a t low to intermediate cationicities is higher and also tends to be dependent upon molecular weight. This is because the polyelectrolyte is adsorbed in a much less compressed conformation. This is represented pictorially in Figure 6.9. The adsorption of ionic polyelectrolytes by mineral fillers, fibres and fines is an essential first step in many chemical modification

High M.W.

Medium M.W.

Low M.W.

100

0

Cationicity ( O h ) Figure 6.8

The generalised effect of molecular weight and cationicity on adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes on non-porous surfaces.

Chapter 6

102

Low Charge Density High Adsorption

High Charge Density Low Adsorption

Figure 6.9

+&+&-&++, + &

Pictorial representation o f the conformation of adsorbed polyelectrolytes.

processes, particularly in assisting their retention in the fibre web during sheet formation. The mechanism by which they assist retention is discussed in more detail in Chapter 7, but the adsorption process, as far as non-porous fillers is concerned, corresponds well to

u

U

u

u

U

PEI 10, pH 7

-

a

0

W

PEI 500, pH 7

0

20

40

60

80

100

Time after polymer addition (min) Figure 6.10

Influence of molecular weight on the adsorption of polyethylemimines (PEZ)b~ a bleached suljite pulp (PEI 10 = DP of 10 and PEI 500 = DP 500). (Source: D. Horn, in ‘Polymeric Amines and Ammonium Salts’, ed. E.J. Goethals, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980, p. 333).

The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making System

103

the above theoretical principles. However, the adsorption of polyelectrolytes by cellulose, because it is porous, is less simple and depends upon the pulp type, its accessibility and its porosity. These, in turn, are influenced by the conditions of stock preparation. Adsorption is relatively rapid and is usually fairly complete within a few seconds or minutes. An example for polyethyleneimines (PEI) is shown in Figure 6.10. At comparable charge densities, the lower molecular weight PEI (PEI 10 = molar mass of 400) is adsorbed more easily than the high molecular weight PEI (PEI 500 = molar mass of 25000) and this is the opposite of what is found for polyelectrolyte adsorption on to non-porous substrates (for example by pigments). The effect can be explained by the fact that cellulose, being porous, is less accessible to the high than the low molecular weight polymer. The effect of charge density is, however, the same as for polyelectrolyte adsorption by non-porous substrates, i.e. the lower the charge density the higher the level of adsorption. For example, the

3 n

SEJ

U

I

.s

c)

2

-

1

-

-

P 4

0

20

40 60 80 Time after polymer addition (min)

100

Figure 6.11 Effect of p H on the adsorption of polyethyleneimine ip a bleached suljite pulp (PEI 10 = DP of 10). (Source: D. Horn, in ‘Polymeric Amines and Ammonium Salts’ ed. E.J. Goethals, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1980, p. 333).

Chapter 6

104

'n

L

L

Jn

Figure 6.12 Protonation of the amino nitrogen atom of polyeth$eneimine.

0

Figure 6.13

0.1 1 10 100 Added amount of cationic polyacrylamide ( O h )

0.01

1,000

The eflect of charge density (degree of substitution of cationic groups) of a cationic PolyQcrylamide on the microe1ec;rophoretic mobility of microcrystalline cellulose (fisures in brackets are negative). (Source: T. Lindstrom, C. Soremark, C. Heinegard and S. Martin-Lof, Tappi, 1974, 57 ( 12), 94).

105

The Surface Chemistry of Paper and the Paper-Making System

polyacrylamides tend to have a much lower charge density than the polyethyleneimines -typically about one fifteenth as much, but they are more highly adsorbed. The pH can also have an important effect upon charge density and therefore upon adsorption. For example, the polyethyleneimines are more strongly adsorbed at pH 7 than at pH 4.5 (Figure 6.1 1). This is because their charge densities arise as a result of protonation of the amino nitrogen atom (Figure 6.12) and this increases at low pH. Since high charge densities give rise to lower levels of adsorption these polyelectrolytes are adsorbed less effectively at low pH. The effect which polyelectrolyte adsorption has upon the surface charge (zeta potential) of fibres and fines is also important-particularly for retention-and both molecular weight and charge density of the adsorbed polyelectrolyte are known to affect the particle surface charge, although not always in an intuitively predictable way.

1

Molecular weight

/

12x106

i //

..................................................................................................................

t (3);

A

",""

0.01

'

"

' I . ' '

0.1

I

1

1

.

.............

, 80%). The two major disposal methods for these sludges are either incineration, which is practised more widely in the United States and is best suited to sludges of high solids, or by land-fill, which tends to be used for wetter sludge cakes and is practised more widely in Europe. However, as regulatory control over land-fill becomes increasingly severe, costs are rising and it is doubtful whether land-fill will continue to be economic for many years to come. The sludges from these processes may vary considerably in their organic content, depending on the nature of the process and the type of raw material (particularly pigment) which is being used. This in turn affects their suitability for incineration. Some typical data are shown in Table 10.7. There is a critical organic content required for incineration without the need for additional fuel, and Figure 10.5 shows the relationship between organic content and combustibility.

Table 10.7

Paper and board sludge: production and composition. (Source: J.C. Roberts and P.W.W. Kirk, ‘Paper Mill Sludge Production in the NW of England’, Environ. Technol. Lett., 1980, 1, 474-483).

Dry sludge (kg/ton of production)

Solid content

Fibre content

Ash content

(Yo)

(Yo)

( O/O )

3-12

15-30

15-70

5-46

Paper Making and the Environment

175

80

5- 70 v)

s I

5: 60

Self sustaining combustion possible

c)

0

H

50 -

I I

Y

z 40 8 J

U

3i 30

LV

0

Figure 10.5

20

40 60 Sludge cake --- percent organic ("10)

80

Relationship between organic content of sludges and their combustibility. (Source: P.W.W. Kirk, 'Laboratory Evaluation and Postal Survey of Paper Mill Sludge in the NW of England', MSc Dissertation, University of Manchester, 1980, p. 28).

Recommended Reading ‘Wood Chemistry - Fundamentals and Applications’, E. Sjostrom, Academic Press, San Diego, 1993, ISBN 0-12-64748 1-8. ‘Handbook of Paper Science Volume 1 - The Raw Materials and Processing of Papermaking’, ed. H.F. Rance, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1980, ISBN 0-444-41778-8. ‘Handbook of Paper Science Volume 2 - ‘The Structure and Physical Properties of Paper’, ed. H.F. Rance, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1982, ISBN 0-444-41974-8. ‘Chronology of the Origin and Progress of Paper and Paper Making’, J. Munsell, Garland (USA), 1980, ISBN 0-8240-3878-9. ‘Cell Wall Mechanics of Tracheids’, R.E. Mark, Yale University Press, 1967. ‘Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Technology’ 3rd Edition, Volume 1, ed. J. Casey, J. Wiley & Sons, 1980, ISBN 0-471-03175-5. ‘Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, Chemistry and Potential Applications’, Volume 1, J. Kent Kirk, T. Higuchi and H.M. Chang; CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 1980, ISBN 0-8493-5459-5. ‘Paper - An Engineered Stochastic Structure’, M. Deng and C.T.J. Dodson, Tappi Press, Atlanta, USA, 1994, ISBN 0-8985-2283-8. ‘Handbook of Physical and Mechanical Testing of Paper and Paperboard’, R.E. Mark, Volume 1, 1983, Volume 2, 1984, Marcel Dekker, New York, ISBN 0-8247-7052-8 (Vol. 2) and 0-8247-1871-2 (Vol. 1). 176

177

Recommended Reading

‘Subfracture Mechanical Properties’, G.A. Baum, in ‘Products of Paper Making’; Transactions 10th Fundamental Research Symposium, Volume 1, P I M International, 1993, ISBN 1-85802-053-0, pp. 1-126. ‘Paper Chemistry’, ed. J.C. Roberts, Blackie, Glasgow, 1991, ISBN 0-2 16-92909-1. ‘Cellulose Chemistry and its Applications’, ed. T.P. Nevell and S.H. Zeronian, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, 1985, ISBN 0-853 12463-9. ‘The Beating of Chemical Pulps - the Action and the Effects’, D.H. Page in ‘Transactions of the 9th Fundamental Research Symposium’, ed. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Volume 1, pp. 1-38, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London, 1989, ISBN 0-85298-706-4. ‘Paper Chemistry - An Introduction’, D. Eklund and T. Lindstrom, D T Paper Science Publications, Grankulla, Finland, 1991, ISBN 952-90-3606-X. ‘Some Fundamental Chemical Aspects of Paper Forming’, T . Lindstrom, in ‘Transactions of the 9th Fundamental Research Symposium’, ed. C.F. Baker and V. Punton, Volume 1, pp. 31 1-41 2, Mechanical Engineering Publications Ltd, London, 1989, ISBN 0-85298-706-4. ‘The Coating Processes’, Tappi Press, USA, 1993, ISBN 0-89852266-8. ‘Technology of Paper Recycling’, ed. R.J. McKinney, Blackie, Glasgow, 1995, ISBN 0-7514-0017-3. ‘Environmental Issues in the Pulp and Paper Industries - A Literature Review’, N. Kirkpatrick, PIRA International, 1991, ISBN 0-90279-960-6. ‘Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists’, G.A. Smook, Angus Wilde Publications, Vancouver, 1992, ISBN 0-9694-6281-6. ‘Principles of Wet End Chemistry’ W.E. Scott, 1996. Tappi Press, Atlanta, USA, ISBN 0-89852-286-2.

Subject Index

Alkenyl succinyl anhydrides (ASAs), 125, 128, 129, 130-131, 132, 147-148 Alkyl ketene dimers (AKDs), 125, 128- 131, 147- 148 Alum, 123 use in internal sizing, 125, 126-127, 128 see also Aluminium sulfate Alumina, 95 Aluminium sulfate as flocculant and retention aid, 109-110, 113 pH, 109, 125 role in sizing, 127 use with wet strength agents, 135 see also Alum Amylopectin, 145, 146, 147 Amylose, 145, 146, 147 Angiosperm, 12 see also Hardwood Anionicity, 100 Anisotropy of paper, 57 and mechanical strength, 59-61 Arabinogalactan, 23 Arabino- (4-0-methylg1ucurono)xylans, 23 Areal mass density distribution, see Mass density distribution

Abietic acid, 25, 126, 173 Absorption, 74 of liquids by paper, 67-68 of water by cellulose, 75-79, 80 Acetobacter xylinum, cellulose produced by, 21 Acidic pulp, see Sulfite pulp Acidic pulping, 38-42 and carbohydrate degradation, 46-47, 49 and solubilisation of organic extractives, 24-25 sulfite, see Sulfite pulping Adsorption, 74 heat of, 75-76 of polyelectrolytes, 100- 108, 113-117 Adsorption isotherm and retention mechanisms, 113, 116 for water, 73-74, 76-78 Air permeability, effects of recycling, 155 Air-knife coating machine, 148- 149 Algal celluloses, 21, 55 Alginates, as surface size, 146-147, 148 Alkaline pulp, see Kraft pulp Alkaline pulping, 42-44 and carbohydrate degradation, 45-46, 47 and solubilisation of organic extractives, 24-25

Bacteria celluloses from, 21, 55, 59

178

Subject Index in paper mill discharges, 168- 169 Beating, see Refining processes Bentonite, 113, 159 Binders, for coatings, 150- 151 Biochemical oxygen demand, 167-168 Biodegradability of pollutants, 167-168 Bisulfite bleaching, 49-50 Bisulfite ion in reductive bleaching, 50 in sulfite pulping process, 38-40 Black liquor, from Kraft process, 44 Blade coating machine, 148-149 Bleaching of chemical pulp, 10, 48-51 of deinked fibres, 160 effect on acid content of pulp, 90, 91 effect on sizing, 128 pollution from, 165, 169- 172 Blending of pulps, 5, 84 Board, 6 chemical additives, 111 consumption of, 3-4 production of, 3-4 Bonding in paper, 52-53, 56-59 and tensile strength, 59, 60, 118-119, 120, 122 see also Hydrogen bonding; Interfibre bonding Bridging of polymers, 1 13, 117, 123, 124 Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) adsorption isotherm, 73, 74, 76-78 Burst strength, effects of recycling, 155, 156 effects of refining, 83

Calcined clay filler, 93 Calcium carbonate, as pigment, 150 surface chemistry, 92, 93-94, 95

179 Capillary suction, 67, 68 Carbohydrates association with lignin, 34-35 degradation during acid pulping, 40, 45-48, 49 pollution by, 166, 167, 169 polymers, see Polysaccharides Carboxylic acid groups, and surface chemistry, 89-91, 92 Carboxymethyl cellulose as flow modifier, 151 as surface size, 145 Cationic starch, 119- 120 as dry strength additive, 110, 118, 119-122 effect of pH on retention, 119-120, 121 as retention aid, 11 1-1 12, 113, 128 as surface size, 145 tertiary and quaternary, 1 19- 120 Cationicity, 100, 101 Cell structure effect of recycling, 156- 158 and fibre morphology, 11- 17, 19 tracheid, 12- 15 Cell walls delamination of, 81, 82, 84 effect of recycling, 158 effect of refining process, 71, 79-82, 84, 85 lignin biosynthesis and biogenesis, 27-35 primary, 15-16, 19, 70-71, 84, 85 secondary, 15, 16-17, 19, 71, 84, 85 Cellobiose, 54, 55 Cellophane, surface area, 74 Cellulose, 20-2 1 accessibility, 76, 77, 103 adsorption of polyelectrolytes, 103-105, 120 biosynthesis in land plants, 21, 22 in cell walls, 15, 17, 19 content in fibre cells, 8, 9, 11-12

180 content in wood and pulp, 17, 20 cross-linking by wet strength agents, 136, 138 degradation during acid pulping, 40, 47, 49 degradation during alkaline pulping, 45-46, 47, 48 derivatives from dissolving pulps, 51 effects of refining process, 72-86 fibre networks, 52-68 heat of wetting, 75-76 hydrogen bonding, 52, 54, 56, 58-59 interfibre bonding, 58-59 polymorphic forms, 5 1, 55-56, 57 porosity, 103 retention of polyelectrolytes, 120 sizing mechanisms, 127-128, 129 sorption of water, 75-79, 80 structure, 20, 54-56 surface area measurement, 72-75 surface chemistry, 89-92 swelling hysteresis, 76 Chain stabilisation (stopping reaction), 45, 47 Chalk, see Calcium carbonate Charge density of polyelectrolytes, 100 effect on adsorption, 100-101, 102, 103-105, 106 Charge neutralisation mechanism of retention, 113-1 16, 117 Chemical oxygen demand, 167- 168 Chemical pulp bleaching of, 50-51 effects of recycling, 155-156, 157, 158 Chemical pulping (delignification), 9-10, 35, 38-44 pollution from, 165 China clay, see Kaolin Chlorinated organic compounds, pollution from, 169- 170 Chlorine-based bleaching, 160 with chlorine, 50-51

Subject Index

with chlorine dioxide, 50, 51 pollution from, 165, 169- 172 2-Chloroe t hy ldiethylammonium chloride, 119, 120 Clay, see Kaolin Cleaning of paper fibres for recycling, 158 Coagulation as retention mechanism, 1 13- 1 17 Coating colour (mixture), 150- 151 formulations, 110 hold-out, 142 machines, 148- 150 processes, 141, 142, 148-152 Collectors, 169 Colloid titration, 97-98 Computer paper, chemical additives, 110 Conformation of polyelectrolytes, effect of adsorption, 101, 102, 106, 107-108 a-Conidendrin, 99 Coniferaldehyde, 50 Conifers, 12 Coniferyl alcohol, 27, 29, 30 Contact angle, 67-68 Copier paper chemical additives, 110 mode of fracture, 119 Cotton fibres, 5, 7 bonding properties, 59 cellulose structure, 21, 54, 55 heat of wetting, 75 mechanical properties, 17, 18 swelling and surface area measurement, 73 use in paper-making, 3 p-Coumaryl alcohol, 27, 29 Cross machine direction (CD), and anisotropy of paper, 60-61, 62, 63, 64 Cross-linking and recycling, 158 and wet strength, 133, 134, 135-136, 138, 139-140

Subject Index

Curling of fibres, 84-86 Cutting of fibres, 83, 84 Debonding agents, 111 Degree of polymerisation (DP) of cellulose, 54 effect on dissolution by acid pulping, 40 reduction by alkaline pulping, 45 Dehydrogenated polymerisate (DHP), 30-33 Deinked paper, 1 10- 11 1 Deinking of waste paper, 158- 160 Delamination caused by beating, 84 of cell walls, 81, 82 Delignification, 35, S8-99 chemical, 9-10, 35, 38-44 pollution from, 165 Density, effects of recycling, 155, 156 Deoxygenation by nutrient pollution, 166-169 Depolymerisation of carbohydrates (peeling), 45, 46 Diels-Alder reaction, of rosin, 126- 127 1,3-(Dihydroxymethyl)urea,134, 135 Dioxins, 171- 172 Discoloration by chemical pulping, 48-49 of lignin, 9, 24 Dislocation of fibres, 86 Dispersants, in coating mixture, 151 Dispersion of fibres (pulping), 69-70 of paper fibres for recycling, 158 of pigment in deinking, 159 Dissolution of lignin, see Delignification Dissolving pulps, 5 1 Dithionite bleaching, 49, 50 Drainage effects of refining process, 71 process involved in sheet-forming, 87-88 Drainage aids, 1 1 1- 1 17, 128

181 Dry strength additives, 110, 112, 117-124 Drying of sized pulp, 129- 130, 132 Elastic properties of cotton fibres, 17, 18 of paper, 60, 63, 65 Electrophoretic mobility, see Microelectrophoretic mobility Epichlorohydrin, 137, 138 2,3-Epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride, 119, 120 Equivalent spherical diameter (esd) of filler and pigment particles, 92-93, 150 Ethylene-vinyl acetate latexes, 150 Extension at break, cotton fibres, 17, 18 Extractives, organic, see Organic extractives Fibre networks, 52-53, 60-61, 64 Fibre saturation point, 82, 156, 157, 158 Fibres bonding between, see Interfibre bonding curling, 84-86 dislocations and microcompressions, 86 distribution, see Formqationof paper effects of recycling, 156- 158 effects of refining process, 7 1-73, 83-86, 98-99 flexibility, see Flexibility of fibres mechanical properties, 17, 18, 52-53, 156- 158 microfibrils, 11, 12, 15-17, 19 morphology in wood cells, 1 1- 17 natural, see Natural fibres non-woody, 5-6, 7 orientation in sheets, 57, 60-61 recycled, 3-4, 110- 1 11 shortening by cutting, 83, 84 sources, 4-6

182 strength and paper strength, 59, 60, 64-65 in structure of paper, 2-3 surface chemistry, 88-92 virgin, 3-4 Fibrillation caused by beating, 84 during refining process, 71 Fillers and pH, 110 surface chemistry and particle properties, 92-95 Film splitting, in size press, 144 Filter paper, surface area, 74 Filtration, process involved in sheet-forming, 86-88 Fines, 83, 84 Flexibility of fibres, 58, 156 effects of refining process, 71, 79 Flocculants, effect on paper formation, 62, 66 Flocculation by dry strength additives, 124 effect of vegetable gums, 123 mechanism, 1 13- 1 17 Flotation deinking, 159- 160 Flow modifiers, in coating mixture, 151 Folding strength effects of recycling, 155, 156 effects of refining, 83 Forests, source of wood for paper-making, 3, 160- 163 Formaldehyde, 134, 136 Formation of paper, 61-63, 68-88 effects of flocculants, 62, 66, 124 use of hardwood/softwood blends, 5 Formic acid, oxygen demand of, 167 Fourdrinier paper machine, 86-87 Fugitivity, 131 Furnish charge measurement, 95-98 content of chemical additives, 109 effect of starch adsorption, 120- 122

Subject Index

Galactoglucomannan, 2 1-23, 122-123 D-Glucopyranose, 20, 22, 54 in starch polysaccarides, 145, 146 Glucose, oxygen demand of, 166, 167 Glucuronoxylans, 23, 24 4- 0-methyl-D-glucuronic acid residues in, 23, 35, 90 Glyoxylated polyacrylamides, as wet strength agents, 134, 139- 140 Grammage, 63 Guaiacyl-glycerol-/?-D-guaiacyl ether, 35, 36 Guar gum, 123 L-Guluronic acid, 147, 148 Gums, see Vegetable gums Gymnosperm, 12 see also Softwood Gypsum, 150 Halogenated organic compounds, pollution from, 169- 170 Hardwood cell structure, 12-15, 17 chemical composition, 8-9, 20, 22 definition, 12 delignified holocellulose surface area, 74 fibre morphology, 5 hemicellulose content, 23 lignin content, 27, 31 pulp production, 5 resin acid content, 172 Heat of adsorption, 75-76 Heat of wetting, 75-76 Hemicelluloses, 2 1-24 as components of fibre cells, 8, 9, 19 content in wood and pulp, 17, 20 degradation during acid pulping, 40, 46-47 degradation during alkaline pulping, 45 effect on pulp and paper, 23-24 Hornification, 158

Subject Index

Hydrogen bonding in cellulose, 52, 54, 56, 58-59 and mechanical strength, 63-64 Hydrolysis role in acid pulping, 41, 46, 49 role in alkaline pulping, 45, 48 Hydroxymatairesinol, 99 Hydroxyme thylme thylmelamine, 136 p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 32 Hypochlorite bleaching, 49 Hysteresis, in cellulose properties associated with swelling, 76, 77 Incineration of sludge, 174, 175 Inorganic materials, trace, 8-9 Insolubilisers, in coating mixture, 151 Integrated mills, 69 Intercrystalline swelling, 73 Interfibre bonding, 52-53, 58-59 effects of recycling, 157-158 and mechanical strength, 64-65, 118-119, 120, 122, 123 and wet strength, 133, 134 Internal sizing, 124- 131 Ion exchange capacity of pulps, 90 Ionene halides, 114, 1 18 Ionic strength effect on polyelectrolyte adsorption, 107 role in flocculation, 113, 115 Isoelectric point, 92 and charge neutralisation, 114-1 17 of fillers, 95 Isolariciresinol, 99 Japan, paper recycling and recovery, 154, 155 Kaolin as pigment and filler, 92, 93-95, 150 shear thickening of, 152 surface chemistry, 92, 93-95 Karaya gum, 122- 123

183 Kozeny-Karmen equation, 87-88 Kraft pulp acid groups in, 89-91 chemical composition, 20, 24 effects of recycling, 155-156, 157 generation of fines in, 84, 85 ion exchange capacity, 90 sizing of, 128, 130 swelling of, 80, 81 water content of cell walls, 82 Kraft pulping process, 39, 42-44 pollution, 165

Land-fill disposal of sludge, 174 Lariciresinol, 99 Latexes, as binders, 150- 151 Lignification, 27 -28 Lignin, 24, 26-35 association with carbohydrates, 34-35 biosynthesis, 2 7-35 chemical composition and structure, 9, 26-27, 28, 29, 30 as component of fibre cells, 6, 9, 11, 27, 31 content in wood and pulp, 17, 20, 27, 31 discoloration due to photooxidation, 9, 24 solubilisation, 9- 10, 35-44, 98, 99 see also Delignification Limestone, see Calcium carbonate fillers Liner board, 111 Liquid penetration of paper, 66-68 Load-elongation curves, and anisotropy of paper, 60, 63

Machine direction (MD), and anisotropy of paper, 57, 60-61, 62, 63, 64 Magazines, recovery and recycling, 154- 155 Maleopimaric acid, 126

184 D-Mannuronic acid, 147, 148 Mass density distribution, 52 effect of dry strength additives, 124 and formation, 62-63 Mechanical properties effects of refining on paper sheets, 83-84 elastic properties of cotton fibres, 17, 18 elastic properties of paper, 60, 63, 65 extension at break, 17, 18 of fibres, 17, 18, 52-3, 156-158 rigidity, 60, 62 stiffness, 60, 62, 155, 156 strength of paper, 59-6 1, 63-65 see also Tensile strength Mechanical pulp bleaching, 49-50 effects of recycling, 155, 157 Mechanical pulping, 9, 35-38 Melamine-formaldehyde (M/F) resins, 133, 134, 136, 151 Metal ion deactivation in recycled waste, 160 Methanol pulping, 44 4- 0-Methyl-D-glucuronic acid residues association with lignin, 35 in softwood hemicelluloses, 23 Microcompression of fibres, 86 Microelectrophoretic mobility and carboxyl content, 92 effect of polyelectrolyte adsorption, 113 and flocculation, 1 15, 116 measure of surface charge, 9 1, 96-97, 105, 106 and molecular weight of adsorbate, 105, 106 and pH, 91, 130 Microfibrils, 11, 12 in cell walls, 15-17, 19 Mixed waste, 154 Mobility, see Microelectrophoretic mobility

Subject Index

Molecular weight of polyelectrolytes, effect on adsorption, 101- 103, 105, 106-107 Montmorillonite clay, 113

Natural fibres chemical composition, 6-9 grass, 5-6, 27, 29 ramie, 5, 75 Network polymers, 33, 34 Networks of cellulose fibres, 52-68 Newsprint, 6, 8 chemical additives, 110 discoloration due to lignin content, 9, 24 fibre structure, 2 lignins extracted during production, 98, 99 pulping for, 37 recovery and recycling, 154- 155 Non-chlorine bleaching, 50 Nutrient pollution, 166-169 by starch-containing eflluent, 45, 164

Oleic acid, 160 Opacity effects of recycling, 155 and formation, 62-63 and grammage, 63 Organic extractives as components of fibre cells, 8-9 content in wood and pulp, 17, 20 extracted from wood during pulping, 24-25 Organic solvent pulping, 44 Organohalogen compounds, toxic pollution from, 169- 172 Orientation of fibres, 57 and mechanical strength, 60-61 Orientation of water adsorbed on cellulose, 78, 79, 80 Oxidative bleaching, 49-50

Subject Index Oxygen demand of pollutants, 166-169

Packaging papers, 6, 8 chemical additives, 111 Packaging waste, 154 Palmitic acid, 160 Palustric acid, 173 Paper chemical composition, 6-9 consumption, 3-4 definition, 1-3 effect of starch adsorption, 120, 122 sheet-forming process, 86-88, 112 formation (property), see Formation of paper product types, 6, 8 production, 3-4 recovery and recycling, 153- 160 structure, 2-3, 52, 53 Papyrus, 2 Parchment, 2 Particle properties of fillers, 92-94 Patch charge mechanism of retention, 113-1 16 Peeling (depolymerisation), 45, 46 Peroxide bleaching, 49, 50 PH and adsorption of polyethyleneimine, 103- 105 and microelectrophoretic mobility, 95, 96 of paper-making, 109- 1 10 and retention of cationic starch, 119-120, 121 and retention of fillers, 91, 95, 101-105 and sizing, 109- 110, 124, 125, 126-128, 130 and surface charge, 91-92, 95 Phenol, oxygen demand of, 167 Phenolic pollutants, 170 Phenoxide radicals, 29-30, 33 L-Phenylalanine, 29, 32 Phenylpyruvic acid, 32

185 Picking, 141 Pigment coating, 148-142 Pigments dispersion during deinking, 159 surface chemistry, 92-95 Pimaric acid, 173 Pine cell structure, 13 as component of newspaper, 2 fibre structure, 14 productivity, 163 resin acid content, 172 turpentine as pulping by-product, 25 Pinene, 25 Plantation forests, 163 Plasticity of cell wall, effects of refining, 79 Pollution by paper industry, 165-174 recycling of starch-sized paper, 145, 164 Polyacry lamide, glyoxylated, 134, 139- 140 non-ionic, 113, 123 Polyacrylamide polyelectrolytes, 101, 103-105, 107, 123 as dry strength agents, 110, 112, 118, 123 as retention aids, 111-112, 114, 118 as wet strength additives, 134, 139-140 Polyaminoamide-epichlorohy drin (PAE) resins, 133, 134, 137, 138- 139 Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFS), 17 1- 172 Polyelectrolyte titration, 97-98, 100 Polyelectrolytes, 100 adsorption by fibres and fillers, 100- 107 conformation when adsorbed, 101, 102, 106, 107-108 pretreatment by, to reduce anionicity, 98

186 as retention aids, 111-1 13, 114 see also Flocculants Polyethyleneimine polyelectrolytes effect of molecular weight on adsorption, 106 effect of pH on adsorption, 103-105 as retention aids, 11 1-1 12, 114, 115 as wet strength additives, 134, 139 Polymer bridging, 113, 117, 123, 124 Polymerisation of lignin, 29-35 Polymers as coatings, 110 as dry strength additives, 118 as retention and drainage aids, 11 1-1 17 Polysaccharides as components of fibre cells, 6-8, 11-12 as dry strength additives, 122-123 hydrogen bonding between, 52 in starch, 145, 146, 147 see also Cellulose; Hemicelluloses; Starch Polyvinyl alcohol, as surface size, 147 Pore size, and liquid penetration, 68 Pore size distribution of paper, 52 Porosity of cellulose, 103 and liquid penetration of paper, 67-68 Printed paper waste, 154 Printing and writing paper, 6, 8 chemical additives, 110 recovery and recycling, 155 Pulp blends, 5, 84 chemical composition, 16, 20 effects of recycling, 155-156, 157 effects of refining process, 72-86, 98-99 non-woody, 5-6, 7 production, 5 swelling of, 72-78, 79, 80

Subject Index

Pulping chemical pulping (delignification) , 9-10, 38-44, 165 dispersion of fibres, 69-70 mechanical pulping, 9, 35-38 Quinones, decoloration in bleaching processes, 50 Ray cells, 14- 15 Recovery, of chemicals in Kraft process, 44 Recovery rate of waste paper, 163, 164 Recycled fibres, use, 3-4, 110-1 11 Recycled paper, 110-1 11, 153 Recycling of cellulosic waste paper, 152- 160 environmental effects, 163- 164 of PAE-treated papers, 138 of starch-sized paper, 145 Reductive bleaching, 49-50 Refining processes, 37-38, 70-7 1 beating, 70, 83, 84 effects on paper formation, 71-86 effects on sheet properties, 83-84 Relative bonded area (RBA), 64-65 Relative humidity and adsorbed water orientation, 80 effect on cellulose, 76-78 effect on mechanical strength of paper, 61, 65 Resin acids content in wood, 172, 173 pollution from, 169, 172, 173 saponification of, 159 see also Rosin Resin canals, 15 Resins extracted from wood during pulping, 24-25 as wet strength additives, 133- 138 Retention aids, 111-1 17, 118 classification, 1 12- 1 13

Subject Index Retention of fillers, 11 1- 1 13 effect of adsorbed electrolytes, 101-103, 105 mechanism, 1 13- 1 17 and pH, 95, 101-103 Retention of size, 124, 125, 128 Retrogradation of starch, 145, 158 Rheology of coating mixture, 151- 152 Rigidity, and anisotropy of paper, 60, 62 Rosin, 126 use in internal sizing, 125, 126-127, 128 see also Resin acids Sanitary papers, chemical additives for, 11 1 Saponification of varnish and ink, 159-160 Secoisolariciresinol, 99 Shear effect on chemical additives, 117, 118, 122 thickening and thinning, 151- 152 Sheet modulus of paper, 65 Sheet structure, 52, 53, 57 and liquid penetration of paper, 67-68 Sheet-forming process, 86-88, 112 Sheets, effects of refining, 83-84 Shikimic acid, 29, 32 Silica colloidal, 11 1 as filler and pigment, 93, 94, 95, 150 Silicic acid, 113 Sinapyl alcohol, 27, 29 Size press, 142- 144 Sizing, 111, 124 drying process, 129- 130, 132 function, 68 internal, 124- 131 mechanisms, 127 and pH, 109-110, 124, 126-127 and pulp type, 128- 130

187 reversion of, 131 surf-ace, 124, 141-148 and wet strength, 132-133 Sludge disposal, 173- 174 Smoluchowski equation, 96-97 Sodium carbonate, 159 Sodium hydroxide use in Kraft process, 42-44 use in recycling paper, 158, 159 Sodium hypochlorite, 160 Sodium rosinate, 126, 127 Sodium sulfide, use in Kraft process, 42-43, 44 Sodium sulfite, 38 Softening agents, 1 1 1, 125 Softwood cell structure, 12- 17 chemical composition, 8-9, 17, 20, 23 definition, 12 fibre morphology, 5 hemicellulose content, 2 1-23 lignin content, 26-27, 28, 29, 31 pulp production, 5 resin acid content, 172, 173 see also Pine; Spruce Solvent pulping, 44 Sorption of water by cellulose, 75-79, 80 see also Absorption; Adsorption Soy protein, as binder, 150 Sphaerotilus natans, 169 Splitting of films in size press, 144 Spreading of size, 125 Spruce heat of wetting, 75 lignin content, 9, 20, 27, 30, 31 as newsprint component, 2 resin acid content, 172 Starch as binder, 150, 151 composition, 145, 146, 147 as dry strength additive, 110, 118, 119-122 effect of pH on retention, 119-120, 121

188 nutrient pollution by, 145, 164, 166 as retention aid, 111-112, 113, 121 retrogradation, 145, 158 as surface size, 144-147 as wet strength additive, 134, 139 see also Cationic starch Stearic acid, 160 Stiffness and anisotropy of paper, 60, 62 effects of recycling, 155, 156 Stokes’ law, 93 Stone ground wood (SGW) process, 37 Stopping reaction (alkaline chain stabilisation), 45, 47 Streaming potential, 91, 92, 97 Strength effect of recycling, 155- 158 of paper, 59-6 1, 63-65 see also Tensile strength Styrene-butadiene latexes, 150 Sulfate process, see Kraft process Sulfite pulp acid groups in, 89-91 chemical composition, 20, 24 generation of fines, 84, 85 ion exchange capacity, 90 swelling of, 80, 81 water content of cell walls, 82 Sulfite pulping, 38-42 pollution, 165 use for high-purity dissolving pulps, 51 Sulfonation and pulping, 38 role in acid pulping, 40-42 Sulfonic acid groups, and surface chemistry, 89-91 Sulfur dioxide, in sulfite pulping process, 38-40 Surface area effects of refining process, 72-78, 80 of fillers, 93-94

Subject Index

measurement, 72- 75 and sizing, 128, 131 Surface charge measurement, 95-98 and surface chemistry of fibres, 89-93 see also Zeta potential Surface chemistry of fibres, 88-92 of fillers and pigments, 92-95 Surface coating, 110, 141, 142, 148-152 Surface energy, role in internal sizing, 124 Surface sizing, 124, 141- 148 Surface tension forces, in wet fibres, 58 Surface wetting, 67-68 Swelling of cellulose, 7 1, 73-78 effects on cell wall, 79-82 see also Fibre saturation point

Talc, surface chemistry, 92, 93-94 Tall oil, 25 Tear resistance effects of recycling, 155, 156, 158 effects of refining, 83, 86 Tensile strength and areal mass density distribution, 62-63 effects of recycling, 155, 157 effects of refining, 83, 86 and fibre bonding, 59, 60, 118-119, 120, 122 wet and dry, 131, 133-134 Theoretical oxygen demand (TOD), 166-167 Thermomechanical pulp (TMP) effects of recycling, 156, 157 structure, 2 Thermomechanical pulping, 37-38 Thick stock, 1 12 effect of starch addition, 121 Thickness ( z direction), and anisotropy of paper, 60-61, 64

Subject Index

Thin stock, 112 effect of starch addition, 121 Tissue papers, 6, 8 chemical additives, 111 Titanium dioxide as pigment and filler, 92, 93-95, 96, 150 surface chemistry, 92, 93-95, 96 Toxic pollution, 169- 173 Trace inorganic materials, in fibre cells, 8-9 Tracheids, 12- 15 hardwood, 15 lignin biosynthesis and biogenesis, 27-35 Softwood, 12- 16 Turbulence, in size press, 1 4 4 Turpentine, 25 L-Tyrosine, 29, 32

UDP-D-glucose, 2 1, 22 Unprinted paper waste, 154 Urea-formaldehyde (U/F) resins, 133, 134-136, 151 Uridine diphosphate-D-glucose, see UDP-D-glucose Utilisation rate of waste paper, 163, 164

Vegetable gums, as dry strength additives, 118, 122-123 Vessel elements, 15, 17 Viscose, heat of wetting, 75 Viscosity, of coating mixture, 151-152

Wash deinking, 159 Washburn equation for capillary suction, 68 Waste disposal nutrient pollution, 166- 169 sludge, 173- 174 toxic pollution, 169- 173

189 water, 165 Waste paper environmental effects of recycling, 163-164 grades, 153- 154 preparation for recycling, 158- 160 Water adsorbed, 74-75, 78, 79, 80 adsorption isotherm, 73-74, 76-78 content in cell walls, 80-82 desorption isotherm, 76, 77 sorption by cellulose, 75-82 use by paper industry, 165 waste discharges, 165 see also Relative humidity Water retention agents, in coating mixture, 151 Water retention value, 82 Wet strength, 61, 131-133 Wet strength additives, 131- 140 Wettability, 142 Wetting, heat of, 75-76 Wetting of paper, 67-68 White water, 112 extracted lignins, 99 Wood chemical composition of cells, 6-9 resin acid content, 172 structure of cells, 11- 17 use in paper-making, 3, 5, 162- 163 world consumption and population, 161- 162 see also Hardwood; Softwood Wood resin acids, see Resin acids Wood-free paper, 155 Writing paper, 6, 8 chemical additives, 1 10 recovery and recycling, 155

Young equation for surface wetting, 67-68 Young’s modulus, and hydrogen bonding, 63-64

190

.z direction (thickness), and anisotropy of paper, 60-61, 64 Zeta potential of fillers, 91, 95, 96-97

Subject Index

effect of polyelectrolyte adsorption, 105-107, 113 Zimm and Lundberg (ZL) method of surface-area measurement, 74

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