Mastering-stm32 017

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Mastering STM32 A step-by-step guide to the most complete ARM Cortex-M platform, using a free and powerful development environment based on Eclipse and GCC Carmine Noviello This book is for sale at http://leanpub.com/mastering-stm32 This version was published on 2016-10-24

This is a Leanpub book. Leanpub empowers authors and publishers with the Lean Publishing process. Lean Publishing is the act of publishing an in-progress ebook using lightweight tools and many iterations to get reader feedback, pivot until you have the right book and build traction once you do. © 2015 - 2016 Carmine Noviello

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Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Why Did I Write the Book? . Who Is This Book For? . . . How to Integrate This Book? How Is the Book Organized? About the Author . . . . . . . . . Errata and Suggestions . . . . . . Book Support . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Help the Author . . . . . . Copyright Disclaimer . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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i i ii iii iv vii vii viii viii viii ix

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

1. Introduction to STM32 MCU Portfolio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1 Introduction to ARM Based Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Cortex and Cortex-M Based Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.1 Core Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.2 Memory Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.3 Bit-Banding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.4 Thumb-2 and Memory Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.5 Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.6 Interrupts and Exceptions Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.7 SysTimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.8 Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.9 CMSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1.10 Effective Implementation of Cortex-M Features in the STM32 Portfolio 1.2 Introduction to STM32 Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Advantages of the STM32 Portfolio…. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 ….and Its drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 A Quick Look to STM32 Subfamilies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 F0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 F1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 2 4 5 7 9 12 13 15 17 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 27 28

I

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29 30 32 33 34 36 37 38 38 42

2. Setting-Up the Tool-Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Why Choose Eclipse/GCC as Tool-Chain for STM32 . . . . . . 2.1.1 Two Words About Eclipse… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 … and GCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Windows - Installing the Tool-Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Windows - Eclipse Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Windows - Eclipse Plug-Ins Installation . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Windows - GCC ARM Embedded Installation . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Windows – Build Tools Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Windows – OpenOCD Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.6 Windows – ST Tools Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.7 Windows - Nucleo Drivers Installation . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.7.1 Windows – ST-LINK Firmware Upgrade . . . . . . 2.3 Linux - Installing the Tool-Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Linux - Install i386 Run-Time Libraries on a 64-bit Ubuntu 2.3.2 Linux - Java Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Linux - Eclipse Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.4 Linux - Eclipse Plug-Ins Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.5 Linux - GCC ARM Embedded Installation . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6 Linux - Nucleo Drivers Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.6.1 Linux – ST-LINK Firmware Upgrade . . . . . . . . 2.3.7 Linux – OpenOCD Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.8 Linux – STM32CubeMX Tool Installation . . . . . . . . . 2.3.9 Linux – QSTLink2 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Mac - Installing the Tool-Chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Mac - Eclipse Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.2 Mac - Eclipse Plug-Ins Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.3 Mac - GCC ARM Embedded Installation . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4 Mac - Nucleo Drivers Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.4.1 Mac – ST-LINK Firmware Upgrade . . . . . . . . . 2.4.5 Mac – OpenOCD Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.6 Mac STM32CubeMX Tool Installation . . . . . . . . . . .

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48 49 50 50 51 52 53 59 60 60 61 61 62 63 64 64 65 66 72 72 72 73 76 77 78 79 81 85 86 86 87 89

1.4

1.3.3 F2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 F3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5 F4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 F7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.7 L0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.8 L1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.9 L4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.10 W and J STM32 MCUs . . . . . . . . . 1.3.11 How to Select the Right MCU for You? The Nucleo Development Board . . . . . .

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2.4.7 Mac - stlink by texane Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Hello, Nucleo! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Get in Touch With the Eclipse IDE . 3.2 Create a Project . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Connecting the Nucleo to the PC . . 3.4 Flashing the Nucleo . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Linux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.3 Mac OSX . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Understanding the Generated Code

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93 93 97 104 105 105 106 108 109

4. STM32CubeMX Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Introduction to CubeMX Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Pinout View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1.1 Chip View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1.2 IP Tree Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Clock View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Configuration View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Power Consumption Calculator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Project Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Generate C Project with CubeMX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1.1 Understanding Generated Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Create Eclipse Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Importing Generated Files Into the Eclipse Project Manually . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Importing Files Generated With CubeMX Into the Eclipse Project Automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Understanding Generated Application Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Add Something Useful to the Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Downloading Book Source Code Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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112 112 116 116 118 119 120 121 122 123 125 126 129

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135 136 141 142

5. Introduction to Debugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Getting Started With OpenOCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Launching OpenOCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1.1 Launching OpenOCD on Windows . . . . . . 5.1.1.2 Launching OpenOCD on Linux and MacOS X. 5.1.2 Connecting to the OpenOCD Telnet Console . . . . . 5.1.3 Configuring Eclipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4 Debugging in Eclipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 ARM Semihosting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Enable Semihosting on a New Project . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1.1 Using Semihosting With C Standard Library . 5.2.2 Enable Semihosting on an Existing Project . . . . . .

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146 146 147 148 149 151 152 159 164 164 167 170

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5.2.3 Semihosting Drawbacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 5.2.4 Understanding How Semihosting Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

II

Diving into the HAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

6. GPIO Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 STM32 Peripherals Mapping and HAL Handlers . 6.2 GPIOs Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 GPIO Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 GPIO Alternate Function . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.3 Understanding GPIO Speed . . . . . . . . . 6.3 Driving a GPIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 De-initialize a GPIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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177 177 182 184 186 188 191 192

7. Interrupts Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 NVIC Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 Vector Table in STM32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Enabling Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 External Lines and NVIC . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Enabling Interrupts With CubeMX . . . . . . 7.3 Interrupt Lifecycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4 Interrupt Priority Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.1 Cortex-M0/0+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.2 Cortex-M3/4/7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.4.3 Setting Interrupt Priority in CubeMX . . . . . 7.5 Interrupt Re-Entrancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.6 Mask All Interrupts at Once or an a Priority Basis .

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194 194 195 199 199 203 205 209 209 214 220 221 222

8. Universal Asynchronous Serial Communications . . . . . . 8.1 Introduction to UARTs and USARTs . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 UART Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 UART Configuration Using CubeMX . . . . . . . 8.3 UART Communication in Polling Mode . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Installing a Serial Console in Windows . . . . . . 8.3.2 Installing a Serial Console in Linux and MacOS X 8.4 UART Communication in Interrupt Mode . . . . . . . 8.4.1 UART Related Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Error Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 I/O Retargeting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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226 226 230 237 238 242 244 246 247 254 255

9. DMA Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 9.1 Introduction to DMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 9.1.1 The Need of a DMA and the Role of the Internal Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . 260

CONTENTS

9.2

9.3 9.4 9.5

9.1.2 The DMA Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.1 The DMA Implementation in F0/F1/F3/L1 MCUs . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.2 The DMA Implementation in F2/F4/F7 MCUs . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1.2.3 The DMA Implementation in L0/L4 MCUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . HAL_DMA Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.1 DMA_HandleTypeDef in F0/F1/F3/L0/L1/L4 HALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.2 DMA_HandleTypeDef in F2/F4/F7 HALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.3 DMA_HandleTypeDef in L0/L4 HALs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.4 How to Perform Transfers in Polling Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.5 How to Perform Transfers in Interrupt Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.6 How to Perform Peripheral-To-Peripheral Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2.7 Using the HAL_UART Module With DMA Mode Transfers . . . . . . . . . 9.2.8 Miscellaneous Functions From HAL_DMA and HAL_DMA_Ex Modules . . . . Using CubeMX to Configure DMA Requests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correct Memory Allocation of DMA Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Case Study: The DMA Memory-To-Memory Transfer Performance Analysis

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263 264 268 271 272 272 275 278 278 281 283 284 286 288 288 289

10. Clock Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1 Clock Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1 Overview of the STM32 Clock Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.1.1 The Multispeed Internal RC Oscillator in STM32L Families 10.1.2 Configuring Clock Tree Using CubeMX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3 Clock Source Options in Nucleo Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3.1 OSC Clock Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1.3.2 OSC 32kHz Clock Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2 Overview of the HAL_RCC Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.1 Compute the Clock Frequency at Run-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.2 Enabling the Master Clock Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.2.3 Enabling the Clock Security System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.3 HSI Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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295 295 296 300 301 303 303 305 305 307 308 309 309

11. Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Introduction to Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Timer Categories in an STM32 MCU . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.2 Effective Availability of Timers in the STM32 Portfolio 11.2 Basic Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1 Using Timers in Interrupt Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.1.1 Time Base Generation in Advanced Timers . . . 11.2.2 Using Timers in Polling Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.3 Using Timers in DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.4 Stopping a Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2.5 Using CubeMX to Configure a Basic Timer . . . . . . 11.3 General Purpose Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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311 311 312 314 316 319 322 322 323 325 325 326

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CONTENTS

11.3.1 Time Base Generator With External Clock Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1.1 External Clock Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1.2 External Clock Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.1.3 Using CubeMX to Configure the Source Clock of a General Purpose Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2 Master/Slave Synchronization Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2.1 Enable Trigger-Related Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.2.2 Using CubeMX to Configure the Master/Slave Synchronization . . . 11.3.3 Generate Timer-Related Events by Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.4 Counting Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.5 Input Capture Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.5.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the Input Capture Mode . . . . . . . . 11.3.6 Output Compare Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.6.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the Output Compare Mode . . . . . . . 11.3.7 Pulse-Width Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.7.1 Generating a Sinusoidal Wave Using PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.7.2 Using CubeMX to Configure the PWM Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.8 One Pulse Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.8.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the OPM Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.9 Encoder Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.9.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the Encoder Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.10Other Features Available in General Purpose and Advanced Timers . . . . 11.3.10.1 Hall Sensor Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.10.2 Combined Three-Phase PWM Mode and Other Motor-Control Related Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.10.3 Break Input and Locking of Timer Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.10.4 Preloading of Auto-Reload Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3.11Debugging and Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 SysTick Timer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.1 Use Another Timer as System Timebase Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.5 A Case Study: How to Precisely Measure Microseconds With STM32 MCUs . . 12. Analog-To-Digital Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Introduction to SAR ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 HAL_ADC Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1 Conversion Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1.1 Single-Channel, Single Conversion Mode . . . 12.2.1.2 Scan Single Conversion Mode . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1.3 Single-Channel, Continuous Conversion Mode 12.2.1.4 Scan Continuous Conversion Mode . . . . . . 12.2.1.5 Injected Conversion Mode . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1.6 Dual Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.2 Channel Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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337 338 343 343 344 346 347 354 355 360 360 364 369 370 372 373 378 379 379

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380 380 380 381 382 383 384

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390 390 395 398 398 398 399 399 400 401 401

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12.2.3 ADC Resolution and Conversion Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.4 A/D Conversions in Polling Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.5 A/D Conversions in Interrupt Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.6 A/D Conversions in DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.6.1 Convert Multiple Times the Same Channel in DMA Mode 12.2.6.2 Continuous Conversions in DMA Mode . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.7 Errors Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.8 Timer-Driven Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.9 Conversions Driven by External Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.10ADC Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Using CubeMX to Configure ADC Peripheral . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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402 403 407 408 411 412 412 413 416 416 417

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420 420 423 424 426 430 431

14. I²C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1 Introduction to the I²C specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1 The I²C Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.1 START and STOP Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.2 Byte Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.3 Address Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.4 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK) . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.5 Data Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.6 Combined Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.1.7 Clock Stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1.2 Availability of I²C Peripherals in STM32 MCUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 HAL_I2C Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.1 Using the I²C Peripheral in Master Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.1.1 I/O MEM Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.1.2 Combined Transactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2.1.3 A Note About the Clock Configuration in STM32F0/L0/L4 families 14.2.2 Using the I²C Peripheral in Slave Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.3 Using CubeMX to Configure the I²C Peripheral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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433 433 435 436 436 436 437 438 438 439 440 441 444 452 454 456 456 462

15. SPI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1 Introduction to the SPI Specification . 15.1.1 Clock Polarity and Phase . . . . 15.1.2 Slave Select Signal Management

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464 464 467 468

13. Digital-To-Analog Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1 Introduction to the DAC Peripheral . . . . . . . . . 13.2 HAL_DAC Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.1 Driving the DAC Manually . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.2 Driving the DAC in DMA Mode Using a Timer 13.2.3 Triangular Wave Generation . . . . . . . . . . 13.2.4 Noise Wave Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

15.1.3 SPI TI Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1.4 Availability of SPI Peripherals in STM32 MCUs . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 HAL_SPI Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2.1 Exchanging Messages Using SPI Peripheral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2.2 Maximum Transmission Frequency Reachable using the CubeHAL 15.3 Using CubeMX to Configure SPI Peripheral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

III

Advanced topics

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468 470 470 472 474 475

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16. Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1 Power Management in Cortex-M Based MCUs . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2 How Cortex-M MCUs Handle Run and Sleep Modes . . . . . . . . 16.2.1 Entering/exiting sleep modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.1.1 Sleep-On-Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.2.2 Sleep Modes in Cortex-M Based MCUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 Power Management in STM32F Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.1 Power Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2 Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.1 Run Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.1.1 Dynamic Voltage Scaling in STM32F4/F7 MCUs 16.3.2.1.2 Over/Under-Drive Mode in STM32F4/F7 MCUs 16.3.2.2 Sleep Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.3 Stop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.4 Standby Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.2.5 Low-Power Modes Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3.3 An Important Warning for STM32F1 Microcontrollers . . . . . 16.4 Power Management in STM32L Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.1 Power Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2 Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.1 Run Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.2 Sleep Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.2.1 Batch Acquisition Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.3 Stop Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.4 Standby Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.2.5 Shutdown Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.3 Power Modes Transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.4 Low-Power Peripherals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.4.1 LPUART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4.4.2 LPTIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 Power Supply Supervisors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.6 Debugging in Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.7 Using the CubeMX Power Consumption Calculator . . . . . . . . .

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477 477 478 481 483 484 484 484 486 486 487 488 488 489 490 490 495 496 496 498 498 500 501 501 502 503 504 504 504 505 505 506 506

CONTENTS

16.8

A Case Study: Using Watchdog Timers With Low-Power Modes . . . . . . . . . . 508

17. Memory layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1 The STM32 Memory Layout Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1.1 Understanding Compilation and Linking Processes . . . . 17.2 The Really Minimal STM32 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2.1 ELF Binary File Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2.2 .data and .bss Sections Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2.2.1 A Word About the COMMON Section . . . . . . . . . . 17.2.3 .rodata Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2.4 Stack and Heap Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.2.5 Checking the Size of Heap and Stack at Compile-Time . . 17.2.6 Differences With the Tool-Chain Script Files . . . . . . . . 17.3 How to Use the CCM Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.3.1 Relocating the vector table in CCM Memory . . . . . . . . 17.4 How to Use the MPU in Cortex-M0+/3/4/7 Based STM32 MCUs 17.4.1 Programming the MPU With the CubeHAL . . . . . . . .

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509 509 511 514 518 520 527 528 530 533 534 536 539 542 546

18. Flash Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1 Introduction to STM32 Flash Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2 The HAL_FLASH Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2.1 Flash Memory Unlocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2.2 Flash Memory Erasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2.3 Flash Memory Programming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.2.4 Flash Read Access During Programming and Erasing . . . . . . . 18.3 Option Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3.1 Flash Memory Read Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.4 Optional OTP and True-EEPROM Memories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5 Flash Read Latency and the ART™ Accelerator . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.5.1 The Role of the TCM Memories in STM32F7 MCUs . . . . . . . . 18.5.1.1 How to Access Flash Memory Through the TCM Interface . 18.5.1.2 Using CubeMX to Configure Flash Memory Interface . . .

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550 550 554 554 554 556 557 557 559 561 562 565 571 572

19. Booting Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1 The Cortex-M Unified Memory Layout and the Booting Process . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.1 Software Physical Remap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.2 Vector Table Relocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1.3 Running the Firmware From SRAM Using the GNU ARM Eclipse Toolchain 19.2 Integrated Bootloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2.1 Starting the Bootloader From the On-Board Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.2.2 The Booting Sequence in the GNU ARM Eclipse Tool-chain . . . . . . . . . 19.3 Developing a Custom Bootloader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.3.1 Vector Table Relocation in STM32F0/L0 Microcontrollers . . . . . . . . . . .

574 574 575 576 578 579 581 582 585 596

CONTENTS

19.3.2 How to Use the flasher.py Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599 20. Running FreeRTOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 Understanding the Concepts Underlying an RTOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2 Introduction to FreeRTOS and CMSIS-RTOS Wrapper . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.1 The FreeRTOS Source Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.1.1 How to Import FreeRTOS Manually . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.2.1.2 How to Import FreeRTOS Using CubeMX and CubeMXImporter 20.2.1.3 How to Enable FPU Support in Cortex-M4F and Cortex-M7 Core 20.3 Thread Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.1 Thread States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.2 Thread Priorities and Scheduling Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.3 Voluntary Release of the Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.3.4 The idle Thread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4 Memory Allocation and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.1 heap_1.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.2 heap_2.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.3 heap_3.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.4 heap_4.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.5 heap_5.c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.6 How to Use malloc() and Related C Functions With FreeRTOS . . . . 20.4.7 Memory Pools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.4.8 Stack Overflow Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5 Synchronization Primitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.1 Message Queues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.2 Semaphores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.5.3 Thread Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6 Resources Management and Mutual Exclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.1 Mutexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.1.1 The Priority Inversion Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.1.2 Recursive Mutexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.2 Critical Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.3 Interrupt Management With an RTOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.6.3.1 FreeRTOS API and Interrupt Priorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.7 Software Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.7.1 How FreeRTOS Manages Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.8 A Case Study: Low-Power Management With an RTOS . . . . . . . . . . . 20.8.1 The idle Thread Hook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.8.2 The Tickless Mode in FreeRTOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.8.2.1 A Schema for the tickless Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.8.2.2 A Custom tickless Mode Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.9 Debugging Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.9.1 configASSERT() Macro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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602 603 609 610 611 612 614 614 617 618 621 621 622 624 624 625 625 625 626 626 628 630 630 634 637 638 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 646 647 649 653 660 660

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661 665 665 665 666

21. Getting Started With a New Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1 Hardware Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.1 PCB Layer Stack-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 MCU Package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.3 Decoupling of Power-Supply Pins . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.4 Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.5 Filtering of RESET Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.6 Debug Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.7 Boot Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.8 Pay attention to “pin-to-pin” Compatibility… . . . . 21.1.9 …And to Selecting the Right Peripherals . . . . . . . 21.1.10The Role of CubeMX During the Board Design Stage 21.1.11Board Layout Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Software Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2.1 Generating the binary image for production . . . . .

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667 667 668 669 670 672 673 673 675 676 677 677 680 681 681

20.10

20.9.2 Run-Time Statistics and Thread State Information Alternatives to FreeRTOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.10.1ChibiOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.10.2Contiki OS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.10.3OpenRTOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684 A. Miscellaneous HAL functions and STM32 features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 Force MCU reset from the firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 STM32 96-bit Unique CPU ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 B. Troubleshooting guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eclipse related issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eclipse cannot locate the compiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eclipse continuously breaks at every instruction during debug session . The step-by-step debugging is really slow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The firmware works only under a debug session . . . . . . . . . . . . STM32 related issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The microcontroller does not boot correctly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It is Not Possibile to Flash or to Debug the MCU . . . . . . . . . . . .

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687 687 687 688 688 689 689 689 691

C. Nucleo pin-out . . . . . . . . . . . Nucleo-F446RE . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F411RE . . . . . . . . . . .

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693 694 694 694 695

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CONTENTS

Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F410RB . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F401RE . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F334R8 . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F303RE . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F302R8 . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F103RB . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F091RC . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F072RB . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F070RB . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-F030R8 . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-L476RG . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-L152RE . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-L073R8 . . . . . . . . . . . Arduino compatible headers Morpho headers . . . . . . . Nucleo-L053R8 . . . . . . . . . . .

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695 695 696 696 696 697 697 697 698 698 698 699 699 699 700 700 700 701 701 701 702 702 702 703 703 703 704 704 704 705 705 705 706 706 706 707 707 707 708 708 708 709

CONTENTS

Arduino compatible headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 Morpho headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709 D. STM32 packages LFBGA . . . . . LQFP . . . . . . TFBGA . . . . . TSSOP . . . . . UFBGA . . . . . UFQFPN . . . . VFQFP . . . . . WLCSP . . . . .

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710 710 710 711 711 711 712 712 712

E. History of this book . . . . . . . . . . . Release 0.1 - October 2015 . . . . . . . . Release 0.2 - October 28th, 2015 . . . . . Release 0.2.1 - October 31th, 2015 . Release 0.2.2 - November 1st, 2015 Release 0.3 - November 12th, 2015 . . . Release 0.4 - December 4th, 2015 . . . . Release 0.5 - December 19th, 2015 . . . . Release 0.6 - January 18th, 2016 . . . . . Release 0.6.1 - January 20th, 2016 . Release 0.6.2 - January 30th, 2016 . Release 0.7 - February 8th, 2016 . . . . . Release 0.8 - February 18th, 2016 . . . . Release 0.8.1 - February 23th, 2016 Release 0.9 - March 27th, 2016 . . . . . . Release 0.9.1 - March 28th, 2016 . . Release 0.10 - April 26th, 2016 . . . . . . Release 0.11 - May 27th, 2016 . . . . . . Release 0.11.1 - June 3rd, 2016 . . . Release 0.11.2 - June 24th, 2016 . . Release 0.12 - July 4th, 2016 . . . . . . . Release 0.13 - July 18th, 2016 . . . . . . Release 0.14 - August 12th, 2016 . . . . . Release 0.15 - September 13th, 2016 . . . Release 0.16 - October 3th, 2016 . . . . . Release 0.17 - October 24th, 2016 . . . .

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714 714 714 714 715 715 715 715 716 716 716 716 717 717 717 718 718 718 719 719 719 720 720 720 721 721

Preface As far as I know this book is the first attempt (at least in English) to write a systematic text about the STM32 platform and its official STM32Cube HAL. When I started dealing with this microcontroller architecture, I searched far and wide for a book able to introduce me to the subject, with no success. This book is still very preliminary, and I am still thinking about how to organize it in the best way. My idea is that a book of this type should be divided in three parts: an introductory part showing how to setup a complete development environment and how to work with it (Unlike other silicon manufacturers such as Microchip, ST does not provide its official development environment); a part that introduces the basics of STM32 programming and the main aspects of the official HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer); a more advanced section covering aspects such as the use of a Real Time Operating Systems, the boot sequence and the memory layout of an STM32 application. However, this book does not aim to replace official datasheets from ST Microelectronics. A datasheet is still the main reference about electronic devices, and it is impossible (as well as making little sense) to arrange the content of tens of datasheets in a book. You have to consider that the official datasheet of the STM32F4 MCU alone is almost one thousand pages, that is more than a book! Hence, this text will offer a hint to start diving inside the official documentation from ST. Moreover, this book will not focus on low-level topics and questions related to the hardware, leaving this hard work to datasheets. Lastly, this book is not a cookbook about custom and funny projects: you will find several good tutorials on the web.

Why Did I Write the Book? I started to cover topics about the STM32 programming on my personal blog in 2013. I first started writing posts only in Italian and then translating them into English. I covered several topics, ranging from how to setup a complete free tool-chain to specific aspects related to STM32 programming. Since then, I have received plenty of comments and requests about all kinds of topics. Thanks to the interaction with readers of my blog, I realized that it is not simple to cover complex topics in depth on a personal web site. A blog is an excellent place where to cover really specific and limited topics. If you need to explain broader topics involving software frameworks or hardware, a book is still the right answer. A book forces you to organize topics in a systematic way, and gives you all the necessary space to expand the subject as needed (I am one of those people who still believe reading long texts on a monitor is a bad idea). For reasons that I do not know, there are no books¹ covering the topics presented here. To be honest, in the hardware industry is not so common to find books about microcontrollers, and this is really ¹This is not exactly true, since there is a good and free book from Geoffrey Brown of University of Indiana (http://bit.ly/1Rc1tMl). However, in my opinion, it goes too quickly to the point, leaving out important topics such as the use of a complete tool-chain. It also does not cover the last STM32Cube HAL, which has replaced the old std peripheral library. Finally, it does not show the differences between each STM32 subfamily and it is focused only on the STM32F4 family.

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strange. Compared to software, hardware has much greater longevity. For example, all STM32 MCU have a guaranteed life of ten years starting from January 2015 (ST has been updating this “starting date” every year until now). This means that a book on this subject may potentially have the same life expectation, and this is really uncommon in computer science. Apart from some really important titles, most technical books do not exceed the two years life. I think that there are several reasons why this happens. First of all, in the electronics industry knowhow is still a great value to protect. Compared to the software world, hardware requires years of field experience. Every mistake has a cost, and it is highly dependent on the product stage (if the device is already on the market, an issue may have dramatic costs). For this reason, electronics engineers and firmware developers tend to protect their know-how, and this may be one of the reasons discouraging really experienced users from writing books about these topics. I believe another reason being that if you want to write a book about an MCU, you must be able to range from aspects of electronics to more high-level programming topics. This requires a lot of time and effort, and it is really hard especially when things change at a high pace (during the time of writing the first few chapters of this book, ST has released more then ten versions of its HAL). In the electronics industry, hardware engineers and firmware developers are traditionally two different figures, and sometimes they do not know what the other is doing. Finally, another important reason is that electronics design becomes sort of a niche when compared to the software world (there is great disparity between the number of software programmers and electronics designers), and the STM32 is itself a niche within the niche. I think it is also really hard to find a publisher willing to publish a book covering these topics. For these and other minor reasons, I decided to write this book using a self-publishing platform like LeanPub, which allows you to build a book progressively. I think that the idea behind LeanPub is perfect for books about niche subjects, and it gives authors the time and tools to write about as much complex topics as they want.

Who Is This Book For? This book is addressed to novices of the STM32 platform, interested in learning in less time how to program these fantastic microcontrollers. However, this book is not for people completely new to the C language or embedded programming. I assume you have a decent knowledge of C and are not new to most fundamental concepts of digital electronics and MCU programming. The perfect reader of this book may be both a hobbyist or a student who is familiar with the Arduino platform and wants to learn a more powerful and comprehensive architecture, or a professional in charge of working with an MCU he/she does not know yet.

iii

Preface

What About Arduino? I received this question many times from several people in doubt about which MCU platform to learn. The answer is not simple, for several reasons. First of all, Arduino is not a given MCU family or a silicon manufacturer. Arduino is both a brand and an ecosystem. There are tens of Arduino development boards available on the market, even if it is common to refer to the Arduino UNO board as “the Arduino”. Arduino UNO is a development board built around the ATMega328, an 8-bit microcontroller designed by Atmel. Atmel is one of the leading companies, together with Microchip, that rule the 8-bit MCU segment. However, Arduino is not only a cold piece of hardware, but it is also a community built around the Arduino IDE (a derived version of Processing) and the Arduino libraries, which greatly simplify the development process on ATMega MCUs. This really large and continuously growing community has developed hundred of libraries to interface as many hardware devices, and thousand of examples and applications. So, the question is: “Is Arduino good for professional applications or for those wanting to develop the last mainstream product on Kickstarter?”. The answer is: “YES, definitively.”. I myself have developed a couple of custom boards for a customer, and being these boards based on the ATMega328 IC (the SMD version), the firmware was developed using the Arduino IDE. So, it is not true that Arduino is only for hobbyists and students. However, if you are looking for something more powerful than an 8-bit MCU or if you want to increase your knowledge about firmware programming (the Arduino environment hides too much detail about what’s under the hood), the STM32 is probably the best choice for you. Thanks to an Open Source development environment based on Eclipse and GCC, you will not have to invest a fortune to start developing STM32 applications. Moreover, if you are building a cost sensitive device, where each PCB square inch makes a difference for you, consider that the STM32F0 value line is also known as the 32-bits MCU for 32 cents. This means that the low-cost STM32 line has a price perfectly comparable with 8-bit MCUs, but offers a lot more computing power, hardware capabilities and integrated peripherals. http://www.arduino.cc/ Microchip has acquired Atmel in January 2016. http://processing.org/

How to Integrate This Book? This book does not aim to be a full-comprehensive guide to STM32 microcontrollers, but is essentially a guide to developing applications using the official ST HAL. It is strongly suggested to integrate it with a book about the ARM Cortex-M architecture, and the series by Joseph Yiu² is the best source for every Cortex-M developer. ²http://amzn.to/1P5sZwq

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How Is the Book Organized? Being an in-progress book (this is the foundation of lean publishing), this book is a work in progress. It covers these topics as August 2016. Chapter 1 gives a brief and preliminary introduction to the STM32 platform. It presents the main aspects of these microcontrollers, introducing the reader to the ARM Cortex-M architecture. Moreover, the key features of each STM32 subfamily (L0, F1, etc.) are briefly explained. The chapter also introduces the development board used throughout this book as testing board for the presented topics: the Nucleo. Chapter 2 shows how to setup a complete and working tool-chain to start developing STM32 applications. The chapter is divided in three different branches, each one explaining the tool-chain setup process for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X platforms. Chapter 3 is dedicated to showing how to build the first application for the STM32 Nucleo development board. This is a really simple application, a blinking led, which is with no doubt the Hello World application of hardware. Chapter 4 is about the STM32CubeMX tool, our main companion every time we need to start a new application based on an STM32 MCUs. The chapter gives a hands-on presentation of the tool, explaining its characteristics and how to configure the MCU peripherals according to the features we need. Moreover, it explains how to dive into the generated code and customize it, as well as how to import a project generated with it into the Eclipse IDE. Chapter 5 introduces the reader to debugging. A hand-on presentation of OpenOCD is given, showing how to integrate it in Eclipse. Moreover, a brief view of Eclipse’s debugging capabilities is presented. Finally, the reader is introduced to a really important topic: ARM semihosting. Chapter 6 gives a quick overview of the ST CubeHAL, explaining how peripherals are mapped inside the HAL using handlers to the peripheral memory mapped region. Next, it presents the HAL_GPIO libraries and all the configuration options offered by STM32 GPIOs. Chapter 7 explains the mechanisms underlying the NVIC controller: the hardware unit integrated in every STM32 MCU which is responsible for the management of exceptions and interrupts. The HAL_NVIC module is introduced extensively, and the differences between Cortex-M0/0+ and CortexM3/4/7 are highlighted. Chapter 8 gives a practical introduction to the HAL_UART module used to program the UART interfaces provided by all STM32 microcontrollers. Moreover, a quick introduction to the difference between UART and USART interfaces is given. Two ways to exchange data between devices using a UART are presented: polling and interrupt oriented modes. Finally we present in a practical way how to use the integrated VCP of every Nucleo board, and how to retarget the printf()/scanf() functions using the Nucleo’s UART. Chapter 9 talks about the DMA controller, showing the differences between several STM32 families. A more detailed overview of the internals of an STM32 MCU is presented, describing the relations between the Cortex-M core, DMA controllers and slave peripherals. Moreover, it shows how to

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use the HAL_DMA module in both polling and interrupt modes. Finally, a performance analysis of memory-to-memory transfers is presented. Chapter 10 introduces the clock tree of an STM32 microcontroller, showing main functional blocks and how to configure them using the HAL_RCC module. Moreover, the CubeMX Clock configuration view is presented, explaining how to change its settings to generate the right clock configuration. Chapter 11 is a walkthrough into timers, one of the most advanced and highly customizable peripherals implemented in every STM32 microcontroller. The chapter will guide the reader stepby-step through this subject, introducing the most fundamental concepts of basic, general purpose and advanced timers. Moreover, several advanced usage modes (master/slave, external trigger, input capture, output compare, PWM, etc.) are illustrated with practical examples. Chapter 12 provides an overview of the Analog To Digital (ADC) peripheral. It introduces the reader to the concepts underlying SAR ADCs and then it explains how to program this useful peripheral using the designated CubeHAL module. Moreover, this chapter provides a practical example that shows how to use a hardware timer to drive ADC conversions in DMA mode. Chapter 13 briefly introduces the Digital To Analog (DAC) peripheral. It provides the most fundamental concepts underlying R-2R DACs and how to program this useful peripheral using the designated CubeHAL module. This chapter also shows an example detailing how to use a hardware timer to drive DAC conversions in DMA mode. Chapter 14 is dedicated to the I²C bus. The chapter starts introducing the essentials of the I²C protocol, and then it shows the most relevant routines from the CubeHAL to use this peripheral. Moreover, a complete example that explains how to develop I²C slave applications is also shown. Chapter 15 is dedicated to the SPI bus. The chapter starts introducing the essentials of the SPI specification, and then it shows the most relevant routines from the CubeHAL to use this fundamental peripheral. Chapter 16 introduces the reader to the power management capabilities offered by STM32F and STM32L microcontrollers. It starts showing how Cortex-M cores handle low-power modes, introducing WFI and WFE instructions. Then it explains how these modes are implemented in STM32 MCUs. The corresponding HAL_PWR module is also described. Chapter 17 analyzes the activities involved during the compilation and linking processes, which define the memory layout of an STM32 application. A really bare-bone application is shown, and a complete and working linker script is designed from scratch, showing how to organize the STM32 memory space. Moreover, the usage of CCM RAM is presented, as well as other important Cortex-M functionalities like the vector table relocation. Chapter 18 provides an introduction to the internal flash memory, and its related controller, available in all STM32 microcontrollers. It illustrates how to configure and program this peripheral, showing the related CubeHAL routines. Moreover, a walk-through of the STM32F7 bus and memory organization introduces the reader to the architecture of these high-performing MCUs. Chapter 19 describes the operations performed by STM32 microcontrollers at startup. The whole booting process is described, and some advanced techniques (like the vector table relocation in

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Cortex-M0 microcontrollers) are explained. Moreover, a custom and secure bootloader is shown, which has the ability to upgrade the on-board firmware through the USART peripheral. The bootloader uses the AES algorithm to encrypt the firmware. Chapter 20 is dedicated to the FreeRTOS Real-Time Operating System. It introduces the reader to the most relevant concepts underlying an RTOS and shows how to use the main FreeRTOS functionalities (like threads, semaphores, mutexes, and so on) using the CMSIS-RTOS layer developed by ST on top of the FreeRTOS API. Moreover, some advanced techniques, like the tickless mode in low-power design, are shown. Chapter 21 shows how to start a new custom PCB design using an STM32 MCU. This chapter is mainly focused on hardware related aspects such as decoupling, signal routing techniques and so on. Moreover, it shows how to use CubeMX during the PCB design process and how to generate the application skeleton when the board design is complete.

During the book you will find some horizontal rulers with “badges”, like the one above. This means that the instructions in that part of the book are specific for a given family of STM32 microcontrollers. Sometimes, you could find a badge with a specific MCU type: this means that instructions are exclusively related to that particular MCU. A black horizontal ruler (like the one below) closes the specific section. This means that the text returns to be generic for the whole STM32 platform. You will also find several asides, each one starting with an icon on the left. Let us explain them. This a warning box. The text contained explains important aspects or gives important instructions. It is strongly recommended to read the text carefully and follow the instructions.

This is an information box. The text contained clarifies some concepts introduced before.

This is a tip box. It contains suggestions to the reader that could simplify the learning process.

This a discussion box, and it is used to talk about the subject in a broader way.

This a bug-related box, used to report some specific and/or un-resolved bug (both hardware and software).

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About the Author When someone asks me about my career and my studies, I like to say that I am a high level programmer that someday has started fighting against bits. I began my career in informatics when I was only a young boy with a 80286 PC, but unlike all those who started programming in BASIC, I decided to learn a quite uncommon language: Clipper. Clipper was a language mostly used to write software for banks, and a lot of people suggested that I should start with this programming language (uh?!?). When visual environments, like Windows 3.1, started to be more common, I decided to learn the foundations of Visual Basic and I wrote several programs with it (one of them, a program for patient management for medical doctors, made it to the market) until I began college, where I started programming in Unix environments and programming languages like C/C++. One day I discovered what would become the programming language of my life: Python. I have written hundreds of thousands lines of code in Python, ranging from web systems to embedded devices. I think Python is an expressive and productive programming language, and it is always my first choice when I have to code something. For about ten years I worked as a research assistant at the National Research Council in Italy (CNR), where I spent my time coding web-based and distributed content management systems. In 2010 my professional life changed dramatically. For several reasons that I will not detail here, I found myself slingshot into a world I had always considered obscure: electronics. I first started developing firmware on low-cost MCUs, then designing custom PCBs. Meanwhile I founded a company with some crazy enough colleagues which produced wireless sensors and control boards used for small scale automation. In 2013 I was introduced to the STM32 world during a presentation day at the ST headquarters in Naples. Since then, I have successfully used STM32 in several products I have designed.

Errata and Suggestions I am aware of the fact that there are several errors in the text. Unfortunately, English is not my mother tongue, and this is one of the main reasons I like lean publishing: being an in-progress book I have all the time to check and correct them. I have decided that once this book reaches completion, I will look for a professional editor to help me fix all the mistakes in my English. However, feel free to contact me to signal what you find. On the other end, I am totally open to suggestions and improvements about book content. I like to think that this book will save your day every time you need to understand an aspect related to STM32 programming, so feel free to suggest any topic you are interested in, or to signal parts of the book which are not clear or well explained. You can reach me through this book website: http://www.carminenoviello.com/en/masteringstm32/³ ³http://www.carminenoviello.com/en/mastering-stm32/

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Book Support I have setup a small forum on my personal website as support site for the topics presented in this book. For any question, please subscribe here: http://www.carminenoviello.com/en/masteringstm32/⁴. It is impossible for me to answer questions sent privately by e-mail, since they are often variations on the same topic. I hope you understand.

How to Help the Author Almost twice a week I receive nice emails from readers of this book encouraging me to continue the work. Some of them would also donate additional money to help me during the book writing. Needless to say that these emails make me really happy for days on end :-) However, if you really want to help me, you may consider to: • give me feedback about unclear things or errors contained both in the text and examples; • write a small review about what you think⁵ of this book in the feedback section⁶. • use your favorite social network or blog to spread the word. The suggested hashtag for this book on Twitter is #MasteringSTM32⁷.

Copyright Disclaimer This book contains references to several products and technologies whose copyright is owned by their respective companies, organizations or individuals. ARTTM Accelerator, STM32, ST-LINK, STM32Cube and the STM32 logo with the white butterfly on the cover of this book are copyright ©ST Microelectronics NV. ARM, Cortex, Cortex-M, CoreSight, CoreLink, Thumb, Thumb-2, AMBA, AHB, APB, Keil are registered trademarks of ARM Holdings. GCC, GDB and other tools from the GNU Collection Compilers mentioned in this book are copyright © Free Software Foundation. Eclipse is copyright of the Eclipse community and all its contributors. During the rest of the book, I will mention the copyright of tools and libraries I will introduce. If I have forgot to attribute copyrights for products and software used in this book, and you think I should add them here, please e-mail me through the LeanPub platform. ⁴http://www.carminenoviello.com/en/mastering-stm32/ ⁵Negative feedback is also welcome ;-) ⁶http://leanpub.com/mastering-stm32/feedback ⁷http://twitter.com/search?q=%23MasteringSTM32

Preface

Credits The cover of this book was designed by Alessandro Migliorato (AleMiglio⁸)

⁸http://99designs.it/profiles/alemiglio

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I Introduction

1. Introduction to STM32 MCU Portfolio This chapter gives a brief introduction to the whole STM32 portfolio. The aim is to introduce the reader to this quite complex family of microcontrollers, subdivided in 9 different sub-families, each one with its main characteristics common to all members and some other ones specific to a given series. Moreover, a quick introduction to the Cortex-M architecture is given. This chapter will not be a complete reference either for Cortex-M architecture or STM32 microcontrollers. The goal is to guide the readers in choosing the microcontroller that best suits their development requirements, given that, with more than 500 MCUs to choose from, it is not easy to decide which one fits the needs. This chapter gives a brief introduction to the entire STM32 portfolio. Its goal is to introduce the reader to this rather complex family of microcontrollers subdivided in 9 distinct sub-families. These share a set of characteristics and present features specific to the given series. Moreover, a quick introduction to the Cortex-M architecture is presented. Far from wanting to be a complete reference to either the Cortex-M architecture or STM32 microcontrollers, it aims at being a guide for the readers in choosing the microcontroller that best suits their development needs, considering that, with more than 500 MCUs to choose from, it is not easy to decide which one fits the bill.

1.1 Introduction to ARM Based Processors With the term ARM we nowadays refer to both a multitude of families of Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) architectures and several families of complete cores which are the building blocks (hence the term core) of CPUs produced by many silicon manufacturers. When dealing with ARM based processors, a lot of confusion may arise due to the fact that there are many different ARM architecture revisions (ARMv6, ATMv6-M, ARMv7-M, ARMv7-A, and so on) and many core architectures, which are in turn based on an ARM architecture revision. For the sake of clarity, for example, a processor based on the Cortex-M4 core is designed on the ARMv7-M architecture. An ARM architecture is a set of specifications regarding the instruction set, the execution model, the memory organization and layout, the instruction cycles and more, which describes precisely a machine that will implement said architecture. If your compiler is able to generate assembly instructions for that architecture, it is able to generate machine code for all those actual machines (aka, processors) implementing that given architecture. Cortex-M is a family of physical cores designed to be further integrated with vendor-specific silicon devices to form a finished microcontroller. The way a core works is not only defined by its related ARM architecture (eg. ARMv7-M), but also by the integrated peripherals and hardware capabilities

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defined by the silicon manufacturer. For example, the Cortex-M4 core architecture is designed to support bit-data access operations in two specific memory regions using a feature called bit-banding, but it is up to the actual implementation to add such feature or not. The STM32F4 is a family of MCUs based on the Cortex-M4 core that implements this bit-banding feature. Figure 1 clearly shows the relation between a Cortex-M based MCU and its Cortex-M core.

Figure 1: The relation between a Cortex-M core and a Cortex based MCU

ARM Holdings is a British¹ company that develops the instruction set and architecture for ARMbased products but does not manufacture devices. This is a really important aspect of the ARM world, and the reason why there are many manufacturers of silicon that develop, produce and sell microcontrollers based on the ARM architectures and cores. ST Microelectronics is one of them, and is currently the only manufacturer selling a complete portfolio of Cortex-M based processors². ARM Holdings neither manufactures nor sells CPU devices based on its own designs, but rather licenses the processor architecture to interested parties. ARM offers a variety of licensing terms, varying in cost and deliverables. When referring to Cortex-M cores, it is also common to talk about Intellectual Property (IP) cores, meaning a chip design layout which is considered the intellectual property of one party, namely ARM Holdings. ¹In July 2016 the Japanese Softbank announced a plan to acquire ARM Holdings for $31 Billions. The deal has been closed on September 5 and on the following day the formerly British company has been de-listed from the London Stock Exchange. ²At the time of writing this chapter, october 2015, ST Microelectronics is the first manufacturer in the market that provides Cortex-M7 based processors, the most advanced and performing Cortex-M core architecture introduced by ARM in 2014, which is based on ARMv7E-M instructions architecture.

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Thanks to this business model and to really interesting features such as low power capabilities, low production costs of some architectures and so on, ARM is the most widely used instruction set architecture in terms of quantity. ARM based products have become extremely popular. More than 50 billion ARM processors have been produced as of 2014, 10 billion of which were produced in 2013. ARM based processors equip about 75 percent of the world’s mobile devices. A lot of mainstream and popular 64-bit and multi-cores CPUs, used in devices that have become icons in the electronic industry (i.e.: Apple’s iPhone), are based on an ARM architecture (ARMv8-A). Being a sort of widespread standard, there are a lot of compilers and tools, as well as Operating Systems (Linux is the most used OS on Cortex-A processors) which support these architectures, offering developers plenty of opportunities to build their applications.

1.1.1 Cortex and Cortex-M Based Processors ARM Cortex is a wide set of 32/64-bit architectures and cores really popular in the embedded world. Cortex microcontrollers are divided into three main subfamilies: • Cortex-A, which stands for Application, is a series of processors providing a range of solutions for devices undertaking complex computing tasks, such as hosting a rich Operating System (OS) platform (Linux and its derivative Android are the most common ones), and supporting multiple software applications. Cortex-A cores equip the processors found in most of mobile devices, like phones and tablets. In this market segment we can find several silicon manufacturers ranging from those who sell catalogue parts (TI or Freescale) to those who produce processors for other licensees. Among the most common cores in this segment, we can find Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A9 32-bit processors, as well as the latest ultra-performance 64-bit Cortex-A53 and Cortex-A57 cores. • Cortex-M, which stands for eMbedded, is a range of scalable, compatible, energy efficient and easy to use processors designed for the low-cost embedded market. The Cortex-M family is optimized for cost and power sensitive MCUs suitable for applications such as Internet of Things, connectivity, motor control, smart metering, human interface devices, automotive and industrial control systems, domestic household appliances, consumer products and medical instruments. In this market segment, we can find many silicon manufacturers who produce Cortex-M processors: ST Microelectronics is one of them. • Cortex-R, which stand for Real-Time, is a series of processors offering high-performance computing solutions for embedded systems where reliability, high availability, fault tolerance, maintainability and deterministic real-time response are essential. Cortex-R series processors deliver fast and deterministic processing and high performance, while meeting challenging real-time constraints. They combine these features in a performance, power and area optimized package, making them the trusted choice in reliable systems demanding (high errorresistance)[ubi_note: “high error-resistance” is not clear]. The next sections will introduce the main features of Cortex-M processors, especially from the embedded developer point of view.

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1.1.1.1 Core Registers Like all RISC architectures, Cortex-M processors are load/store machines, which perform operations only on CPU registers except³ for two categories of instructions: load and store, used to transfer data between CPU registers and memory locations. Figure 2 shows the core Cortex-M registers. Some of them are available only in the higher performance series like M3, M4 and M7. R0-R12 are general-purpose registers, and can be used as operands for ARM instructions. Some general-purpose registers, however, can be used by the compiler as registers with special functions. R13 is the Stack Pointer (SP) register, which is also said to be banked. This means that the register content changes according to the current CPU mode (privileged or unprivileged). This function is typically used by Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) to do context switching.

Figure 2: ARM Cortex-M core registers

For example, consider the following C code using the local variables “a”, “b”, “c”:

³This is not entirely true, since there are other instructions available in the ARMv6/7 architecture that access memory locations, but for the purpose of this discussion it is best to consider that sentence to be true.

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... uint8_t a,b,c; a = 3; b = 2; c = a * b; ...

Compiler will generate the following ARM assembly code⁴: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

movs strb movs strb ldrb ldrb smulbb strb

r3, r3, r3, r3, r2, r3, r3, r3,

#3 [r7, #7] #2 [r7, #6] [r7, #7] [r7, #6] r2, r3 [r7, #5]

;move "3" in register r3 ;store the content of r3 in "a" ;move "2" in register r3 ;store the content of r3 in "b" ;load the content of "a" in r2 ;load the content of "b" in r3 ;multiply "a" with "b" and store result in r3 ;store the result in "c"

As we can see, all the operations always involve a register. Instructions at lines 1-2 move the number 3 into the register r3 and then store its content (that is, the number 3) inside the memory location given by the register r7 (which is the frame pointer, as we will see in a following chapter) plus an offset of 7 memory locations - that is the place where a variable is stored. The same happens for the variable b at lines 3-4. Then lines 5-7 load the content of variables a and b and perform the multiplication. Finally, line 8 stores the result in the memory location of variable c. ⁴That assembly code was generated compiling in thumb mode with any optimization disabled, invoking GCC in the following way: $ arm-none-eabi-gcc -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mthumb -fverbose-asm -save-temps -O0 -g -c file.c

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Figure 3: Cortex-M fixed memory address space

1.1.1.2 Memory Map ARM defines a standardized memory address space common to all Cortex-M cores, which enforces [note_ubi: “ensures”?] code portability among different silicon manufacturer. The address space is 4GB wide, and it is organized in several sub-regions with different logical functionalities. Figure 3 shows the memory layout of a Cortex-M processor ⁵. The first 512MB are dedicated to code area. STM32 devices further divide this area in some subregions as shown in Figure 4. Let us briefly introduce them. All Cortex-M processors map the code area starting at address 0x0000 0000⁶. This area also includes the pointer to the beginning of the stack (usually placed in SRAM) and the vector table, as we will see in Chapter 7. The position of the code area is standardized among all other Cortex-M vendors, even if the core architecture is sufficiently flexible to allow manufacturers to arrange this area in a different way. In fact, for all STM32 devices an area starting at address 0x0800 0000 is bound to the internal MCU flash memory, and it is the area where program code resides. However, thanks to ⁵Although the memory layout and the size of sub-regions (and therefore also their addresses) are standardized between all Cortex-M cores, some functionalities may differ. For example, Cortex-M7 does not provide bit-band regions, and some peripherals in the Private Peripheral Bus region differ. Always consult the reference manual for the architecture you are considering. ⁶To increase readability, all 32-bit addresses in this book are written splitting the upper two bytes from the lower ones. So, every time you see an address expressed in this way (0x0000 0000) you have to interpret it just as one common 32-bit address (0x00000000). This rule does not apply to C and assembly source code.

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a specific boot configuration we will explore in a following chapter, this area is also aliased from address 0x0000 0000. This means that it is perfectly possible to refer to the content of the flash memory both starting at address 0x0800 0000 and 0x0000 0000 (for example, a routine located at address 0x0800 16DC can also be accessed from 0x0000 16DC).

Figure 4: Memory layout of Code Area on STM32 MCUs

The last two sections are dedicated to System memory and Option bytes. The former is a ROM region reserved to bootloaders. Each STM32 family (and their sub-families - low density, medium density, and so on) provides a bootloader pre-programmed into the chip during production. As we will see in a following chapter, this bootloader can be used to load code from several peripherals, including USARTs, USB and CAN bus. The Option bytes region contains a series of bit flags which can be used to configure several aspects of the MCU (such as flash read protection, [note_ubi: add one more to give a sense to “and so on”] and so on) and are related to the specific STM32 microcontroller. Going back to the whole 4GB address space, the next main region is the one bounded to the internal MCU SRAM. It starts at address 0x2000 0000 and can potentially extend to 0x3FFF FFFF. However, the actual end address depends on the effective amount of internal SRAM. For example, in the case of an STM32F103RB MCU with 20KB of SRAM, we have a final address of 0x2000 4FFF⁷. Trying to access a location outside of this area will cause a Bus Fault exception (more about this later). The next 0.5GB of memory is dedicated to the mapping of peripherals. Every peripheral provided by the MCU (timers, I²C and SPI interfaces, USARTs, and so on) has an alias in this region. It is up ⁷The final address is computed in the following way: 20K is equal to 20 * 1024 bytes, which in base 16 is 0x5000. But addresses start from 0, hence the final address is 0x2000 0000 + 0x4FFF.

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to the specific MCU to organize this memory space. The next 2GB area is dedicated to external SRAM an/or flashe storage. Cortex-M devices can execute code and load/store data from external memory, which extend the internal memory resources, through the EMI/FSMC interface. Some STM32 devices, like the STM32F7, are able to execute code from external memory without performance bottlenecks, thanks to an L1 cache and the ARTTM Accelerator. The final 0.5 GB of memory is allocated to the internal (core) Cortex processor peripherals, plus a reserved area for future enhancements to Cortex processors. All Cortex processor registers are at fixed locations for all Cortex-based microcontrollers. This allows code to be more easily ported between different STM32 variants and indeed other vendors’ Cortex-based microcontrollers. 1.1.1.3 Bit-Banding In embedded applications, it is quite common to work with single bits of a word using bit masking. For example, suppose that we want to set or clear the 3rd bit (bit 2) of an unsigned byte. We can simply do this using the following C code: ... uint8_t temp = 0; temp |= 0x4; temp &= ~0x4; ...

Bit masking is used when we want to save space in memory (using one single variable and assigning a different meaning to each of its bits) or we have to deal with internal MCU registers and peripherals. Considering the previous C code, we can see that the compiler will generate the following ARM assembly code⁸: #temp |= 0x4; a: 79fb c: f043 0304 10: 71fb #temp &= ~0x4; 12: 79fb 14: f023 0304 18: 71fb

ldrb orr.w strb

r3, [r7, #7] r3, r3, #4 r3, [r7, #7]

ldrb bic.w strb

r3, [r7, #7] r3, r3, #4 r3, [r7, #7]

As we can see, such a simple operation requires three assembly instructions (fetch, modify, save). This leads to two types of problems. First of all, there is a waste of CPU cycles related to those ⁸That assembly code was generated compiling in thumb mode with any optimization disabled, invoking GCC in the following way: $ arm-none-eabi-gcc -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mthumb -fverbose-asm -save-temps -O0 -g -c file.c

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three instructions. Second, that code works fine if the CPU is working in single task mode, and we have just one execution stream, but, if we are dealing with concurrent execution, another task (or simply an interrupt routine) may affect the content of the memory before we complete the “bit mask” operation (that is, for example, an interrupt occurs between instructions at lines 0xC-0x10 or 0x14-0x18 in the above assembly code). Bit-banding is the ability to map each bit of a given area of memory to a whole word in the aliased bit-banding memory region, allowing atomic access to such bit. Figure 5 shows how the Cortex CPU aliases the content of memory address 0x2000 0000 to the bit-banding region 0x2200 0000-1c. For example, if we want to modify (bit 3)[note_ubi: according to previous nomenclature this should be “bit 2” (starting at 0) or “the third bit”] of 0x2000 0000 memory location we can simply access to 0x2200 0008 memory location.

Figure 5: Memory mapping of SRAM address 0x2000 0000 in bit-banding region (first 8 of 32 bits shown)

This is the formula to compute the addresses for alias regions: bit_band_address = alias_region_base + (region_base_offset x 32) + (bit_number x 4)

For example, considering the memory address of Figure 5, to access bit 2 : alias_region_base = 0x22000000 region_base_offset = 0x20000000 - 0x20000000 = 0 bit_band_address = 0x22000000 + 0*32 + (0x2 x 0x4) = 0x22000008

ARM defines two bit-band regions for Cortex-M based MCUs⁹, each one is 1MB wide and mapped to a 32Mbit bit-band alias region. Each consecutive 32-bit word in the “alias” memory region refers to each consecutive bit in the “bit-band” region (which explains that size relationship: 1Mbit 32Mbit). The first one starts at 0x2000 0000 and ends at 0x200F FFFF, and it is aliased from 0x2200 0000 to 0x23FF FFFF. It is dedicated to the bit access of SRAM memory locations. Another bitbanding region starts at 0x4000 0000 and ends at 0x400F FFFF, as shown in Figure 6. ⁹Unfortunately, Cortex-M7 based MCUs do not provide bit-banding capabilities.

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Figure 6: Memory map and bit-banding regions

This other region is dedicated to the memory mapping of peripherals. For example, ST maps the GPIO Output Data Register (GPIO->ODR) of GPIOA peripheral from 0x4002 0014. This means that each bit of the word addressed at 0x4002 0014 allows modifying the output state of a GPIO (from LOW to HIGH and vice versa). So if we want to modify the status of PIN5 of GPIOA port¹⁰, using the previous formula we have: alias_region_base = 0x42000000 region_base_offset = 0x40020014 - 0x40000000 = 0x20014 bit_band_address = 0x42000000 + 0x20014*32 + (0x5 x 0x4) = 0x42400294

We can define two macros in C that allow to easily compute bit-band alias addresses: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

// Define base address of bit-band #define BITBAND_SRAM_BASE 0x20000000 // Define base address of alias band #define ALIAS_SRAM_BASE 0x22000000 // Convert SRAM address to alias region #define BITBAND_SRAM(a,b) ((ALIAS_SRAM_BASE + ((uint32_t)&(a)-BITBAND_SRAM_BASE)*32 + (b*4\ )))

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

// Define base address of peripheral bit-band #define BITBAND_PERI_BASE 0x40000000 // Define base address of peripheral alias band #define ALIAS_PERI_BASE 0x42000000 // Convert PERI address to alias region #define BITBAND_PERI(a,b) ((ALIAS_PERI_BASE + ((uint32_t)a-BITBAND_PERI_BASE)*32 + (b*4)))

¹⁰Anyone who has already played with Nucleo boards, knows that user LED LD2 (the green one) is connected to that port pin.

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Still using the above example, we can quickly modify the state of PIN5 of the GPIOA port as follows: 1 2

#define GPIOA_PERH_ADDR 0x40020000 #define ODR_ADDR_OFF 0x14

3 4 5

uint32_t *GPIOA_ODR = GPIOA_PERH_ADDR + ODR_ADDR_OFF; uint32_t *GPIOA_PIN5 = BITBAND_PERI(GPIOA_ODR, 5);

6 7

*GPIOA_PIN5 = 0x1; // Turns GPIO HIGH

1.1.1.4 Thumb-2 and Memory Alignment Historically, ARM processors provide a 32-bit instructions set. This not only allows for a rich set of instructions, but also guarantees the best performance during the execution of instructions involving arithmetic operations and memory transfers between core registers and SRAM. However, a 32-bit instruction set has a cost in terms of memory footprint of the firmware. This means that a program written with a 32-bit Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) requires a higher amount of bytes of flash storage, which impacts on power consumption and overall costs of the MCU (silicon wafers are expensive, and manufacturers constantly shrink chips size to reduce their cost). To address such issues, ARM introduced the Thumb 16-bit instruction set, which is a subset of the most commonly used 32-bit one. Thumb instructions are each 16 bits long, and are automatically “translated” to the corresponding 32-bit ARM instruction that has the same effect on the processor model. This means that 16-bit Thumb instructions are transparently expanded (from the developer point of view) to full 32-bit ARM instructions in real time, without performance loss. Thumb code is typically 65% the size of ARM code, and provides 160% the performance of the latter when running from a 16-bit memory system; however, in Thumb, the 16-bit opcodes have less functionality. For example, only branches can be conditional, and many opcodes are restricted to accessing only half of all of the CPU’s general-purpose registers. Afterwards, ARM introduced the Thumb-2 instruction set, which is a mix of 16 and 32-bit instruction sets in one operation state. Thumb-2 is a variable length instruction set, and offers a lot more instructions compared to the Thumb one, achieving similar code density. Cortex-M3/4/7 where designed to support the full Thumb and Thumb-2 instruction sets, and some of them support other instruction sets dedicated to Floating Point operations (Cortex-M4/7) and SIMD [note_ubi: first occurrence of this acronym: add expansion in brackets] operations (also known as NEON instructions).

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Figure 7: Difference between aligned and unaligned memory access

Another interesting feature of Cortex-M3/4/7 cores is the ability to do unaligned access to memory. ARM based CPUs are traditionally capable of accessing byte (8-bit), half word (16-bit) and word (32-bit) signed and unsigned variables, without increasing the number of assembly instructions as it happens on 8-bit MCU architectures. However, early ARM architectures were unable to perform unaligned memory access, causing a waste of memory locations. To understand the problem, consider the left diagram in Figure 7. Here we have eight variables. With memory aligned access we mean that to access the word variables (1 and 4 in the diagram), we need to access addresses which are multiples of 32-bits (4 bytes). That is, a word variable can be stored only in 0x2000 0000, 0x2000 0004, 0x2000 0008 and so on. Every attempt to access a location which is not a multiple of 4 causes a UsageFaults exception. So, the following ARM pseudo-instruction is not correct: STR R2, 0x20000002

The same applies for half word access: it is possible to access to memory locations stored at multiple of 2 bytes: 0x2000 0000, 0x2000 0002, 0x2000 0004 and so on. This limitation causes fragmentation inside the RAM memory. To solve this issue, Cortex-M3/4/7 based MCUs are able to perform unaligned memory access, as shown in the right diagram in Figure 7. As we can see, variable 4 is stored starting at address 0x2000 0007 (in early ARM architectures this was only possible with single byte variables). This allows us to store variable 5 in memory location 0x2000 000b, causing variable 8 to be stored in 0x2000 000e. Memory is now packed, and we have saved 4 bytes of SRAM. However, unaligned access is restricted to the following ARM instructions: • • • • •

LDR, LDRT LDRH, LDRHT LDRSH, LDRSHT STR, STRT STRH, STRHT

1.1.1.5 Pipeline Whenever we talk about instructions execution we are assuming a series of non-trivial details. Before an instruction is executed, the CPU has to fetch it from memory and decode it. This procedure

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consumes a number of CPU cycles, depending on the memory and core CPU architecture, and it is a cost separated from the effective instruction cost (that is, the number of cycles required to execute the given instruction). Modern CPUs introduce a way to parallelize these operations to increase their instruction throughput (the number of instructions that can be executed in an unit of time). The basic instruction cycle is broken up into a series of steps, as if the instructions traveled along a pipeline. Rather than processing each instruction sequentially (one at a time, finishing one instruction before starting the next), each instruction is split up into a sequence of stages so that different steps can be executed in parallel.

Figure 8: Three stage instruction pipeline

All Cortex-M based microcontrollers introduce a form of pipelining. The most common one is the 3-stage pipeline, as shown in Figure 8. 3-stage pipeline is supported by Cortex-M0/3/4. Cortex-M0+ cores, which are dedicated to low-power MCUs, provide a 2-stage pipeline (even if pipelining allows to reduce the time cost related to the instruction fetch/decode/execution, it introduces an energy cost which has to be minimized in low-power applications). Cortex-M7 cores provide a 6-stage pipeline. When dealing with pipelines, branching is an issue to be addressed. Program execution is all about taking different ways, and this is achieved through branching (if equal goto). Unfortunately, branching causes the invalidation of pipeline stream, as shown in Figure 9. The last two instructions have been loaded into the pipeline but they are discarded because the branch is taken (we usually refer to them as branch shadow)

Figure 9: Branching in program execution related to pipelining

Even in this case there are several techniques to minimize the impact of branching. They are often referred as branching prediction techniques. The ideas behind these techniques is that the CPU starts fetching and decoding both the instructions following the branching one and the instruction that

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would be reached if the branch happen (in Figure 9 both MOV and ADD instructions). However, there are other ways to implement a branch prediction scheme. If you want to look deeper into this matter, this post¹¹ from official ARM support forum is a good starting point. 1.1.1.6 Interrupts and Exceptions Handling Interrupts and exception management is one of the most powerful features of Cortex-M based processors. Interrupts and exceptions are asynchronous events that alter the program flow. When an exception or an interrupt occurs, the CPU suspends the execution of current task, saves its context (that is, its stack pointer) and starts the execution of a routine designed to handle the interrupting event. This routine is called Exception Handler in case of exceptions and Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) in case of an interrupt. After the exception or interrupt has been handled, the CPU resumes the previous execution flow, and the previous task can continue its execution¹². In the ARM architecture, interrupts are one type of exception. Interrupts are usually generated from on-chip peripherals (e.g. a timer) or external inputs (e.g. a tactile switch connected to a GPIO), and in some cases they can be triggered by software. Exceptions are, instead, related to software execution, and the CPU itself can be a source of exceptions. These could be fault events (e.g. an attempt to access an invalid memory location) or events generated by the Operating System, if any. Each exception (and, hence, interrupt) has an exception number which uniquely identifies it. Table 1 shows the fixed exceptions common to all Cortex-M cores, plus a variable number of user-defined exceptions related to interrupts management. The exception number reflects the position of the exception handler routine inside the vector table, where the effective address of the routine is stored. For example, position 15 contains the memory address of code area containing the exception handler of SysTick interrupt, generated when the SysTick timer reaches zero. ¹¹http://bit.ly/1k7ggh6 ¹²With the term task we refer to a series of instructions which constitute the main flow of execution. If our firmware is based on an OS, the scenario could be a little bit more articulated. Moreover, in case of low-power sleep mode, the CPU may be configured to going back to sleep after an interrupt management routine is executed.

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Table 1: Cortex-M exception types

Except for the first three exceptions, it is possible to assign to each exception a priority level, which defines the processing order of exceptions in case of concurrent interrupts. The lower the priority number is, the higher the priority is. For example, suppose that we have two interrupt routines related to external inputs, A and B. We can assign a higher-priority interrupt (lower number) to the A input. If interrupt related to A arrives when the processor is serving the interrupt from B input, the execution of B is suspended, allowing the higher priority interrupt service routine to be executed immediately. Both exceptions and interrupts are processed by a dedicated unit called Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC). The NVIC has the following features: • Flexible exception and interrupt management: NVIC is able to process both interrupt signals/requests coming from peripherals and exceptions coming from processor core, allowing

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• •





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to enable/disable them in software (except for NMI¹³). Nested exception/interrupt support: NVIC allows the assignment of priority levels to exceptions and interrupts (except for the first three exception types), giving the possibility to categorize interrupts upon user needs. Vectored exception/interrupt entry: NVIC automatically locates the position of the exception handler related to an exception/interrupt, without using additional code. Interrupt masking: developers are free to suspend the execution of all exception handlers (except for NMI), or to suspend some of them on a priority level basis, thanks to a set of dedicated registers. This allows the execution of critical tasks in a safe way, without dealing with asynchronous interruptions. Deterministic interrupt latency: one interesting feature of NVIC is the deterministic latency of interrupt processing, which is equal to 12 cycles for all Cortex-M3/4 cores, 15 cycles for Cortex-M0, 16 cycles for Cortex-M0+, regardless of the current status of the processor. Relocation of exception handlers: as we will explore next, the exception handlers can be relocated in other flash memory locations as well as in totally different - and even external non read-only memories. This offers a great degree of flexibility for advanced applications.

1.1.1.7 SysTimer Cortex-M based processors can optionally provide a System Timer, also known as SysTick. And the good news is that all STM32 devices will provide one, as shown in Table 3. SysTick is a 24-bit down-counting timer used to provide a system tick for Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS), like FreeRTOS. It is used to generate periodic interrupts to scheduled tasks. Programmers can define the update frequency of SysTick timer, setting its registers. SysTick timer is also used by the STM32 HAL to generate precise delays, even if we aren’t using an RTOS. More about this timer in Chapter 11. 1.1.1.8 Power Modes The actual trends in electronics industry, especially for mobile devices design, is all about power management. Reducing the power to minimum level is the main goal of all hardware designers and programmers involved in the development of battery-powered devices. Cortex-M processors provide several levels of power management, which can be divided into two main groups: intrinsic features and user-defined power modes. With the term intrinsic features we refer to those native capabilities related to power consumption defined during the design of both the Cortex-M core and the whole MCU. For example, CortexM0+ cores define only two pipeline stages, to reduce the power consumption related to instructions prefetch. Another native behavior connected to power management is the high code density of ¹³Also the Reset exception cannot be disabled, even if it is improper to talk about the Reset exception disabling, since it is the first exception generated after the MCU resets. As we will see in Chapter 7, the Reset exception is the actual entry point of every STM32 application.

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Thumb-2 instruction set, which allows developers to choose MCUs with smaller flash memory to reduce power.

Figure 10: Cortex-M power consumption at different power modes

Traditionally, Cortex-M processors provide user programmable power modes, through the control of the System Control Register(SCR). The first mode is the Run one (see Figure 10), that is the CPU running at its full capabilities. In Run mode the power consumption depends on the clock frequency and used peripherals. Sleep mode is the first low-power mode available to reduce power consumption. In this mode most of the functionalities are suspended, and CPU frequency is lowered and its activities are reduced to those that are necessary for it to wake up. In Deep sleep mode all clock signals are stopped, and the CPU needs an external event to wake up from this mode. However, these power modes are only schemes, which are further implemented in the actual MCU. For example, consider Figure 11 that shows the power consumption of an STM32F2 MCU when running at 80MHZ @30°C¹⁴. As we can see, the maximum power consumption is reached in the Run-mode (that is, the Active mode) with the ARTTM accelerator disabled. Enabling the ARTTM accelerator we can save up to 10mAh, achieving a better computing performance too. This clearly shows that the real MCU implementation can introduce different power levels. ¹⁴Source ST AN3430

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Figure 11: STM32F2 power consumption at different power modes

STM32Lx families provide several further intermediate power levels, allowing to precisely select the preferred power mode and hence MCU performance and power consumption. We will go in more depth about this topic in a following chapter. 1.1.1.9 CMSIS One of the key advantages of the ARM platform (both for silicon vendors and application developers) is the existence of a complete set of development tools (compilers, run-time libraries, debuggers, and so on) that are reusable among several vendors. ARM is also actively working on a way to standardize the software infrastructures among MCUs vendors. Cortex Microcontroller Software Interface Standard (CMSIS) is a vendor-independent hardware abstraction layer for the Cortex-M processor series and specifies debugger interfaces. The CMSIS consists of the following components: • CMSIS-CORE: API for the Cortex-M processor core and peripherals. It provides a standardized interface for Cortex-M0/3/4/7. • CMSIS-Driver: defines generic peripheral driver interfaces for middleware making them reusable across supported devices. The API is RTOS independent and connects microcontroller peripherals with middleware that implements, for example, communication stacks, file systems, or graphical user interfaces. • CMSIS-DSP: DSP Library Collection with over 60 Functions for various data types: fixed-point (fractional q7, q15, q31) and single precision floating-point (32-bit). The library is available for Cortex-M0, Cortex-M3, and Cortex-M4. The Cortex-M4 implementation is optimized for the SIMD instruction set.

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• CMSIS-RTOS API: Common API for Real-Time Operating Systems. It provides a standardized programming interface that is portable to many RTOS and enables therefore software templates, middleware, libraries, and other components that can work across supported RTOS systems. We will talk about this API layer in a following chapter. • CMSIS-Pack: describes with a XML based package description file (named PDSC) the user and device relevant parts of a file collection (called software pack) that includes source, header, and library files, documentation, flash programming algorithms, source code templates, and example projects. Development tools and web infrastructures use the PDSC file to extract device parameters, software components, and evaluation board configurations. • CMSIS-SVD: System View Description(SVD) for Peripherals. Describes the peripherals of a device in an XML file and can be used to create peripheral awareness in debuggers or header files with peripheral registers and interrupt definitions. • CMSIS-DAP: Debug Access Port. Standardized firmwares for a Debug Unit that connects to the CoreSight Debug Access Port. CMSIS-DAP is distributed as separate package and well suited for integration on evaluation boards. However, this initiative from ARM is still evolving, and the support to all components from ST is still really bare-bone. The official ST HAL is the main way to develop applications for the STM32 platform, which presents a lot of peculiarities between MCUs of different families. Moreover, it is quite clear that the main objective of silicon vendors is to retain their customers, and to avoid their migration to other MCUs platform (even if it is based on the same ARM Cortex core). So, we are really far from having a complete and portable layer that works on all ARM based MCUs available on the market. and may not be available in a given MCU 1.1.1.10 Effective Implementation of Cortex-M Features in the STM32 Portfolio Some of the features presented in the previous paragraphs are optional and may not be available in a given MCU. Tables 2 and 3 summarize the Cortex-M instructions and components available in the STM32 Portfolio. These could be useful during the selection process of an STM32 MCU.

Table 2: ARM Cortex-M instruction variations

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Table 3: ARM Cortex-M optional components

1.2 Introduction to STM32 Microcontrollers STM32 is a broad range of microcontrollers divided in nine sub-families, each one with its peculiarities. ST started the market production of this portfolio in 2007, beginning with the STM32F1 series, and it is still under development. Figure 12 shows the internal die of an STM32F103 MCU, one of the most widespread STM32 MCUs¹⁵. All STM32 microcontrollers have a Cortex-M core, plus some distinctive ST features (like the ARTTM accelerator). Internally, each microcontroller consists of the processor core, static RAM memory, flash memory, debugging interface, and various peripherals. Some MCU provides additional types of memory (EEPROM, CCM, etc.), and a complete line targeted for low-power applications is continuously growing. ¹⁵This picture is taken from Zeptobars.ru (http://bit.ly/1FfqHsv). It is a really fantastic blog, because they are used to put integrated circuits inside acid and to publish images of what inside the chip. I love those images, because they show what humans were able to do in electronics.

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Figure 12: Internal die of an STM32F103 MCU³

The remaining paragraphs in this chapter will introduce the reader to STM32 microcontrollers, giving a complete overview of all STM32 subfamilies.

1.2.1 Advantages of the STM32 Portfolio…. STM32 platform provides several advantages for embedded developers. This paragraph tries to summarize the relevant ones. • They are Cortex-M based MCUs: this could be still not clear for those of you that are novice to this platform. Being Cortex-M based microcontrollers ensures that you have several tools available on the market to develop your applications. ARM has became a sort of standard in the embedded world (we have to say that this is especially true for Cortex-A processors; in the Cortex-M market segment there are still several good alternatives - PIC, MSP430, etc.) and 50 billions of devices sold at 2014 is a strong guarantee that investing on this platform is a good deal. • Free ARM based tool-chain: thanks to the diffusion of ARM based processors, it is possible to work with completely free tool-chains, without investing a lot of money to start working with this platform. And this is extremely important if you are a hobbyist or a student.

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• Know-how reuse: STM32 is a quite extensive portfolio, which is based on a common denominator: their main CPU platform. This aspect guarantees you that you can reuse the know how you will acquire working with a given STM32Fx CPU, and it is not so much complicated to switch to another STM32Fx series. Moreover, working on Cortex-M processors allows you to reuse the skills if you (or your boss) decide to switch to Cortex-M MCUs from other vendor (ok, I have to admit that this is quite theoretic). • Pin-to-pin compatibility: most of STM32 MCUs are designed to be pin-to-pin compatible inside the extensive STM32 portfolio. This is especially true for LQFP64-100 packages, and this a great thing. You will have less responsibility in the initial choice of the right micro for your application, knowing that you can eventually jump to another family in case you find it does not fit your needs. • 5V tolerant: this is a great feature. Most of STM32 pins are 5V tolerant. This means that you can interface other devices that do not provide 3.3V I/O without using level shifters (unless the speed is really important for your application). • 32 cents for 32 bit: STM32F0 is the right choice if you want to migrate from 8/16-bit MCUs to a powerful and coherent platform. You can use an RTOS to boost your application and to write really better code. • Integrated bootloader: STM32 MCUs are shipped with an integrated bootloader, which allows to reprogram the internal flash memory using some communication peripherals (USART, I²C, etc.). For some of you this will not be a killer feature, but it can dramatically simplify the work of people developing devices as professionals.

1.2.2 ….and Its drawbacks This book is not a brochure or a document made by marketing people. Nor is the author an ST employee or is he having business with ST. So it is right to say that there are some pitfalls regarding this platform. • Learning curve: STM32 learning curve can be very steep, especially for inexperienced users. If you are totally new to the embedded development, the process of learning how to develop STM32 applications can be really frustrating. Even if ST is doing a great job trying to improve the overall documentation and the official libraries, it is still hard to deal with this platform. And this is a shame. Historically, ST documentation is not the best one for inexperienced people, being too much cryptic and lacking clear examples. • Lack of official tools: this book will guide the reader in the process of setting a full toolchain for the STM32 platform. But the fact that ST does not provide its official development environment (like, for example, Microchip does for its MCUs) causes that a lot of people to simply stay away from this platform. And this is a strategic thing that people from ST should seriously take into consideration. • Fragmented and dispersive documentation: ST is actively working on improving its official documentation about the STM32 platform. You can find a lot of really huge datasheets on ST’s

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website, but there is still a lack of good documentation especially for its HAL. Recent versions of the CubeHAL provides one or more “CHM” files¹⁶, which are automatically generated from the documentation inside the CubeHAL source code. However, those files are not sufficient to start programming with this framework, especially if you are new to the STM32 ecosystem and the Cortex-M world. • Buggy HAL: unfortunately, the official HAL from ST contains several bugs, and some of them are really severe and lead to confusion to novices. For example, during the development of this book I have found errors in several linker scripts¹⁷, which are supposed to be the foundation blocks of the HAL, or in some critical routines¹⁸ that should work seamlessly. Every day at least a new post regarding HAL bugs appears in the official ST forum¹⁹, and this is really annoying. ST is actively working on fixing the HAL bugs, but it seems that we are still far from a “stable release”. Moreover, their software release lifecycle is too old and not appropriate for the time we are living: bug fixes are released after several months, and sometime the fix is worse than the broken code. ST should seriously take in account to invest LESS on designing the next development kit and MORE on the development of a decent STM32 HAL, which is currently not adeguate to the hardware development. I would respectfully suggest to place the whole HAL on a community for developers like github, and let the community to help fixing the bugs. This would simplify a lot the bug reporting process too, which is currently demanded to scattered posts on the ST forum. It is a shame. • Lack of MCUs for the IoT: the Internet of Things is the current trend in electronics, and I think that an STM32 with 2.4Ghz frontend, ∼100k of SRAM and 512/1024k of flash is mandatory²⁰. An STM32 with integrated wireless network processors would be great. In short, an STM32 like the TI CC3200. Hey ST guys, can you hear me? :-)

1.3 A Quick Look to STM32 Subfamilies As said before, the STM32 is a rather complicated product lineup, articulated in nine product sub-families. Figure 13 summarizes the current STM32 portfolio²¹. The diagram aggregates the subfamilies in three macro groups: High-performance, Mainstream and Ultra Low-Power MCUs. High-performance microcontrollers are those STM32 MCUs dedicated to CPU-intensive and multimedia applications. They are Cortex-M3/4F/7 based MCUs, with a maximum clock frequency ranging from 120MHz (F2) to over 200MHz (F7). All MCUs in this group provide ARTTM Accelerator, an ST technology that allows 0-wait execution from flash memory. Mainstream MCUs are developed for cost-sensitive applications, where the cost of the MCU must ¹⁶a CHM file is a typical Microsoft file format used to distribute documentation in HTML format in just one file. It is really common on the Windows OS, and you can find several good free tools on MacOS and Linux to read them. ¹⁷http://bit.ly/1iRAKdf ¹⁸http://bit.ly/1NqjDxf ¹⁹http://bit.ly/1LTf2MS ²⁰More about STM32W later. ²¹The diagram was taken from this ST Microelectronics brochure (http://bit.ly/1G7HMFj) (P/N: BRSTM320215).

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be even less than 1$/pc and space is a strong constraint. In this group we can find Cortex-M0/3/4 base MCUs, with a maximum clock frequency ranging from 48MHz (F0) to over 72MHz (F1/F3). Ultra Low-Power group contains those STM32 families of MCUs addressed to low-power applications, that are used in battery-powered devices that need to reduce the total power consumption to low values ensuring longer battery life. In this group we can find both Cortex-M0+ based MCUs, for cost-sensitive applications, and Cortex-M4 based microcontrollers with Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS), a technology that allows optimizing the internal CPU voltage according to its frequency.

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Figure 13: STM32 portfolio¹⁸

The following paragraphs give a brief description of each STM32 family, introducing its main features. The most important ones will be summarized inside tables. Tables were arranged by the

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author of this book, but he was inspired by the official ST documentation.

1.3.1 F0

Table 4: STM32F0 features

The STM32F0-series is the famous 32-cents for 32-bit line of MCU from the STM32 portfolio. It is designed to have a street price able to compete with 8/16-bit MCUs from other vendors, offering a more advanced and powerful platform. The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M0 core at a maximum clock rate of 48 MHz. – Cortex-M0 options include the SysTick Timer. • Memory: – Static RAM from 4 to 32 KB. – Flash from 16 to 256 KB. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each F0-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 4 for a quick overview). • Oscillator source consists of internal RC (8 MHz, 40 kHz), optional external HSE (4 to 32 MHz), LSE (32.768 to 1000 kHz). • IC packages: LQFP, TSSOP20²², UFBGA, UFQFPN, WLCSP (see Table 4 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 2.0V to 3.6V with the possibility to go down to 1.8V ±8%. ²²F0 is the only STM32 family that provides this convenient package.

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1.3.2 F1

Table 5: STM32F1 features

The STM32F1-series was the first ARM based MCU from ST. Introduced in the market in 2007, it is still the most widespread MCU from the STM32 portfolio. There are a lot of development boards on the market, produced by ST and other vendors, and you will find tons of examples on the web for F1 microcontrollers. If you are new to the STM32 world, probably F1 line is the best choice to start working with to learn this platform. The F1-series has evolved over time by increasing speed, size of internal memory, variety of peripherals. There are five F1 lines: Connectivity (STM32F105/107), Performance (STM32F103), USB Access (STM32F102), Access (STM32F101), Value (STM32F100). The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M3 core at a maximum clock rate ranging from 24 to 72 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM from 4 to 96 KB. – Flash from 16 to 256 KB. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each F1-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 5 for a quick overview). • Oscillator source consists of internal RC (8 MHz, 40 kHz), optional external HSE (4-24MHz(F100), 4-16MHz(F101/2/3), 3-25MHz (F105/7)), LSE (32.768 - 1000 kHz) ). • IC packages: LFBGA, LQFP, UFBGA, UFQFPN, WLCSP (see Table 5 for more about this).

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• Operating voltage range is 2.0V to 3.6V • Various connectivity options, including Ethernet, CAN and USB 2.0 OTG.

1.3.3 F2

Table 6: STM32F2 features

The STM32F2-series of STM32 microcontrollers is the cost-effective solution in the High-performance segment. It is the most recent and fastest Cortex-M3 based MCU, with exclusive ARTTM Accelerator from ST. The F2 is pin-to-pin compatible with the STM32 F4-series. STM32F2 was the MCU chosen by the developers of popular Pebble watch for their first smart-watch.

Figure 14: The first Pebble watch with STM32F205 MCU inside

The most important features of this series are:

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• Core: – ARM Cortex-M3 core at a maximum clock rate of 120 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM from 64 to 128 KB. * 4 KB battery-backed, 80 bytes battery-backed with tamper-detection erase. – Flash from 128 to 1024 KB. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each F2-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 6 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC (16 MHz, 32 kHz), optional external HSE (1 to 26 MHz), LSE (32.768 to 1000 kHz). • IC packages: BGA, LQFP, UFBGA, WLCSP (see Table 6 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 1.8V to 3.6V.

1.3.4 F3

Table 7: STM32F3 features

The STM32F3-series is the most powerful series of MCU in the Mainstream segment, based on the ARM Cortex-M4F core. It is designed to be almost pin-to-pin compatible with the STM32 F1-series, even if it does not offer the same variety of peripherals. STM32F3 was the MCU chosen by the developers of BB-8 droid toy²³ by Sphero²⁴. ²³http://cnet.co/1M2NyJS ²⁴http://www.sphero.com/

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Figure 15: The BB-8 droid made with an STM32F3 MCU

The distinguishing feature for this series is the presence of integrated analog peripherals leading to cost reduction at application level and simplifying application design, including: • • • •

Ultra-fast comparators (25 ns). Op-amp with programmable gain. 12-bit DACs. Ultra-fast 12-bit ADCs with 5 MSPS (Million Samples Per Second) per channel (up to 18 MSPS in Interleaved mode). • Precise 16-bit sigma-delta ADCs (21 channels). • 144 MHz Advanced 16-bit pulse-width modulation timer (resolution < 7 ns) for control applications; high resolution timer (217 picoseconds), self-compensated vs power supply and temperature drift. Another interesting feature of this series is the presence of a Core Coupled Memory (CCM), a specific memory architecture that couples some regions of memory to the CPU core, allowing 0-wait states. This can be used to boosting time-critical routines (their stack is stored inside this memory area), accelerating the performance up to 43%. For example, OS routines for context switching can be stored in this area to speed up RTOS activities. The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M4F core at a maximum clock rate of 72 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM from 16 to 80 KB general-purpose with hardware parity check.

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* 64 / 128 bytes battery-backed with tamper-detection erase. – Up to 8 KB Core Coupled Memory (CCM) with hardware parity check. – Flash from 32 to 512 KB. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each F3-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 6 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC (8 MHz, 40 kHz), optional external HSE (4 to 32 MHz), LSE (32.768 to 1000 kHz). • IC packages: LQFP, UFBGA, UFQFPN, WLCSP (see Table 7 for more about this). Operating voltage range is 1.8V ±8%. to 3.6V.

1.3.5 F4

Table 8: STM32F4 features

The STM32F4-series is the most widespread group of Cortex-M4F based MCUs in the Highperformance segment. The F4-series is also the first STM32 series to have DSP and Floating Point SP

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instructions. The F4 is pin-to-pin compatible with the STM32 F2-series and adds higher clock speed, 64K CCM static RAM, full duplex I²S, improved real-time clock, and faster ADCs. The STM32F4series is also targeted to multimedia applications, and some MCUs offer dedicated support to LCDTFT. The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M4F core at a maximum clock ranging from 84 to 180 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM from 128 to 384 KB. * 4 KB battery-backed, 80 bytes battery-backed with tamper-detection erase. – 64 KB core coupled memory (CCM). – Flash from 256 to 2048 KB. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each F4-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 8 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC (16 MHz, 32 kHz), optional external HSE(4 to 26 MHz), LSE(32.768 to 1000 kHz). • IC packages: BGA, LQFP, TFBGA, UFBGA, UFQFPN, WLCSP (see Table 8 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 1.8V to 3.6V.

1.3.6 F7

Table 9: STM32F7 features

STM32F7-series is the latest ultra-performance MCU in the High-performance segment, and it is the first and only²⁵ Cortex-M7 based MCU on the market. Thanks to ST’s ARTTM Accelerator ²⁵When this chapter was written (September 2015) the STM32F7 was the only Cortex-M7 microcontroller available on the market.

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as well as an L1 cache, STM32F7 devices deliver the maximum theoretical performance of the Cortex-M7 no matter whether code is executed from embedded flash or external memory: 1082 CoreMark/462 DMIPS at 216 MHz. STM32F7 is clearly targeted to heavy multimedia embedded applications. Thanks to STM32 longevity program (10 years) it is possible to develop powerful embedded applications without worrying about the MCU availability on the market in the far future. Cortex-M7 is backwards compatible with the Cortex-M4 instruction set, and STM32F7 series is pinto-pin compatible with the STM32F4 series. The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M7 core at a maximum clock of 216 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM of 384 KB. – L1 cache (I/D 4 KB + 4 KB). – Flash from 512 to 1024 KB. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each F7-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 9 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC (16 MHz, 32 kHz), optional external HSE(4 to 26 MHz), LSE(32.768 to 1000 kHz). • IC packages: LQFP, TFBGA, UFBGA, WLCSP (see Table 8 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 1.7V to 3.6V.

1.3.7 L0

Table 10: STM32L0 features

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STM32L0-series is the cost-effective solution of the Ultra Low-Power segment. The combination of an ARM Cortex-M0+ core and ultra-low-power features makes STM32L0 the best fit for applications operating on battery or supplied by energy harvesting, offering the world’s lowest power consumption at 125°C. The STM32L0 offers dynamic voltage scaling, an ultra-low-power clock oscillator, LCD interface, comparator, DAC and hardware encryption. Current consumption reference values: • • • •

Dynamic run mode: down to 87 μA/MHz. Ultra-low-power mode + full RAM + low power timer: 440 nA (16 wakeup lines). Ultra-low-power mode + backup register: 250 nA (3 wakeup pins). Wake-up time: 3.5 µs.

The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M0+ core at a maximum clock rate of 32 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM of 8 KB. * 20-byte battery-backed with tamper-detection erase. – Flash sizes from 32 to 64 KB. – EEPROM sizes of 2 KB (with ECC). – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each L0-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 10 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC (16 MHz, 37 kHz), optional external HSE(1 to 24 MHz), LSE(32.768kHz). • IC packages are LQFP, TFBGA, UFQFPN, WLCSP (see Table 10 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 1.65V to 3.6V, including a programmable brownout detector.

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1.3.8 L1

Table 11: STM32L1 features

STM32L1-series is the mid-range solution of the Ultra Low-Power segment. The combination of an ARM Cortex-M3 core with FPU and ultra-low-power features makes the STM32L1 optimal for applications operating on battery that also demand sufficient computing power. Like the L0series, The STM32L1 offers dynamic voltage scaling, an ultra-low-power clock oscillator, plus LCD interface, comparator, DAC and hardware encryption. Current consumption reference values: • • • •

Ultra-low-power mode: 280 nA with backup registers (3 wakeup pins) Ultra-low-power mode + RTC: 900 nA with backup registers (3 wakeup pins) Low-power run mode: down to 9 μA Dynamic run mode: down to 177 μA/MHz

STM32 L1 is pin-to-pin compatible with the different STM32 F series. The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M3 core with FPU at a maximum clock rate of 32 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM from 4 to 80 KB. * 20 bytes battery-backed with tamper-detection erase. – Flash sizes from 32 to 512 KB. – EEPROM sizes of 2 KB (with ECC). – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals:

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– Each L1-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 11 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC (16 MHz, 37 kHz), optional external HSE(1 to 24 MHz), LSE(32.768kHz). • IC packages are LQFP, TFBGA, UFBGA, UFQFPN, WLCSP (see Table 11 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 1.65V to 3.6V, including a programmable brownout detector.

1.3.9 L4

Table 12: STM32L4 features

STM32L4-series is the new best-in-class MCU portfolio of the Ultra Low-Power segment. The combination of an ARM Cortex-M4 core with FPU and ultra-low-power features, makes the STM32L4 the best fit for applications demanding high performance while operating on battery or supplied by energy harvesting. Like the L1-series, The STM32L4 offers dynamic voltage scaling, an ultra-low-power clock oscillator. Current consumption reference values: • • • • • •

Ultra-low-power mode: 30 nA with backup registers without real-time clock (5 wakeup pins). Ultra-low-power mode + RTC: 330 nA with backup registers (5 wakeup pins). Ultra-low-power mode + 32 Kbytes of RAM: 360 nA. Ultra-low-power mode + 32 Kbytes of RAM + RTC: 660 nA. Dynamic run mode: down to 100 μA/MHz. Wake-up time: 5 μs.

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STM32 L4 is pin-to-pin compatible with the different STM32 F series. The most important features of this series are: • Core: – ARM Cortex-M4F core with FPU at a maximum clock rate of 80 MHz. • Memory: – Static RAM of 128 KB. * 20 bytes battery-backed with tamper-detection erase. – Flash sizes from 256 to 1024 KB. – Support to SDMMC and FSMC interfaces. – Each chip has a factory-programmed 96-bit unique device identifier number. • Peripherals: – Each L4-series includes various peripherals that vary from line to line (see Table 12 for a quick overview). • Oscillators consist of internal RC(16 MHz, 37 kHz), optional external HSE(1 to 24 MHz), LSE(32.768kHz). • IC packages are LQFP, UFBGA, WLCSP (see Table 12 for more about this). • Operating voltage range is 1.7V to 3.6V.

1.3.10 W and J STM32 MCUs There are two other series in the STM32 portfolio: STM32W and STM32J. The first one is a CortexM3 based MCU running at 24MHz with integrated 2.4Ghz radio front-end. Unfortunately, this series was unlucky, and it is currently marked as Not Recommended for New Designs (NRND). This is a shame, since the current trends of IoT market is to have monolithic MCUs with radio front-end (like the popular CC3200 from TI). STMicroelectronics provides a selection of STM32 microcontrollers ready to be used with Java programming language. This special series embeds the required features to execute Java programs. They are based on the existing STM32 F1, F2, F4, F0, L0 families. There are two sets of special part numbers enabled for Java: Production part numbers end in the letter “J”, and sample part numbers end in the letter “U”²⁶.

1.3.11 How to Select the Right MCU for You? Selecting a microcontroller for a new project is never a trivial task, unless you are reusing a previous design. First of all, there are tens of MCU manufacturers on the market, each one with its market share and audience. ST, Microchip, TI, Atmel, Renesas, NXP and so on²⁷. In our case we are very lucky: we already have selected the brand. ²⁶The author does not know who is crazy enough to use Java on an MCU. ²⁷A good list of MCU manufacturers can be found here (http://bit.ly/1VUkN2e).

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As we have seen in the previous paragraphs, the STM32 is really an extensive portfolio. We can choose a MCU from more than 500 devices, if we consider package variants too. So, where to start? In an ideal world, the first step of the selection process involves the understanding of needed computing power. If we are going to develop a CPU intensive application, focused on multimedia and graphic applications, then we have to shift our attention to the High-performance group of STM32 microcontrollers. If, instead, the computing power is not the main requirement of our electronic device, then we can focus on the Mainstream segment, giving a close look to the STM32F1 series that offers the most extensive portfolio to choose from. The next step is about connectivity requirements. If we need to interact with external world thorough an Ethernet connection or other industrial protocols like CAN bus, and our application has to be responsive and able to deal with several Internet protocols, then the STM32F4 portfolio is probably the best. Otherwise the STM32F105/7 connectivity line is again the best choice. If we are going to develop a battery-powered device (maybe the new bestseller in the wearable market), then we have to look to the STM32L portfolio, choosing among the various sub-families according to the computing power we need. As said at the beginning of this paragraph, this is the selection process as it happens in the ideal world. But what about the real world? In everyday development process, we probably have to answer the following questions before we start selecting the right MCU for our project: • Is this device targeted for mass-market or a niche? If you are developing a device that will be produced in small quantities, then the price difference among the STM32 microcontrollers does not impact your project too much. You may also consider the brand new STM32F7 and put little attention to software optimization (when dealing with low performance MCUs you have to do all the best to optimize the code, and keep in mind that this is also a cost that increases the total investment). But if you are going to build a mass-market device, then the price of a single IC is really important: what you will save during production outweighs the initial investment. • What is the allowed budget for the total BOM? This is a corollary to the previous point. If you already have the target price of your board, then you must carefully select the right MCU in the early stage. • What about space constraints? Does your board have to fit the latest wearable device, or do you have sufficient room to use the IC package you want? The answer to this question deeply affects the selection process of a MCU and what we can demand from it in terms of performance and peripherals capabilities. • What production technology can my company afford? This is another non-trivial question. LQFP packages are still really popular in the MCU market thanks to the fact they do not require complex production costs, and they can be easily assembled even by old production lines. BGA and WLCSP packages require X-Ray inspection machines, and this could affect your selection process. • Is time-to-market critical for you? Time-to-market is always a critical point for anybody doing business. But sometimes you need to finish the firmware the day before you started the

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development process. This could lead to non optimized firmware, at least in an early stage. And this means that probably a MCU with more computing power is the best choice for you. • Can you reuse board layouts or code? Every embedded developer has his portfolio of libraries and well known ICs. Software development is a complex task, that involves several stages before we can consider our firmware stable and ready for production. Sometimes (this is happening really frequently nowadays), you have to deal with undocumented hardware bugs or, at least, with its strange behavior. This implies that you have to be really careful in deciding to switch to another architecture or even another MCU in the same series. One of the key features of the STM32 platform could help a lot during the selection process: the pin-to-pin compatibility. This allows you to choose a more powerful or a cheaper MCU during the selection process, giving to you the freedom to change it in a more advanced development stage. For example, for a recent board I have developed, I started by choosing an STM32F1 MCU, but I downgraded it to a cheaper STM32F0 when I reached to the conclusion that it would fit my needs. However, keep in mind that this process always involves adapting the code to the different subfamily.

Figure 16: The STM32 selection tool available on the ST web site

ST offers two convenient tools to help you in the MCU selection process. The first one is available in ST web site²⁸, in the STM32 section. It is a parametric search tool, which allows you to choose the features you are interested in. The tool automatically filters for those MCUs that fit your requirements. ²⁸http://www.st.com/web/en/catalog/mmc/FM141/SC1169

Introduction to STM32 MCU Portfolio

Figure 17: The MCU Finder App for Android OS

The second tool is a useful mobile app available for iOS²⁹, Android³⁰ and Windows Mobile³¹.

²⁹http://apple.co/Uf20WR ³⁰http://bit.ly/1Pvo8EV ³¹http://bit.ly/1Gf4YBd

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1.4 The Nucleo Development Board Every practical text about an electronic device requires a development board (also known as kit) to start working with it. In the STM32 world the most widespread development board is the STM32 Discovery. ST has developed more than 20 different discovery boards useful to test STM32 MCUs and their capabilities.

Figure 18: The STM32L0538 Discovery kit introduced by ST in 2015

For example, the new STM32L0538DISCOVERY board (Figure 18) allows to test both the STM32L053 MCU and an e-paper display. You can find a lot of tutorials around on the Internet covering boards from Discovery line. ST has recently introduced a completely new range of development boards: the Nucleo. The Nucleo line-up is divided in three main groups: Nucleo-32, Nucleo-64 and Nucleo-144 (see Figure 19). The name of each group comes from the MCU package type used: Nucleo-32 uses an STM32 in an LQFP-32 package; Nucleo-64 uses an LQFP-64; Nucleo-144 an LQFP-144. The Nucleo-64 was the first line introduced to the market, and there are 16 different boards, each one with a given STM32 microcontroller. The Nucleo-144 has been introduced in January 2016, and it is the first low-cost kit equipping the powerful STM32F746. It also provides an Ethernet phyther³² and a LAN port. Since the Nucleo-64 is the most complete range, this book will cover only this type of boards. In the remaining part of the book we refer to the Nucleo-64 simply with the term “Nucleo”. The Nucleo is composed of two parts, as shown in Figure 20. The part with the mini-USB connector is an ST-LINK 2.1 integrated debugger, which is used to upload the firmware on the target MCU and to do step-by-step debugging. ST-LINK interface also provides a Virtual COM Port (VCP), which can be used to exchange data and messages with the host PC. One key feature of Nucleo boards is that the ST-LINK interface can be easily separated from the rest of the board (two red scissors in Figure 19 show where to break). In this way it can be used as stand-alone ST-LINK programmer (a stand-alone ST-LINK programmer costs about 25$). However, the ST-LINK provides a optional SWD interface that can be used to program another board without detaching the ST-LINK interface from the Nucleo (as it already happens with Discovery boards) by removing the two jumpers labeled ST-LINK. The rest of the board contains the target MCU, that is the microcontroller that we will use ³²The Ethernet phyther (also called Ethernet PHY ) is a device that translates messages exchanged over a LAN network in electrical signals.

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to develop our applications, a RESET button, a user programmable tactile button and a LED. The board contains also one pad to mount an external high speed crystal (HSE). All recent Nucleo boards already provide a low-speed crystal. Finally, the board has several pin headers we will see in a while.

Figure 19: A Nucleo development board

The reason why ST introduced this new kit is not clear, given that Discovery boards are valid development tools. I think that the main reason is to attract people from the Arduino world. In fact, Nucleo boards provide pin headers to accept the Arduino shields, expansion boards specifically built to expand the Arduino UNO and all other Arduino boards. Figure 21³³ shows the STM32 peripherals and GPIOs associated to the Arduino compatible connector. ³³Figure 21 and 21 are taken from mbed.org website and they refer to the Nucleo-F401RE board. Please, refer to Appendix C for the right pin-out of your Nucleo board.

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Figure 20: The relevant parts of a Nucleo board

To be honest, the Nucleo boards have other interesting advantages compared to the Discovery ones. First of all, ST sells them at a really aggressive price (probably for the same reason as before). A Nucleo costs from 10$ to 15$, depending on where you buy it. And if you think about what you can do with this architecture, you have to agree that it is really underpriced compared to Arduino DUE board (which is also equipped with a 32-bit processor from ATMEL). Another interesting feature is that Nucleo boards are designed to be pin-to-pin compatible with each other. This means that you can develop the firmware for the STM32Nucleo-F103RB board (equipped with the popular STM32F103 MCU) and you can adapt it to a more powerful Nucleo (e.g. STM32Nucleo-F401RE) if you need more computing power.

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Figure 21: Peripherals and GPIOs associated to Arduino headers

In addition to Arduino compatible pin headers, the Nucleo provides its own expansion connectors. They are two 2x19 2.54mm spaced male pin headers. They are called Morpho connectors and are a convenient way to access most of the MCU pins. Figure 22 shows the STM32 peripherals and GPIOs associated to the Morpho connector.

Figure 22: Peripherals and GPIOs associated to Morpho headers

As far as I know there aren’t expansion boards that use the Morpho connector yet. Even ST is releasing several expansion shields for the Nucleo that are compatible with the Arduino UNO. For example, Figure 23 shows a Nucleo board with a X-NUCLEO-IDB04A1 expansion board, a shield

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that equips the BlueNRG monolithic Bluetooth Low Energy 4.0 network processor.

Figure 23: The BlueNRG expansion shield

There are sixteen Nucleo boards available at the time of writing this chapter (September 2015). Table 13 summarizes their main features, together with those ones common to all Nucleo boards.

Introduction to STM32 MCU Portfolio

Table 13: The list of available Nucleos and their features

Why Use the Nucleo as Example Board for This Book? The answers to this question are almost all contained in the previous paragraph. First of all, Nucleo boards are cheap, and allow to start learning the STM32 platform with nearly no cost. Second, it simplifies a lot the instructions and examples contained in this book. You are completely free to use the Nucleo you like. The book will show all the steps needed to easily adapt examples to your specific Nucleo. The third reason comes from the previous sentence: the author had to buy all kinds of Nucleo boards to do tests, and he did not invest a fortune :-)

However, keep in mind that the whole book is designed to give the reader all the necessary tools to start working with any board, even with custom ones. It will be really easy to adapt the examples to your needs.

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2. Setting-Up the Tool-Chain Before we can start developing applications for the STM32 platform, we need a complete tool-chain. A tool-chain is a set of programs, compilers and tools that allows us: • to write down our code and to navigate inside source files of our application; • to navigate inside the application code, allowing us to inspect variables, function definitions/declarations, and so on; • to compile the source code using a cross-platform compiler; • to upload and debug our application on the target development board (or a custom board we have made). To accomplish these activities, we essentially need: • • • •

an IDE with integrated source editor and navigator; a cross-platform compiler able to compile source code for the ARM Cortex-M platform; a debugger that allows us to execute step by step debugging of firmware on the target board; a tool that allows to interact with the integrated hardware debugger of our Nucleo board (the ST-LINK interface) or the dedicated programmer (e.g. a JTAG adapter).

There are several complete tool-chains for the STM32 Cortex-M family, both free and commercial. IAR for Cortex-M¹ and Keil² are two of the most used commercial tool-chains for Cortex-M microcontrollers. They are a complete solution for developing applications for the STM32 platform, but being commercial products they have a street price that may be too high for small sized companies or students (they may cost more than $5,000 according the features you need). However, this book does not cover commercial IDEs and, if you already have a license for one of these environments, you can skip this chapter, but you will need to arrange the instructions contained in this book according your tool-chain. CooCox³ and System Workbench for STM32⁴ (shortened as SW4STM32) are two free development environments for the STM32 platform. These IDEs are essentially based on Eclipse and GCC. They do a good job trying to provide support for the STM32 family, and they work out of the box in most cases. However, there are several things to consider while evaluating these tools. First of all, CooCox IDE currently supports only Windows; instead, SWSTM32 provides support for Linux and ¹http://bit.ly/1Qxtkql ²http://www.keil.com/arm/mdk.asp ³http://www.coocox.org/ ⁴http://www.openstm32.org/

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MacOS too, but it lacks of some additional features found in the tool-chain described in this book. Moreover, they already come with all needed tools preinstalled and configured. While this could be an advantage if you are totally new to the development process for Cortex-M processors, it can be a strong limitation if you want to do serious work. It is really important to have the full control over the tools needed to develop your firmware, especially when dealing with Open Source software. So, the best choice is to set up a complete tool-chain from scratch. This allows you to become familiar with the programs and their configuration procedures, giving full control over your development environment. This could be annoying especially at the first time, but it is the only way to learn which piece of software is involved in a given development stage. In this chapter I will show the required steps to setup a complete tool-chain for the STM32 platform on Windows, Mac OSX and Linux. The tool-chain is based on two main tools, Eclipse and GCC, plus a series of external tools and Eclipse plug-ins that allow you to build STM32 programs efficiently. Although the instructions are essentially equal for the three platforms, I will adapt them for each OS, showing dedicated screen captures and commands. This will simplify the installation procedure, and will allow you to setup a complete tool-chain in less time. This will also give us the opportunity to study in detail every component of our tool-chain. In the next chapter, I will show you how to setup a minimal application (a blinking LED - the Hello World application in electronics), which will allow us to test our tool-chain.

2.1 Why Choose Eclipse/GCC as Tool-Chain for STM32 Before we start setting up our tool-chain, there is a really common question to answer: which toolchain is the best one to develop applications for the STM32 platform? The question is unfortunately not simple to answer. Probably the best answer is that it depends on the type of application. First of all, the audience should be divided between professionals and hobbyists. Companies often prefer to use commercial IDEs with annual fees that allow to receive technical support. You have to figure out that in business time means money and, sometimes, commercial IDE can reduce the learning curve (especially if you consider that ST gives explicit support to these environments). However, I think that even companies (especially small organizations) can take great advantages in using an open source tool-chain. I think these are the most important reasons to use a Eclipse/GCC tool-chain for embedded development with STM32 MCUs: • It is GCC based: GCC is probably the best compiler on the earth, and it gives excellent results even with ARM based processors. ARM is nowadays the most widespread architecture (thanks to the embedded systems becoming widespread in the recent years), and many hardware and software manufacturers use GCC as the base tool for their platform. • It is cross-platform: if you have a Windows PC, the latest sexy Mac or a Linux server you will be able to successfully develop, compile and upload the firmware on your development board with no difference. Nowadays, this is a mandatory requirement.

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• Eclipse diffusion: a lot of commercial IDEs for STM32 (like TrueSTUDIO and others) are also based on Eclipse, which has become a sort of standard. There are a lot of useful plug-ins for Eclipse that you can download with just one click. And it is a product that evolves day by day. • It is Open Source: ok. I agree. For such giant pieces of software it is really hard to try to understand their internals and modify the code, especially if you are a hardware engineer committed to transistors and interrupts management. But if you get in trouble with your tool, it is simpler to try to understand what goes wrong with an open source tool than a closed one. • Large and growing community: these tools have by now a great international community, which continuously develops new features and fixes bugs. You will find tons of examples and blogs, which can help you during your work. Moreover, many companies, which have adopted this software as official tools, give economical contribution to the main development. This guarantees that the software will not suddenly disappear. • It is free: Yep. I placed this as the last point, but it is not the least. As said before, a commercial IDE can cost a fortune for a small company or a hobbyist/student. And the availability of free tools is one of the key advantages of the STM32 platform.

2.1.1 Two Words About Eclipse… Eclipse⁵ is an Open Source and a free Java based IDE. Despite this fact (unfortunately, Java programs tend to eat a lot of machine resources and to slow down your PC), Eclipse is one of the most widespread and complete development environments. Eclipse comes in several pre-configured versions, customized for specific uses. For example, the Eclipse IDE for Java Developers comes preconfigured to work with Java and with all those tools used in this development platform (Ant, Maven, and so on). In our case, the Eclipse IDE for C/C++ Developers is what fits our need. Eclipse is designed to be expandable thanks to plug-ins. There are several plug-ins available in Eclipse Marketplace really useful for software development for embedded systems. We will install and use most of them in this book. Moreover, Eclipse is highly customizable. I strongly suggest you to take a look at its settings, which allow you to adapt it to your needs and flavor.

2.1.2 … and GCC The GNU Compiler Collection⁶ (GCC) is a complete and widespread compiler suite. It is the only development tool able to compile several programming languages (front-end) to tens of hardware architectures that come in several variants. GCC is a really complex piece of software. It provides several tools to accomplish compilation tasks. These include, in addition to the compiler itself, an assembler, a linker, a debugger (known as GNU Debugger - GDB), several tools for binary files inspection, disassembly and optimization. Moreover, GCC is also equipped with the run-time environment for the C language, customized for the target architecture. ⁵http://www.eclipse.org ⁶http://gcc.gnu.org/

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In recent years, several companies, even in the embedded world, have adopted GCC as their official compiler. For example, ATMEL uses GCC as cross-compiler for its AVR Studio development environment. What Is a Cross-Compiler? We usually refer to term compiler as a tool able to generate machine code for the processor in our PC. A compiler is just a “language translator” from a given programming language (C in our case) to a low-level machine language, also known as assembly. For example, if we are working on Intel x86 machine, we use a compiler to generate x86 assembly code from the C programming language. For the sake of completeness, we have to say that nowadays a compiler is a more complex tool that addresses both the specific target hardware processor and the Operating System we are using (e.g. Windows 7). A cross-platform compiler is a compiler able to generate machine code for a hardware machine different from the one we are using to develop our applications. In our a case, the GCC ARM Embedded compiler generates machine code for Cortex-M processors while compiling on an x86 machine with a given OS (e.g. Windows or Mac OSX).

In the ARM world, GCC is the most used compiler especially due the fact that it is used as main development tool for Linux based Operating Systems for ARM Cortex-A processors (ARM microcontrollers that equip almost every mobile device). ARM engineers actively collaborate to the development of ARM GCC. ST Microelectronics does not provide its development environment, but explicitly supports GCC based tool-chains. For this reason, it is relatively simple to setup a complete and working tool-chain to develop embedded applications with GCC. The next three paragraphs, and their sub-paragraphs, are almost identical. They only differ on those parts specific for the given OS (Windows, Linux or Mac OS). So, jump to the paragraph you are interested in, and skip the remaining ones.

2.2 Windows - Installing the Tool-Chain The whole installation procedure assumes these requirements: • A Windows based PC with sufficient hardware resources (I suggest to have at least 4Gb of RAM and 5Gb of free space on the Hard Disk); the screen captures in this section are based on Windows 7, but the instructions have been tested successfully on Windows XP, 7, 8.1 and the latest Windows 10. • Java 8 Update 60 or later. If you do not have this version, you can download it for free from official Java support page⁷. ⁷http://www.java.com/en/download/manual.jsp

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Choosing a Tool-Chain Folder One interesting feature of Eclipse is that it is not required to be installed in a specific path on the hard disk. This allows the user to decide where to put the whole tool-chain and, if desired, to move it in another place or to copy it on another machine using a thumb drive (this is really useful if you have several machines to maintain). In this book we will assume that the whole tool-chain is installed inside the C:\STM32Toolchain folder on the Hard Disk. You are free to place it elsewhere, but rearrange paths in the instructions accordingly.

2.2.1 Windows - Eclipse Installation The first step is to install the Eclipse IDE. As said before, we are interested in the Eclipse version for C/C++ developers. The latest version at time of writing this chapter (June 2016) is Neon (Eclipse v4.6) and it can be downloaded from the official download page⁸ as shown in Figure 1⁹.

Figure 1: Eclipse download page

Choose the release (32bit or 64bit) for your PC. The Eclipse IDE is distributed as a ZIP archive. Extract the contents of the archive inside the folder C:\STM32Toolchain. At the end of the process you will find the folder C:\STM32Toolchain\eclipse containing the whole IDE. ⁸http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/eclipse-packages/ ⁹Some screen captures may appear different from the ones reported in this book. This happens because the Eclipse IDE is updated frequently. Don’t worry about that: the installation instructions should work in any case.

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Now we can execute for the first time the Eclipse IDE. Go inside the C:\STM32Toolchain\eclipse folder and run the eclipse.exe file. After a while, Eclipse will ask you for the preferred folder where all Eclipse projects are stored (this is called workspace), as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Eclipse workspace setting

You are free to choose the folder you prefer, or leave the suggested one. In this book we will assume that the Eclipse workspace is located inside the C:\STM32Toolchain\projects folder. Arrange the instructions accordingly if you choose another location.

2.2.2 Windows - Eclipse Plug-Ins Installation Once Eclipse is started, we can proceed to install some relevant plug-ins. What Is a Plug-In? A plug-in is an external software module that extends Eclipse functionalities. A plug-in must adhere to a standard API defined by Eclipse developers. In this way, it is possible for third party developers to add features to the IDE without changing the main source code. We will install several plug-ins in this book to adapt Eclipse to our needs.

The first plug-in we need to install is the C/C++ Development Tools SDK, also known as Eclipse CDT, or simply CDT. CDT provides a fully functional C and C++ Integrated Development Environment (IDE) based on the Eclipse platform. Features include: support for project creation and managed build for various tool-chains, standard make build, source navigation, various source knowledge tools, such as type hierarchy, call graph, includes browser, macro definition browser, code editor with syntax highlighting, folding and hyperlink navigation, source code refactoring and code generation, visual debugging tools, including memory, registers, and disassembly viewers. To install CDT we have to follow this procedure. Go to Help->Install new software… as shown in Figure 3.

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Figure 3: Eclipse plug-in install menu

In the plug-ins install window, we need to enable other plug-in repositories by clicking on Available software Sites link. In the Preferences window, select the “Install/Update->Available Software Sites” entry on the left and then check “CDT ” entry as shown in Figure 4. Click on the OK button.

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Figure 4: Eclipse plug-in repository selection

Now, from “work with” drop-down menu choose “CDT ” repository, as shown in Figure 5, and then select “CDT Main Features->C/C++ Development Tools SDK” as shown in Figure 6. Click on “Next” button and follow the instructions to install the plug-in. At the end of installation process (the installation takes a while depending your Internet connection speed), restart Eclipse when requested.

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Figure 5: CDT repository selection

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Figure 6: CDT plug-in selection

Now we have to install the GNU ARM plug-ins for Eclipse¹⁰. These plug-ins add a rich set of features to Eclipse CDT to interface the GCC ARM tool-chain. Moreover, they provide specific functionalities for the STM32 platform. Plug-ins are developed and maintained by Liviu Ionescu, who did a really excellent work in providing support for the GCC ARM tool-chain. Without these plug-ins it is almost impossible to develop and run code with Eclipse for the STM32 platform. To install GCC ARM plugins go to Help->Install New Software… and click on the “Add…” button. Fill the text fields in the following way (see Figure 7): Name: GNU ARM Eclipse Plug-ins Location: http://gnuarmeclipse.sourceforge.net/updates and click the “OK” button. After a while, the complete list of available plug-ins will be shown. Select plug-ins to install as shown in Figure 8. ¹⁰http://gnuarmeclipse.github.io/

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Figure 7: GNU ARM plug-ins repository configuration

Figure 8: GNU ARM plug-ins selection

Click on “Next” button and follow the instructions to install the plug-ins. At the end of installation process, restart Eclipse when requested. Eclipse is now essentially configured to start developing STM32 applications. We will install additional plug-ins later, in a subsequent chapter dedicated to debugging. Now we need the crosscompiler suite to generate the firmware for the STM32 family.

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2.2.3 Windows - GCC ARM Embedded Installation The next step in tool-chain configuration is installing the GCC suite for ARM Cortex-M and Cortex-R microcontrollers. This is a set of tools (macro preprocessor, compiler, assembler, linker and debugger) designed to cross-compile the code we will create for the STM32 platform. The latest release of ARM GCC can be downloaded from launchpad¹¹. At the time of writing this chapter, the latest available version is 5.3. The Windows Installer can be downloaded from the download section¹². The right filename ends with -win32.exe (for example, at the time of writing this chapter the file is named gcc-arm-none-eabi-5_3-2016q1-20160330-win32.exe¹³). Once download is complete, run the installer. When the installer asks for the destination folder, choose C:\STM32Toolchain\gcc-arm and then click on “Install” button, as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: Selection of GCC destination folder

The installer, by default, suggests a destination folder that is related to the GCC version we are going to install (5.3 2016q1). This is not convenient, because when GCC is updated to a newer version we need to change settings for each Eclipse project we have made.

Once the installation is complete, the installer will show us a form with four different checkboxes. If only one GCC is installed on your system, or you do not know, check the entry Add path to environment variable and Add registry information (two checked boxes), as shown in Figure 10. ¹¹http://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded ¹²http://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download ¹³http://bit.ly/28RQ3yc

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Figure 10: Final GCC install options

If you have multiple copies of GCC installed in your system, then I suggest to leave that two options unchecked, and to handle the PATH environment variable using Eclipse. Refer to the Troubleshooting Appendix (paragraph named “Eclipse cannot locate the compiler”) where it is explained how to configure GCC paths in Eclipse.

2.2.4 Windows – Build Tools Installation Windows historically lacks some tools that are a must in the UNIX world. One of these is make, the tool that controls the compilation process of programs written in C/C++. If you have already installed a product like MinGW or similar (and it is configured in your PATH environment correctly), you can skip this process. If not, you can install the Build Tools package made by the same author of GCC ARM plug-ins for Eclipse. You can download setup program from here¹⁴. Choose the version that fits your OS release (32 or 64 bit). At the time of writing this chapter, the last available version is 2.6. When asked, install the tools in this folder: C:\STM32Toolchain\Build Tools. Restart Eclipse if it is already running.

2.2.5 Windows – OpenOCD Installation OpenOCD¹⁵ is a tool that allows to upload the firmware on the Nucleo board and to do the stepby-step debugging. OpenOCD is a tool that originally started by Dominic Rath, and now actively maintained by the community and several companies, including ST. We will discuss it in depth in Chapter 5, which is dedicated to the debugging. But we will install it in this chapter, because the procedure changes between the three different platforms (Windows, Linux and Mac OS). Compiling a tool like OpenOCD, expressly designed to be compiled on UNIX like systems, is not a trivial task. It requires a complete UNIX C tool-chain like MinGW or Cygwin. Luckily, someone has ¹⁴http://bit.ly/1MGv9ly ¹⁵http://openocd.org/

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already done the dirty job for us. You can download the latest OpenOCD (0.9 at the of writing this chapter) from the Freddie Chopin blog¹⁶. The package is a 7-zip archive, so you will need to install the 7-zip utility¹⁷ before you can extract it. Extract the OpenOCD package inside the C:\STM32Toolchain folder. Once completed, rename the OpenOCD folder from C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd-0.9.0 to simply C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd Once again, this ensures us that we should not change Eclipse settings when a new release of OpenOCD will be released, but we only need to replace the content inside C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd folder with the new software release.

2.2.6 Windows – ST Tools Installation ST provides several tools that are useful for developing STM32 based applications. We will install them in this chapter, and we will discuss their use later in this book. STM32CubeMX is a graphical tool used to generate setup files in C programming language for an STM32 MCU, according the hardware configuration of our board. For example, if we have the Nucleo-F401RE, which is based on the STM32F401RE MCU, and we want to use its user LED (marked as LD2 on the board), then STM32CubeMX will automatically generate all source files containing the C code required to configure the MCU (clock, peripheral ports, and so on) and the GPIO connected to the LED (port GPIO 5 on port A on almost all Nucleo boards). You can download STM32CubeMX from the official ST website¹⁸¹⁹ (the download link is at the bottom of the page), and follow the installation instructions. Another useful tool is the ST-LINK Utility²⁰. It is a software that downloads firmware on the MCU using the ST-LINK interface of our Nucleo, or a dedicated ST-LINK programmer. We will use it in the next chapter. You can download ST-LINK Utility from the official ST page²¹ (the download link is at the bottom of the page), and follow the installation instructions.

2.2.7 Windows - Nucleo Drivers Installation Before we can use our Nucleo board, we need to install device drivers for the ST-LINK interface. Warning Before installing drivers, make sure the Nucleo board is not connected to a computer! ¹⁶http://bit.ly/1Re4wDT ¹⁷http://www.7-zip.org/ ¹⁸http://bit.ly/1RLCa4G ¹⁹To download the software, you need to register to the ST website providing a valid email. ²⁰http://www.st.com/web/en/catalog/tools/PF258168 ²¹http://www.st.com/web/en/catalog/tools/PF258168

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It is important to note that the Nucleo board provides a more recent hardware release of the ST-LINK debugger, which is different from the commercial ST-LINK programmer: the 2.1 version. This means that you have to update your Windows drivers even if you already have an ST-LINK programmer. You can download the latest drivers from the ST web site²². Drivers come as ZIP file. Extract the file in a convenient place. You will find two files inside the package: dpinst_x86 and dpinst_amd64. Choose the first one if your PC (and OS) is 32bit, the second one if it is 64bit.

Figure 11: Two new devices appears once ST-LINK drivers are installed

Install the drivers and check that everything works correctly. When you connect your board to the PC, you should see two new devices inside the Windows Device Manager (Figure 11): the STLink Virtual COM Port under Ports entry, and the STLink dongle under USB devices. If everything works correctly, you can go to the next step. 2.2.7.1 Windows – ST-LINK Firmware Upgrade Warning Read this paragraph carefully. Do not skip this step!

I bought several Nucleo boards and I saw that all boards come with an old ST-LINK firmware. In order to use the Nucleo with OpenOCD, the firmware must be updated at least to the 2.27.15 version. ²²http://bit.ly/1PwwHiS

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Once the ST-LINK drivers are installed, we can download the latest ST-LINK firmware update from ST website²³. The firmware is distributed as ZIP file. Extract it in a convenient place. Connect your Nucleo board using a USB cable and go inside the Windows sub-folder and execute the file ST-LINKUpgrade. Click on Device Connect button.

Figure 12: The ST-LINK Upgrade program

After a while, ST-LINK Upgrade will show if your Nucleo firmware needs to be updated (pointing out a different version, as shown in Figure 12). If so, click on Yes >>>> button and follow the instructions. Congratulation. The tool-chain is now complete, and you can jump to the next chapter.

2.3 Linux - Installing the Tool-Chain The whole installation procedure will assume these requirements: • A PC running Ubuntu Linux 14.04 LTS Desktop (aka Trusty Tahr) with sufficient hardware resources (I suggest to have at least 4Gb of RAM and 5Gb of free space on the Hard Disk); the instructions should be easily arranged for other Linux distributions. • Java 8 Update 60 or later. Read the next paragraph dedicated for Java installation if it is not installed yet. ²³http://bit.ly/1RLDp3H

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Choosing a Tool-Chain Folder One interesting feature of Eclipse is that it is not required to be installed in a specific path on the Hard Disk. This allows the user to decide where to put the whole tool-chain and, if desired, to move it in another place or to copy it on another machine (this is really useful if you have several Linux machines to maintain). In this book we will assume that the whole tool-chain is installed inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain folder on the Hard Disk (that is, a STM32Toolchain directory inside your Home folder). You are free to place it elsewhere, but rearrange paths in the instructions accordingly.

2.3.1 Linux - Install i386 Run-Time Libraries on a 64-bit Ubuntu If your Ubuntu is a 64-bit release, then you need to install some compatibility libraries that allow to run 32-bit applications. To do so, simply run the following commands at Linux console: $ sudo dpkg –add-architecture i386 $ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install libc6:i386 libncurses5:i386 libstdc++6:i386

If in doubt about your Ubuntu release, then you can run the following command at Linux console: $ uname -i

If the result is x86_64, then you have a 64-bit machine, otherwise a 32-bit one.

2.3.2 Linux - Java Installation Java 8 installation under Ubuntu Linux requires an in-depth analysis. It is strongly suggested to install the official Oracle distribution of Java, as shown here. First we need to add webupd8team Java PPA repository in our system and install Oracle Java 8 using following set of commands at Linux console: $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java $ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer

After successfully installing the JDK, check that all works well running the java -version command at command line:

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Setting-Up the Tool-Chain $ java -version java version "1.8.0_60" Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_60-b27) Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.60-b23, mixed mode)

2.3.3 Linux - Eclipse Installation The next step is to install the Eclipse IDE. As said before, we are interested in the Eclipse version for C/C++ developers. The latest version at time of writing this chapter (June 2016) is Neon (Eclipse v4.6) and it can be downloaded from the official download page²⁴ as shown in Figure 13²⁵.

Figure 13: Eclipse download page

The Eclipse IDE is distributed as a .tar.gz archive. Extract the content of the archive asis inside the folder ∼/STM32Toolchain. At the end of the process you will find the folder ²⁴http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/eclipse-packages/ ²⁵Some screen captures may appear different from the ones reported in this book. This happens because the Eclipse IDE is updated frequently. Don’t worry about that: the installation instructions should work in any case.

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∼/STM32Toolchain/eclipse containing the whole IDE. Now we can execute for the first time the Eclipse IDE. Go inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/eclipse folder and run the eclipse file. After a while, Eclipse will ask you for the preferred folder where all Eclipse projects are stored (this is called workspace), as shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14: Eclipse workspace setting

You are free to choose the folder you prefer, or leave the suggested one. In this book we will assume that the Eclipse workspace is located inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/projects folder. Arrange the instructions accordingly if you choose another location.

2.3.4 Linux - Eclipse Plug-Ins Installation Once Eclipse is started, we can proceed to install some relevant plug-ins. What Is a Plug-In? A plug-in is an external software module that extends Eclipse functionalities. A plug-in must adhere to a standard API defined by Eclipse developers. In this way, it is possible for third party developers to add features to the IDE without changing the main source code. We will install several plug-ins in this book to adapt Eclipse to our needs.

The first plug-in we need to install is the C/C++ Development Tools SDK, also known as Eclipse CDT. CDT provides a fully functional C and C++ Integrated Development Environment based on Eclipse platform. Features include: support for project creation and managed build for various tool-chains, standard make build, source navigation, various source knowledge tools, such as type hierarchy, call graph, include browser, macro definition browser, code editor with syntax highlighting, folding and hyperlink navigation, source code refactoring and code generation, visual debugging tools, including memory, registers, and disassembly viewers. To install CDT we have to follow this procedure. Go to Help->Install new software… as shown in Figure 15.

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Figure 15: Eclipse plug-in install menu

In the plug-ins install window, we need to enable other plug-in repositories clicking on Available software Sites link. In the Preferences window, select the “Install/Update->Available Software Sites” entry on the left and then check “CDT ” entry as shown in Figure 16. Click on the OK button.

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Figure 16: Eclipse plug-in repository selection

Now, from “work with” drop-down menu choose “CDT ” repository, as shown in Figure 17, and then select “CDT Main Features->C/C++ Development Tools SDK” as shown in Figure 18. Click on “Next” button and follow the instructions to install the plug-in. At the end of installation process (the installation takes a while depending your Internet connection speed), restart Eclipse when requested.

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Figure 17: CDT repository selection

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Figure 18: CDT plug-in selection

Now we have to install the GNU ARM plug-ins for Eclipse²⁶. These plug-ins add a rich set of features to Eclipse CDT to interface GCC ARM tool-chain. Moreover, they provide specific functionalities for the STM32 platform. Plug-ins are developed and maintained by Liviu Ionescu, who did a really excellent work in providing support for the GCC ARM tool-chain. Without these plug-ins it is almost impossible to develop and run code with Eclipse for the STM32 platform. To install GCC ARM plugins go to Help->Install New Software… and click on the “Add…” button. Fill the text fields in the following way (see Figure 19): Name: GNU ARM Eclipse Plug-ins Location: http://gnuarmeclipse.sourceforge.net/updates and click the “OK” button. After a while, the complete list of available plug-ins will be shown. Select plug-ins to install as shown in Figure 20. ²⁶http://gnuarmeclipse.github.io/

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Figure 19: GNU ARM plug-ins repository configuration

Figure 20: GNU ARM plug-ins selection

Click on “Next” button and follow the instructions to install the plug-ins. At the end of installation process, restart Eclipse when requested. Eclipse is now essentially configured to start developing STM32 applications. We will install additional plug-ins later, in a subsequent chapter dedicated to debugging. Now we need the cross-

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compiler suite to generate the firmware for the STM32 family.

2.3.5 Linux - GCC ARM Embedded Installation The next step in tool-chain configuration is installing the GCC suite for ARM Cortex-M and Cortex-R microcontrollers. This is a set of tools (macro preprocessor, compiler, assembler, linker and debugger) designed to cross-compile the code we will create for the STM32 platform. The latest release of ARM GCC can be downloaded from launchpad²⁷. At the time of writing this chapter, the latest available version is the 5.3. The Linux tarball can be downloaded from the download section²⁸. The right filename is gcc-arm-none-eabi-5_3-2016q1-20160330-linux.tar.bz2²⁹. Once download is complete, extract the .tar.bz2 package inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain The extracted folder, by default, is named gcc-arm-none-eabi-5_2-2015q4 . This is not convenient, because when GCC is updated to a newer version we need to change settings for each Eclipse project we have made. So, rename it to simply gcc-arm.

2.3.6 Linux - Nucleo Drivers Installation Warning Read this paragraph carefully. Do not skip this step!

On Linux, we do not need to install Nucleo drivers from ST, but we need to install libusb-1.0 with the following command: $ sudo apt-get install libusb-1.0

2.3.6.1 Linux – ST-LINK Firmware Upgrade Warning Read this paragraph carefully. Do not skip this step!

I bought several Nucleo boards and I saw that all boards come with an old ST-LINK firmware. In order to use the Nucleo with OpenOCD, the firmware must be updated at least to the 2.27.15 version. ²⁷http://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded ²⁸http://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download ²⁹http://bit.ly/28RPXqt

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We can download the latest ST-LINK drivers from ST website³⁰. The firmware is distributed as ZIP file. Extract it in a convenient place. Connect your Nucleo board using a USB cable and go inside the AllPlatforms subfolder and execute the file STLinkUpgrade.jar. Click on Open in update mode button (see Figure 21).

Figure 21: The ST-LINK Upgrade program

After a while, ST-LINK Upgrade will show if your Nucleo firmware needs to be updated (it shows different versions). If so, click on Upgrade button and follow the instructions.

2.3.7 Linux – OpenOCD Installation OpenOCD³¹ is a tool that allows to upload the firmware on the Nucleo board and to do the stepby-step debugging. OpenOCD is a tool that originally started by Dominic Rath, and now actively maintained by the community and several companies, including ST. We will discuss it in depth in chapter 5, which is dedicated to the debugging. But we will install it in this chapter, because the install procedure changes between the three different platforms (Windows, Linux and Mac OS). It is easy to compile OpenOCD under Linux, but we will need some additional configuration steps to get ST-LINK interface to work. First of all, we can download the latest official OpenOCD release (0.9 at the of writing this chapter) from sourceforge.net³². The file comes as .tar.bz2 package. Let us unpack it with the following command: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain $ tar -xvjf ~/Downloads/openocd-0.9.0-tar.bz2

When completed, rename the OpenOCD folder from ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd-0.9.0 to simply ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd ³⁰http://bit.ly/1RLDp3H ³¹http://openocd.org/ ³²http://sourceforge.net/projects/openocd/files/latest/download?source=files

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$ mv openocd-0.9.0 openocd

Once again, this ensures us that we should not change Eclipse settings when a new release of OpenOCD will be released, but we only need to replace the content of ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd folder with the new software release.

Now we can compile OpenOCD with the following command: $ cd openocd $ ./configure --enable-stlink ... $ make -j4 ...

Now we need one more step. By default, Linux does not not allow unprivileged users to access an USB device using libusb. So, to start a connection between OpenOCD and the ST-LINK interface, we need to run OpenOCD with root privileges. This not convenient, because we will have troubles with the Eclipse configuration. So, we have to configure the Universal DEVice manager (aka udev) to grant access to unprivileged users to ST-LINK interface. To do so, let us create a file named stlink.rules inside the /etc/udev/rules.d directory and add this line inside it: SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTRS{idVendor}=="0483", MODE:="0666"

Save the file and restart udev service in the following way: $ sudo service udev restart

Now we are ready to test our Nucleo board. Plug it in your PC using USB cable. After a few seconds, type the following commands: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain/openocd/tcl $ ../src/openocd -f board/.cfg

where .cfg must be substituted with the config file that fits your Nucleo board, according Table 1. For example, if your Nucleo is the Nucleo-F401RE, then the proper config file to pass to OpenOCD is st_nucleo_f4.cfg.

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Table 1: Corresponding OpenOCD board file for a given Nucleo

Nucleo P/N

OpenOCD 0.9.0 board script file

NUCLEO-F446RE NUCLEO-F411RE NUCLEO-F410RB NUCLEO-F401RE NUCLEO-F334R8 NUCLEO-F303RE NUCLEO-F302R8 NUCLEO-F103RB NUCLEO-F091RC NUCLEO-F072RB NUCLEO-F070RB NUCLEO-F030R8 NUCLEO-L476RG NUCLEO-L152RE NUCLEO-L073RZ NUCLEO-L053R8

st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg stm32f334discovery.cfg st_nucleo_f3.cfg st_nucleo_f3.cfg st_nucleo_f103rb.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_l1.cfg stm32l0discovery.cfg stm32l0discovery.cfg

If everything went the right way, you should see these messages on the console: Open On-Chip Debugger 0.9.0 (2015-09-09-16:32) Licensed under GNU GPL v2 For bug reports, read http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html Info : The selected transport took over low-level target control. The results might differ\ compared to plain JTAG/SWD adapter speed: 2000 kHz adapter_nsrst_delay: 100 none separate srst_only separate srst_nogate srst_open_drain connect_deassert_srst Info : Unable to match requested speed 2000 kHz, using 1800 kHz Info : clock speed 1800 kHz Info : STLINK v2 JTAG v24 API v2 SWIM v11 VID 0x0483 PID 0x374B Info : using stlink api v2 Info : Target voltage: 3.245850 Info : stm32f4x.cpu: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints

At the same time, the LED LD1 on the Nucleo board should start blinking GREEN and RED alternatively.

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2.3.8 Linux – STM32CubeMX Tool Installation ST provides several tools that are useful for developing STM32 based applications. However, only one of them is developed using Java, allowing to execute it on Linux. STM32CubeMX is a graphical tool used to generate setup files in C programming language for an STM32 MCU, according the hardware configuration of our board. For example, if we have the Nucleo-F401RE, which is based on the STM32F401RE MCU, and we want to use its user LED (marked as LD2 on the board), then STM32CubeMX will automatically generate all source files containing the C code required to configure the MCU (clock, peripheral ports, and so on) and the GPIO connected to the LED (port GPIO 5 on port A on almost all Nucleo boards). You can download the latest version of STM32CubeMX (currently, the 4.14) from the official ST page³³ (the download link is at the bottom of the page). The file is a ZIP archive. Once extracted, you will find a file named SetupSTM32CubeMX4.14.0.linux. This file is the setup program to install the tool. The setup program needs root privileges if you want to install STM32CubeMX system wide (if this case, open the file at command prompt using the sudo), otherwise you can simply place it inside the ∼/STMToolchain folder in your home folder. We are going to install it in our home directory. So, double click on the SetupSTM32CubeMX-4.14.0.linux icon. After a while, the setup wizard will appear, as shown in Figure 22.

Figure 22: STM32CubeMX install wizard

Follow the setup instructions. By default, installing the program in ∼/STM32Toolchain/STM32CubeMX folder. Once setup is completed, go inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/STM32CubeMX folder and double ³³http://bit.ly/1RLCa4G

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click on the STM32CubeMX icon. After a while, STM32CubeMX will appear on the screen, as shown in Figure 23.

Figure 23: STM32CubeMX interface

2.3.9 Linux – QSTLink2 Installation Another useful tool provided by ST is the ST-LINK Utility tool, but unfortunately it works only on Windows based systems. This program allows you to upload firmware binary on the target MCU, and we will use it in the next chapter. However, there is a good alternative for Linux: QSTLink2³⁴ by Fabien Poussin. The tool is also available as Ubuntu package. To install it, we need to add its PPA repository to our Ubuntu configuration, with the following commands: $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:fpoussin/ppa $ sudo apt-get update

Once completed, we can install it in the following way: ³⁴http://github.com/fpoussin/qstlink2

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Setting-Up the Tool-Chain $ sudo apt-get install qstlink2

To test if it works well, launch the program with the following command: $ qstlink2

Then connect your Nucleo to the USB port of your PC and click on “Connect” button. If all works well, the program should show the type of MCU that equips your Nucleo board, as shown in Figure 24

Figure 24: QSTLink2 interface

Congratulation. The tool-chain is now complete, and you can jump to the next chapter.

2.4 Mac - Installing the Tool-Chain The whole installation procedure will assume these requirements: • A Mac running Mac OSX 10.9 (aka Mavericks) or higher with sufficient hardware resources (I suggest to have at least 4Gb of RAM and 5Gb of free space on the Hard Disk); the instructions are based on Mac OSX 10.9, but they work well also on Mac OSX 10.7. • You have already installed the Xcode release that fits your Mac OSX version (you can download it using the App Store) and its corresponding command line tools. You will find several tutorials on the web describing how to install Xcode and command line tools if you are completely new to this topic.

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• You have already installed MacPorts³⁵ and upgraded it issuing the command sudo port selfupdate at terminal command line. You are free to use another package manager for Mac OSX, but arrange following instructions accordingly. • Java 8 Update 60 or later. If you do not have this version, you can download it for free from official Java support page³⁶.

Choosing a Tool-Chain Folder One interesting feature of Eclipse is that it is not required to be installed in a specific path on the Hard Disk. This allows the user to decide where to put the whole tool-chain and, if desired, to move it in another place or to copy it on another machine (this is really useful if you have several Mac to maintain). In this book we will assume that the whole tool-chain is installed inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain folder on the Hard Disk (that is, a STM32Toolchain directory inside your Home folder). You are free to place it elsewhere, but rearrange paths in the instructions accordingly.

2.4.1 Mac - Eclipse Installation The first step is to install the Eclipse IDE. As said before, we are interested in the Eclipse version for C/C++ developers. The latest version at time of writing this chapter (June 2016) is Neon (Eclipse v4.6) and it can be downloaded from the official download page³⁷ as shown in Figure 25³⁸. ³⁵http://www.macports.org/ ³⁶http://www.java.com/en/download/manual.jsp ³⁷http://www.eclipse.org/downloads/eclipse-packages/ ³⁸Some screen captures may appear different from the ones reported in this book. This happens because the Eclipse IDE is updated frequently. Don’t worry about that: the installation instructions should work in any case.

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Figure 25: Eclipse download page

The Eclipse IDE is distributed as a ZIP archive. Extract the content of the archive as-is inside the folder ∼/STM32Toolchain. At the end of the process you will find the folder ∼/STM32Toolchain/eclipse containing the whole IDE. Now we can execute for the first time the Eclipse IDE. Go inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/eclipse folder and run the Eclipse file. After a while, Eclipse will ask you for the preferred folder where all Eclipse projects are stored (this is called workspace), as shown in Figure 26.

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Figure 26: Eclipse workspace setting

You are free to choose the folder you prefer, or leave the suggested one. In this book we will assume that the Eclipse workspace is located inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/projects folder. Arrange the instructions accordingly if you choose another location.

2.4.2 Mac - Eclipse Plug-Ins Installation Once Eclipse is started, we can proceed to install some relevant plug-ins. What is a Plug-In? A plug-in is an external software module that extends Eclipse functionalities. A plug-in must adhere to a standard API defined by Eclipse developers. In this way, it is possible for third party developers to add features to the IDE without changing the main source code. We will install several plug-ins in this book to adapt Eclipse to our needs.

The first plug-in we need to install is the C/C++ Development Tools SDK, also known as Eclipse CDT. CDT provides a fully functional C and C++ Integrated Development Environment based on Eclipse platform. Features include: support for project creation and managed build for various tool-chains, standard make build, source navigation, various source knowledge tools, such as type hierarchy, call graph, include browser, macro definition browser, code editor with syntax highlighting, folding and hyperlink navigation, source code refactoring and code generation, visual debugging tools, including memory, registers, and disassembly viewers. To install CDT we have to follow this procedure. Go to Help->Install new software….

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Figure 26: Eclipse plug-in repository selection

In the plug-ins install window, we need to enable other plug-in repositories clicking on Available software Sites link. In the Preferences window, select the “Install/Update->Available Software Sites” entry on the left and then check “CDT ” entry as shown in Figure 26. Click on the OK button. Now, from “work with” drop-down menu choose “CDT ” repository, as shown in Figure 27, and then select “CDT Main Features->C/C++ Development Tools SDK” as shown in Figure 28. Click on “Next” button and follow the instructions to install the plug-in. At the end of installation process (the installation takes a while depending your Internet connection speed), restart Eclipse when requested.

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Figure 27: CDT repository selection

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Figure 28: CDT plug-in selection

Now we have to install the GNU ARM plug-ins for Eclipse³⁹. These plug-ins add a rich set of features to Eclipse CDT to interface GCC ARM tool-chain. Moreover, they provide specific functionalities for the STM32 platform. Plug-ins are developed and maintained by Liviu Ionescu, who did a really excellent work in providing support for the GCC ARM tool-chain. Without these plug-ins it is almost impossible to develop and run code with Eclipse for the STM32 platform. To install GCC ARM plugins go to Help->Install New Software… and click on the “Add…” button. Fill the text fields in the following way: Name: GNU ARM Eclipse Plug-ins Location: http://gnuarmeclipse.sourceforge.net/updates and click the “OK” button. After a while, the complete list of available plug-ins will be shown. Select plug-ins to install as shown in Figure 29. ³⁹http://gnuarmeclipse.github.io/

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Figure 29: GNU ARM plug-ins selection

Click on “Next” button and follow the instructions to install the plug-ins. At the end of installation process, restart Eclipse when requested. Eclipse is now essentially configured to start developing STM32 applications. We will install additional plug-ins later, in a subsequent chapter dedicated to debugging. Now we need the crosscompiler suite to generate the firmware for the STM32 family.

2.4.3 Mac - GCC ARM Embedded Installation The next step in tool-chain configuration is installing the GCC suite for ARM Cortex-M and Cortex-R microcontrollers. This is a set of tools (macro preprocessor, compiler, assembler, linker and debugger) designed to cross-compile the code we will create for the STM32 platform. The latest release of ARM GCC can be downloaded from launchpad⁴⁰. At the time of writing this chapter, the latest available version is the 5.3. The Mac tarball can be downloaded from the download ⁴⁰http://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded

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section⁴¹. The right filename is gcc-arm-none-eabi-5_3-2016q1-20160330-mac.tar.bz2⁴². Once download is complete, extract the .tar.bz2 package inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain The extracted folder, by default, is named gcc-arm-none-eabi-5_2-2015q4 . This is not convenient, because when GCC is updated to a newer version we need to change settings for each Eclipse project we have made. So, rename it to simply gcc-arm.

2.4.4 Mac - Nucleo Drivers Installation Warning Read this paragraph carefully. Do not skip this step!

On Mac, we do not need to install Nucleo drivers from ST, but we need to install libusb-1.0 with the following command: $ sudo port install libtool libusb [libusb-compat] [libftdi1]

2.4.4.1 Mac – ST-LINK Firmware Upgrade Warning Read this paragraph carefully. Do not skip this step!

I have bought several Nucleo boards and I saw that all boards come with an old ST-LINK firmware. In order to use the Nucleo with OpenOCD, the firmware must be updated at least to the 2.27.15 version. Once the ST-LINK drivers are installed, we can download the latest ST-LINK drivers from ST website⁴³. The firmware is distributed as ZIP file. Extract it in a convenient place. Connect your Nucleo board using a USB cable and go inside the AllPlatforms subfolder and execute the file STLinkUpgrade.jar. Click on Open in update mode button. ⁴¹http://launchpad.net/gcc-arm-embedded/+download ⁴²http://bit.ly/28RPLHA ⁴³http://bit.ly/1RLDp3H

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Figure 30: The ST-LINK Upgrade program

After a while, ST-LINK Upgrade will show if your Nucleo firmware needs to be updated (pointing out a different version, as shown in Figure 30). If so, click on Upgrade button and follow the instructions.

2.4.5 Mac – OpenOCD Installation OpenOCD⁴⁴ is a tool that allows to upload the firmware on the Nucleo board and to do the stepby-step debugging. OpenOCD is a tool that originally started by Dominic Rath, and now actively maintained by the community and several companies, including ST. We will discuss it in depth in chapter 5, which is dedicated to the debugging. But we will install it in this chapter, because the install procedure changes between the three different platforms (Windows, Linux and Mac OS). The best option to install OpenOCD on Mac OSX is to compile it from sources. Before to do this, we need to install some libraries and tools needed to compile it. So, at terminal command line, type this commands: $ sudo port install automake autoconf pkgconfig

Now we can compile OpenOCD. First of all, we have to download the latest official OpenOCD release (0.9 at the of writing this chapter) from sourceforge.net⁴⁵. The file comes as .tar.bz2 package. Let us unpack it with the following command: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain $ tar -xvjf ~/Downloads/openocd-0.9.0-tar.bz2

When completed, rename the OpenOCD folder from ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd-0.9.0 to simply ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd ⁴⁴http://openocd.org/ ⁴⁵http://sourceforge.net/projects/openocd/files/latest/download?source=files

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Setting-Up the Tool-Chain $ mv openocd-0.9.0 openocd

Once again, this ensures us that we will not change Eclipse settings when a new release of OpenOCD will be released, but we will only need to replace the ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd with the new software release.

Now we can compile OpenOCD with the following command: $ cd openocd $ LDFLAGS=-L/opt/local/lib CPPFLAGS=-I/opt/local/include ./configure --enable-stlink ... $ make -j4 ...

Ok. We are ready to test our Nucleo board. Plug it in your Mac using USB cable. After a few seconds, type the following commands: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain/openocd/tcl $ ../src/openocd -f board/.cfg

where .cfg must be substituted with the config file that fits your Nucleo board, according Table 1. For example, if your Nucleo is the Nucleo-F401RE, then the proper config file to pass to OpenOCD is st_nucleo_f4.cfg. Table 1: Corresponding OpenOCD board file for a given Nucleo

Nucleo P/N

OpenOCD 0.9.0 board script file

NUCLEO-F446RE NUCLEO-F411RE NUCLEO-F410RB NUCLEO-F401RE NUCLEO-F334R8 NUCLEO-F303RE NUCLEO-F302R8 NUCLEO-F103RB NUCLEO-F091RC NUCLEO-F072RB NUCLEO-F070RB NUCLEO-F030R8 NUCLEO-L476RG NUCLEO-L152RE NUCLEO-L073RZ NUCLEO-L053R8

st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg stm32f334discovery.cfg st_nucleo_f3.cfg st_nucleo_f3.cfg st_nucleo_f103rb.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_l1.cfg stm32l0discovery.cfg stm32l0discovery.cfg

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If everything went the right way, you should see these messages on the console: Open On-Chip Debugger 0.9.0 (2015-09-09-16:32) Licensed under GNU GPL v2 For bug reports, read http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html Info : The selected transport took over low-level target control. The results might differ\ compared to plain JTAG/SWD adapter speed: 2000 kHz adapter_nsrst_delay: 100 none separate srst_only separate srst_nogate srst_open_drain connect_deassert_srst Info : Unable to match requested speed 2000 kHz, using 1800 kHz Info : clock speed 1800 kHz Info : STLINK v2 JTAG v24 API v2 SWIM v11 VID 0x0483 PID 0x374B Info : using stlink api v2 Info : Target voltage: 3.245850 Info : stm32f4x.cpu: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints

At the same time, the LED LD1 on the Nucleo board should start blinking GREEN and RED alternatively.

2.4.6 Mac STM32CubeMX Tool Installation ST provides several tools that are useful for developing STM32 based applications. However, only one of them is developed using Java, allowing to execute it on Mac. STM32CubeMX is a graphical tool used to generate setup files in C programming language for an STM32 MCU, according the hardware configuration of our board. For example, if we have the Nucleo-F401RE, which is based on the STM32F401RE MCU, and we want to use its user LED (marked as LD2 on the board), then STM32CubeMX will automatically generate all source files containing the C code required to configure the MCU (clock, peripheral ports, and so on) and the GPIO connected to the LED (port GPIO 5 on port A on almost all Nucleo boards). You can download the latest version of STM32CubeMX (currently, the 4.14) from the official ST page⁴⁶ (the download link is at the bottom of the page). The file is a ZIP archive. Once extracted, you will find a file named SetupSTM32CubeMX-4_14_0_macos. This file is the setup program to install the tool. The setup program may need root privileges if you want to install STM32CubeMX system wide. So, double click on the SetupSTM32CubeMX-4_14_0_macos icon. After a while, the setup wizard will appear, as shown in Figure 30. ⁴⁶http://bit.ly/1RLCa4G

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Figure 30: STM32CubeMX install wizard

Follow the setup instructions. By default, the program is installed in /Applications/STMicroelectronics. Once setup is completed, open the Finder and go inside the /Applications/STMicroelectronics folder and double click on the STM32CubeMX.app icon. After a while, STM32CubeMX will appear on the screen, as shown in Figure 31.

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Figure 31: STM32CubeMX install wizard

Congratulation. The tool-chain is now complete, and you can jump to the next chapter.

2.4.7 Mac - stlink by texane Installation Another useful tool provided by ST is the ST-LINK Utility tool, but unfortunately it works only on Windows based system. This program allows you to upload firmware binary on the target MCU, and we will use it in the next chapter. However, there is an alternative for Mac: stlink⁴⁷ by texane. This is a set of command line tools that allow to flash, inspect and debug the firmware on the target MCU of your Nucleo board. stlink comes as source package, so we need to compile it. Recent releases of stlink are packaged using cmake, a tool used to drive the compilation process and that should not be confused with ⁴⁷http://github.com/texane/stlink

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the traditional make tool available in all UNIX-like systems. You can install cmake both by using MacPorts⁴⁸ or Homebrew⁴⁹ or by downloading it from the official repository⁵⁰. Once cmake is installed, we have to checkout the latest version of the stlink tool from github. We can do this with the following command: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain $ git clone http://github.com/texane/stlink

Then, we can compile it with the following commands: $ $ $ $ $

cd stlink mkdir build cd build cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug .. make

To test if it works well, connect your Nucleo to the USB of your Mac and type this command: $ ./st-info --descr F4 device (Dynamic Efficency)

If all went well, the st-info command should print a string that identifies the target MCU of our Nucleo. To install st-link as a systemwide utility, you can type the following command (without abandoning the stlink/build directory): $ sudo make install

Congratulations. The tool-chain is now complete, and you can jump to the next chapter. ⁴⁸http://www.macports.org/ ⁴⁹http://brew.sh/ ⁵⁰http://cmake.org/download/

3. Hello, Nucleo! There is no programming book that does not begin with the classic “Hello world!” program. And this book will follow the tradition. In the previous chapter we have configured the development environment needed to program STM32 based boards. So, we are now ready to start coding. In this chapter we will create a really basic program: a blinking LED. We will use the GNU ARM Eclipse plug-in to create a complete application in a few steps without dealing, in this phase, with aspects related to the ST Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL). I am aware that not all details presented in this chapter will be clear from the beginning, especially if you are totally new to embedded programming. However, this first example will allow us to become familiar with the development environment. Following chapters, especially the next one, will clarify a lot of obscure things. So I suggest you to be patient and try to take the best from the following paragraphs.

A Note on GNU ARM Eclipse Plug-ins Experienced programmers might observe that these plug-ins are not strictly necessary to generate code for the STM32 platform. It is perfectly possible to start importing the HAL in an empty C/C++ project and to configure the tool-chain accordingly. Moreover, as we will see in the next chapter, it is better to directly use the code from the latest HAL release and the one automatically generated by STM32CubeMX tool. However, the GNU ARM plugin brings several features that simplify the project management. Moreover, I think that for newbies it is recommended to start with an automatic-generated project to avoid a lot of confusion. When writing code for the STM32 platform, we need to deal with a lot of tools and libraries. Some of them are mandatory, while others may lead to confusion. So it is best to start gradually and dive inside the whole stack. Once you get familiar with the development environment, it will be really easy to adapt it to your needs.

If you are totally new to Eclipse IDE, the next paragraph will briefly explain its main functionalities.

3.1 Get in Touch With the Eclipse IDE When you start Eclipse, you might be a bit puzzled by its interface. Figure 1¹ shows how Eclipse appears when started for the first time. ¹Starting from this chapter, all screen captures, unless differently required, are based on Mac OS, because it is the OS the author uses to develop STM32 applications (and to write this book). However, they also apply to other Operating Systems.

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Figure 1: The Eclipse interface once started for the first time

Eclipse is a multi-view IDE, organized so that all the functionalities are displayed in one window, but the user is free to arrange the interface at its needs. When Eclipse starts, a welcome screen is presented. The content of that Welcome Tab is called view.

Figure 2: How to close the Welcome view by clicking on the X.

To close the Welcome view, click on the cross icon, as shown in Figure 2. Once the Welcome view goes away, the C/C++ perspective appears, as shown in Figure 3.

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Figure 3: The C/C++ perspective view in eclipse (with a main.c file loaded later)

In Eclipse a perspective is a way to arrange views in a manner that is related to the functionalities of the perspective. The C/C++ perspective is dedicated to coding, and it presents all aspects related to the editing of the source code and its compiling. It is divided into four views. The view on the left, named Project Explorer, shows all projects inside the workspace. If you recall from the previous chapter, the first time we started Eclipse we had to choose the workspace directory. The workspace is the place where a group of projects are stored. Please note that we say a group of projects and not all the projects. This means that we can have several workspaces (that is, directories) where different groups of projects are stored. However, a workspace also contains IDE configurations, and we can have different configurations for every workspace.

The centered view, that is the larger one, is the C/C++ editor. Each source file is shown as a tab, and it is possible to have many tabs opened at the same time. The view in the bottom of Eclipse window is dedicated to several activities related to coding and compiling, and it is subdivided into tabs. For example, the Console tab shows the output from the compiler; the Problems tab organizes all messages coming from the compiler in a convenient way to inspect them; the Search tab contains the search results. The view on the right contains several other tabs. For example the Outline tab shows the content of each source file (functions, variables, and so on), allowing quickly navigation inside the file content.

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There are other views available (and many other ones that are provided by custom plug-ins). Users can see them by going inside the Window->Show View->Other… menu. Sometimes it happens that a view is “minimized” and it seems to disappear from the IDE. When you are new to Eclipse, this might lead to frustration trying to understand where it went. For example, looking at Figure 4 it seems that the Project Explorer view has disappeared, but it is simply minimized and you can restore it clicking on the icon circled in red. However, sometimes the view has really been closed. This happens when there is only one tab active in that view and we close it. In this case you can enable the view again going in the Window->Show View->Other… menu.

Figure 4: Project Explorer view minimized

To switch between different perspectives you can use the specific toolbar available in the top-right side of Eclipse (see Figure 5)

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Hello, Nucleo!

Figure 5: Perspective switcher toolbar

By default, the other available perspective is Debug, which we will see in more depth later. You can enable other perspectives by going to Window->Perspective->Open Perspective->Other… menu. Starting from Eclipse 4.6 (aka Neon), the perspective switcher toolbar no longer shows the perspective name by default, but only the icon associated to the perspective. This tends to confuse novice users. You can show the perspective name near its icon by clicking with the right button of the mouse on the toolbar and selecting the Show Text entry, as shown below.

Figure 6: How to enable the name of a perspective in the perspective switcher toolbar

As we go forward with the topics of this book, we will have a chance to see other features of Eclipse.

3.2 Create a Project Let us create our first project. We will create a simple application that makes the Nucleo LD2 LED (the green one) blink. Go to File->New->C Project. Eclipse shows a wizard that allows us to create our test project (see Figure 7).

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Figure 7: Project wizard - STEP 1

In the Project name field write hello-nucleo (your are totally free to choose the project name you like). The important part, indeed, is the Project type section. Here we have to choose the STM32 family of our Nucleo board. For example, if we have a NUCLEO-F401RE we have to choose STM32F4xx C/C++ Project. Unfortunately, Liviu Ionescu still has not implemented project templates for the STM32L0/1/4 families. Moreover, project templates for some Nucleo boards are missed. If your Nucleo is based on one of these series, you have to jump to the next chapter, where we will see a more general way to generate projects for the STM32 platform. However, it could be that by the time you read this chapter, the plug-in has been updated with new templates.

Now click on the Next button. In this step of the wizard it is really important to select the right size of RAM and flash memory (if those fields do not match the quantity of RAM and flash of the MCU equipping your Nucleo, it will be impossible to start the example application)². Use Table 1 to choose the correct values for your Nucleo board³. ²Owners of STM32F4 and STM32F7 development boards will not find the entry to specify the RAM size. Do not complain about this, since the project wizard is designed to properly configure the right amount of RAM if you choose the right Chip family type. ³In case you are using a different development board (e.g. a Discovery kit), check on the ST web site for right values of RAM and flash.

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Table 1: RAM and flash size to select according the given Nucleo

So, fill the fields of second step in the following way⁴ (see Figure 8 for reference): Chip Family: Select the exact MCU equipping your Nucleo (see Table 1). Flash size: pick the right value from Table 1. RAM size: pick the right value from Table 1. External clock(Hz): it is ok to leave this field as is. Content: Blinky (blink a LED). Use system calls: Freestanding (no POSIX system calls). Trace output: None (no trace output). Check some warnings: Checked. Check most warnings: Unchecked. Enable -Werror: Unchecked. Use -Og on debug: Checked. Use newlib nano: Checked. Exclude unused: Checked. Use link optimizations: Unchecked.

Those of you having a STMF3 Nucleo, will find an additional field in the wizard step. It is named CCM RAM Size (KB), and it is related to the Core Coupled Memory (CCM), a special internal and fast memory that we will study in a following chapter. If you have a Nucleo-F334 or a Nucleo-F303 board, fill the field with the value from Table 1. For other STM32F3 based boards place a zero in ⁴Please, take note that, depending the actual STM32 family of your development board, some of those fields may be absent in the second step. Don’t care about this, because it means that the project generator knows how to fill them.

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that field.

Figure 8: Project wizard - STEP 2

Now click on the Next button. In the next two wizard steps, leave all parameters as default. Finally, in the last step you have to select the GCC tool-chain path. In the previous chapter, we have installed GCC inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/gcc-arm folder (in Windows the folder was C:\STM32Toolchain\gcc-arm). So, select that folder as shown in Figure 9 (either typing the pathname or using the Browse button), and ensure that the Toolchain name field contains GNU Tools for ARM Embedded Processors (arm-none-eabi-gcc), otherwise select it from the drop-down menu. Click on the Finish button.

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Figure 9: Project wizard - STEP 5

Our test project is almost complete. We only need to modify one thing to make it work on the Nucleo. However, before we complete the example, it is better to take a look at what has been generated by the GNU ARM plug-in. Figure 10 shows what appears in the Eclipse IDE after the project has been generated. The Project Explorer view shows the project structure. This is the content of the first-level folders (going from top to bottom): Includes: this folder shows all folders that are part of the GCC Include Folders⁵. src: this Eclipse folder contains the .c files⁶ that make up our application. One of these files is main.c, which contains the int main(int argc, char* argv[]) routine. system: this Eclipse folder contains header and source files of many relevant libraries (like, among the other, the ST HAL and the CMSIS package). We will see them more in depth in the next chapter. include: this folder contains the header files of our main application. ldscripts: this folder contains some relevant files that make our application work on the MCU. These are LD (the GNU Link eDitor) script files, and we will study them in depth in a following chapter. ⁵Every C/C++ compiler needs to be aware of where to look for include files (files ending with .h). These folders are called include folders and their path must be specified to GCC using the -I parameter. However, as we will see later, Eclipse is able to do this for us automatically. ⁶The exact type and amount of files in this folder depends on the STM32 family. Do not worry if you see additional files than the ones shown in Figure 10, and focus your attention exclusively on the main.c file.

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Figure 10: The project content after its generation

As said before, we need to modify one more thing to make the example project work on our Nucleo board. The GNU ARM plugin generates an example project that fits the Discovery hardware layout. This means that the LED is routed to a different MCU I/O pin. We need to modify this. How can we know to which pin the LED is connected? ST provides schematics⁷ of the Nucleo board. Schematics are made using the Altium Designer CAD, a really expensive piece of software used in the professional world. However, luckily for us, ST provides a convenient PDF with schematics. Looking at page 4, we can see that the LED is connected to the PA5 pin ⁸, as shown in Figure 11. ⁷http://bit.ly/1FAVXSw ⁸Except for the Nucleo-F302RB, where LD2 is connected to PB13 port. More about this next.

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Figure 11: LD2 connection to PA5

PA5 is shorthand for PIN5 of GPIOA port, which is the standard way to indicate a GPIO in the STM32 world. We can now proceed to modify the source code. Open the Include/BlinkLed.h and go to line 19. Here we find the macro definition for the GPIO associated to the LED. We need to change the code in the following way: Filename: include/BlinkLed.h 30 31

#define BLINK_PORT_NUMBER #define BLINK_PIN_NUMBER

(0) (5)

BLINK_PORT_NUMBER defines the GPIO port (in our case GPIOA=0), and BLINK_PIN_NUMBER the pin

number.

Nucleo-F302R8 is the only Nucleo board that has a different hardware configuration regarding the pin used for LED LD2, because it is connected to pin PB13, as you can see in schematics. This means that the right pin configuration is: 30 31

#define BLINK_PORT_NUMBER (1) #define BLINK_PIN_NUMBER (13)

We can now compile the project. Go to menu Project->Build Project. After a while, we should see something similar to this in the output console[ˆch3-flash-image-size].

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Hello, Nucleo! Invoking: Cross ARM GNU Create Flash Image arm-none-eabi-objcopy -O ihex "hello-nucleo.elf" Finished building: hello-nucleo.hex

"hello-nucleo.hex"

Invoking: Cross ARM GNU Print Size arm-none-eabi-size --format=berkeley "hello-nucleo.elf" text data bss dec 5697 176 416 6289 Finished building: hello-nucleo.siz

hex 1891

filename hello-nucleo.elf

09:52:01 Build Finished (took 6s.704ms)

3.3 Connecting the Nucleo to the PC Once we have compiled our test project, you can connect the Nucleo board to your computer using an USB cable connected to micro-USB port (called VCP in Figure 12). After few seconds, you should see at least two LED turning ON.

The first one is the LD1 LED, which in Figure 12 is called ST-LINK LED. It is a red/green LED and it is used to signal the ST-LINK activity: once the board is connected to the computer, that LED is green; during a debug session or while uploading the firmware on the MCU it blinks green and red alternatively. Another LED that turns ON when the board is connected to the computer is the LED LD3, which is called POWER LED in Figure 12. It is a red LED that turns ON when the USB port ends enumeration, that is the ST-LINK interface is properly recognized by the computer OS as a USB peripheral. The

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target MCU on the board is powered only when that LED is ON (this means that the ST-LINK interface also manages the powering of the target MCU). Finally, if you have not still flashed your board with a custom firmware, you will see that the LD2 LED, a green LED named USER LED in Figure 12, also blinks: this happens because ST preloads the board with a firmware that makes the LD2 LED blinking. To change the blinking frequency you can press the USER BUTTON (the blue one). Now we are going to replace the on-board firmware with the one made by us before.

3.4 Flashing the Nucleo The flashing procedure differs for the three Operating Systems (Windows, Linux, Mac OSX)⁹. For this reason, we are going to describe it separately.

3.4.1 Windows ST provides a really practical tool to flash firmware on the target board: ST-LINK Utility. We installed it in Chapter 2 and now we are going to use it. Launch the program (you will find it in the Windows Start menu, under the STMicroelectronics folder) and connect your Nucleo to the PC using the USB cable. Once Windows has identified the board, go on Target->Connect menu. After a while you will see the content of flash memory, as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13: The ST-LINK Utility interface once connected to the board

In the top-right side of the window you can also see a brief summary regarding your Nucleo board. Ok, let us upload the example firmware to the board. Go to File->Open file… menu and select the file C:\STM32Toolchain\projects\hello-nucleo\Debug\hello-nucleo.hex. Once the binary file is loaded, go to Target->Program & Verify menu and click on Start button to start flashing. At the ⁹This is the only time we will use different flashing procedure between the three Operating Systems. In chapter 5 we will setup a cross-platform debugging environment.

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end of flashing procedure your Nucleo green LED will start blinking. Congratulations: welcome to the STM32 world ;-) Pay attention to a behavior of ST-LINK Utility that causes a lot of headaches every time someone starts working with it. If you change something in the firmware and recompile it, ST-LINK Utility does not automatically reload the binary file. This means that the previous version is still in memory, and it will continue to upload that version to the Nucleo MCU. So, you need to manually reload the file every time it changes. You can do that by simply clicking with the right mouse button on the file name tab, and choosing Open file entry, as shown in Figure 14 (you may have to click on the file name with the left mouse button first, to select it).

Figure 14: How to reload a binary file inside the ST-LINK Utility tool

3.4.2 Linux We configured the QSTlink2 utility in Chapter 2. But before we can flash the board, we need to convert the binary file from the ELF format to the RAW binary format, which is the format accepted by the QSTlink2 tool to upload firmware to the target board. We can set Eclipse to do it automatically for us.

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Figure 15: Output file format selection in Eclipse

Go to Project->Properties menu, then go to C/C++ Build->Settings. Select the Cross ARM GNU Create Flash Image->General entry and select the entry Raw binary in the Output file format (-O) field, as shown in Figure 15. Click on the OK button and rebuild the project again.

Figure 16: The QSTlink2 interface

Now, connect the Nucleo to the PC using an USB cable and launch the QSTlink2 tool. Click on

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the Connect button to start the connection with the ST-LINK interface. If the board is identified correctly, QSTlink2 will show its target MCU, as shown in Figure 16. To flash the firmware, click on the Send… button and select the file ∼/STM32Toolchain/projects/hello-nucleo/Debug/hellonucleo.bin. Now the LD2 LED of your Nucleo board blinks¹⁰. Congratulations: welcome to the STM32 world ;-)

3.4.3 Mac OSX We configured the stlink utility in Chapter 2. But before we can flash the board, we need to convert the binary file from the ELF format to the RAW binary format, which is the format accepted by the stlink tool to upload firmware on the target board. We can set Eclipse to do it automatically for us. Go to Project->Properties menu, then go to C/C++ Build->Settings. Select the Cross ARM GNU Create Flash Image->General entry and select the entry Raw binary in the Output file format (-O) field, as shown in Figure 15. Click on the OK button and rebuild the project again. Now, connect the Nucleo to the Mac using an USB cable and open a Terminal and type the following commands at terminal prompt: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain/stlink $ ./st-flash write ../projects/hello-nucleo/Debug/hello-nucleo.bin 0x08000000

where 0x0800 0000 is the starting address of flash memory, as we will see in the next chapter. If the flashing procedure goes well⁷, you should see the following messages at command line: 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: 438 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: 0000 bytes (64 KiB) in pages of 2048 bytes 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: tm32 address: 134217728 (0x8000000) 2015-09-27T19:03:24 WARN src/stlink-common.c: Flash page at addr: 0x08001800 erased 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: es 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: 3/3 pages written 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c: 2015-09-27T19:03:24 INFO src/stlink-common.c:

Loading device parameters.... Device connected is: F334 device, id 0x10016\ SRAM size: 0x3000 bytes (12 KiB), Flash: 0x1\ Attempting to write 6295 (0x1897) bytes to s\ unaligned len 0x1897 -- padding with zero Finished erasing 4 pages of 2048 (0x800) byt\ Starting Flash write for VL/F0/F3 core id Successfully loaded flash loader in sram Starting verification of write complete Flash written and verified! jolly good!

Now the LD2 LED of your Nucleo board blinks. Congratulations: welcome to the STM32 world ;-) ¹⁰Unfortunately, I have to admit that it happens quite often that both QSTLink2 and stlink tools do not work very well. When this happens, try to reset the board and repeat the upload procedure again. However, in chapter 5 we will install OpenOCD, a tool that has become a sort of standard in the embedded world.

Hello, Nucleo!

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3.5 Understanding the Generated Code Now that we brought a cold piece of hardware to life, we can give a first look to the code generated by the GNU ARM plugin. Opening main.c file we can see the content of main() function, the entry point¹¹ of our application. Filename: src/main.c 45 46 47

// Keep the LED on for 2/3 of a second. #define BLINK_ON_TICKS (TIMER_FREQUENCY_HZ * 3 / 4) #define BLINK_OFF_TICKS (TIMER_FREQUENCY_HZ - BLINK_ON_TICKS)

48 49 50 51 52

int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { trace_puts("Hello ARM World!"); trace_printf("System clock: %u Hz\n", SystemCoreClock);

53

timer_start();

54 55

blink_led_init();

56 57

uint32_t seconds = 0;

58 59

// Infinite loop while (1) { blink_led_on(); timer_sleep(seconds == 0 ? TIMER_FREQUENCY_HZ : BLINK_ON_TICKS);

60 61 62 63 64 65

blink_led_off(); timer_sleep(BLINK_OFF_TICKS);

66 67 68

++seconds;

69 70

trace_printf("Second %u\n", seconds);

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}

72 73

}

Instructions at line 51, 52 and 71 are related to debugging¹² and we will see them in depth in Chapter 5. Function timer_start(); initializes the SysTick timer so that it fires an interrupt every 1ms. This ¹¹Experienced STM32 programmers know that it is improper to say that the main() function is the entry point of an STM32 application. The execution of the firmware begins much earlier, with the calling of some important setup routines that create the execution environment for the firmware. However, from the application point of view, its start is inside the main() function. A following chapter will show in detail the bootstrap process of an STM32 microcontroller. ¹²For the sake of completeness, they are tracing functions that use ARM semihosting, a feature allowing to execute code in the host PC invoking it from the microcontroller - a sort of remote procedure call.

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is used to compute delays, and we will study how it works in Chapter 7. The function blink_led_init(); initializes the GPIO pin PA5 to be an output GPIO. Finally, the infinite loop turns ON and OFF the LED LD2, keeping it ON for 2/3 of second and OFF for 1/3 of second. The only way to learn something in this field is to get your hands dirty writing code and making a lot of mistakes. So, if you are new to the STM32 platform, it is a good idea to start looking inside the code generated by the GNU ARM plugin, and trying to modify it. For example, a good exercise is to modify the code so that the LED starts blinking when the user button (the blue one) is pressed. A hint? The user button is connected to PC13 pin.

Hello, Nucleo!

Eclipse intermezzo Eclipse allows us to easily navigate inside the source code, without jumping between source files manually looking for where a function is defined. For example, suppose that we want to see how the function timer_start() is coded. To go to its definition, highlight the function call, click with the right mouse button and select Open declaration entry, as shown in the following image.

Sometimes, it happens that Eclipse makes a mess of its index files, and it is impossible to navigate inside the source code. To address this issue, you can force Eclipse to rebuild its index going to Project->C/C++ Index->Rebuild menu. Another interesting Eclipse feature is the ability to expand complex macros. For example, click with right mouse button on the BLINK_OFF_TICKS macro at line 71, and choose the entry Explore macro expansion. The following contextual window will appear.

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4. STM32CubeMX Tool STM32CubeMX¹ is the Swiss army knife of every STM32 developer, and it is a fundamental tool especially if you are new to the STM32 platform. It is a quite complex piece of software distributed freely by ST, and it is part of the STCube initiative², which aims to provide to developers with a complete set of tools and libraries to speed up the development process. Although there is a well-established group of people that still develops embedded software in pure assembly code³, time is the most expensive thing during project development nowadays, and it is really important to receive as much help as possible for a quite complex hardware platform like the STM32. In this chapter we will see how this tool from ST works, and how to build Eclipse projects from scratch using the code generated by it. This will make GNU ARM plugin a less critical component for project generation, allowing us to create better code and ready to be integrated with the STM32Cube HAL. However, this chapter is not a substitute for the official ST documentation for CubeMX tool⁴, a document made of more than 170 pages that explains in depth all its functionalities.

4.1 Introduction to CubeMX Tool CubeMX is the tool used to configure the microcontroller chosen for our project. It is used both to choose the right hardware connections and to generate the code necessary to configure the ST HAL. CubeMX is a MCU-centric application. This means that all activities performed by the tool are based on: • The family of the STM32 MCU (F0, F1, and so on). • The type of package chosen for our device (LQFP48, BGA144, and so on). • The hardware peripherals we need in our project (USART, SPI, etc.). – How chosen peripherals are mapped to microcontroller pins. • MCU general configurations (like clock, power management, NVIC controller, and so on) In addition to features related to the hardware, CubeMX is also able to deal with the following software aspects: ¹STM32CubeMX name will be simplified in CubeMX in the rest of the book. ²http://bit.ly/1YKvl85 ³Probably, one day someone will explain them that, except for really rare and specific cases, a modern compiler can generate better assembly code from C than could be written directly in assembly by hand. However, we have to say that these habits are limited to ultra low-cost 8-bit MCUs like PIC12 and similar. ⁴http://bit.ly/1O50wrp

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• Management of the ST HAL for the chosen MCU family (CubeF0, CubeF1, and so on). • Additional software library functionalities we need in our project (FatFs library, FreeRTOS, etc.). • The development environment we will use to build the firmware (IAR, TrueSTUDIO, and so on). CubeMX aims to be a complete project management tool. However, it has some limitations that restrict its usage to the early stages of board and firmware development (more about this later).

Figure 1: The CubeMX tool

We have already installed CubeMX in Chapter 2. If you still have not done it, it is strongly suggested to refer to that chapter. Once CubeMX is launched, a nice welcome screen is presented (see Figure 1). Clicking on New project will bring up the MCU and board selector dialog, as shown Figure 2.

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Figure 2: CubeMX MCU selection tool

The dialog is a tab-based window, with two main tabs: MCU Selector and Board Selector. The first tab allows to choose a microcontroller from the whole STM32 portfolio. Using the Series combo box, we can filter all the MCUs belonging to a given series. The Lines combo box allows to further filter the MCUs belonging to a sub-family (Value line, etc.). Packages combo box allows to select all MCUs having the desired package. Clicking on the More Filters button we can show additional fields limiting the search.

Figure 3: CubeMX board selection tool

The Board Selector tab allows to filter among all the official ST development boards (see Figure

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3). There are three kinds of development boards to choose from: Nucleo, Discovery and EvalBoard, which are the most complete (and expensive) development boards to experiment with an STM32 MCU. We are, obviously, interested to Nucleo boards. So, start by selecting the type of your Nucleo board and click on the OK button. In the Board Selector view there is a checkbox under the Vendor combo box. The label says Initialize all IP with their default Mode. What does it mean? First of all, let us clarify that IP does not mean Internet Protocol, but it is the acronym for Integrated Peripheral. Checking that box causes that CubeMX will automatically generate the C initialization code for all the peripherals available on the board and not only for those relevant to the user application. For example, Nucleo boards have a USART (USART2) connected to the STLINK interface, which maps it as a Virtual COM Port. Checking that box says to CubeMX to generate all necessary code to initialize the USART. This could seem a good feature to enable, but for novices it is best to leave that feature disabled and to enable each peripheral by hand only when needed. This simplifies the learning process and avoids wasting a lot of time trying to understand all at once the generated code.

Figure 4: The MCU view in CubeMX

Once we have selected the MCU (or the development board) to work with, the main CubeMX window appears, as shown in Figure 4. A nice graphical representation of the STM32 MCU dominates the view. Even in this case we have a tabbed view. Let us see each tab more in depth.

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4.1.1 Pinout View The Pinout view is the first one, and it is divided in two parts. The right side contains the MCU representation with the selected peripherals and GPIOs, and it is called by ST Chip view. In the left side we have the list, in form of a tree view, of all peripherals (hardware parts) and middleware libraries (software parts) that can be used with the selected MCU. This is called by ST IP tree pane. 4.1.1.1 Chip View The Chip view allows to easily navigate inside the MCU configuration, and it is a really convenient way to configure the microcontroller. Pins⁵ colored in bright green are enabled. This means that CubeMX will generate the needed code to configure that pin according its functionalities. For example, for pin PA5 CubeMX will generate the C code needed to setup it as generic output pin⁶. A pin is colored in orange when the corresponding peripheral is not enabled. For example, pins PA2⁷ and PA3 are enabled and CubeMX will generate corresponding C code to initialize them, but the associated peripherals (USART2) is not enabled and no setup code will be automatically generated. Yellow pins are power source pins, and their configuration cannot be changed. BOOT and RESET pins are colored in khaki, and their configuration cannot be changed.

Figure 5: Contextual tool-tips help understanding signal usage

A contextual tool-tip is showed moving the mouse pointer over the MCU pins (see Figure 5). For example, contextual tool-tip for pin PB3 says to us that the signal is mapped to Serial Wire Debug (SWD) interface and it acts as Serial Wire Output (SWO) pin. Moreover, the pin number (55) is also shown. ⁵In this context, pin and signal can be used as synonyms. ⁶Except for Nucleo-F302, where the LD2 is connected to PB13 pin. More about this later in this chapter. ⁷The pin configurations shown in this section are referred to the STM32F401RE MCU.

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Figure 6: Alternate mapping of peripherals

STM32 MCUs allow mapping a peripheral to different pins. For example, in an STM32F401xE MCU, SPI2 MOSI signal can be mapped to pins PC2 or PB14. CubeMX makes it easy to see the allowed alternatives with a Ctrl+click. If an alternate pin exists, it is shown in light blue (the alternative is shown only if the pin is not in reset state - that is, it is enabled). For example, in Figure 6 we can see that, if we do a Ctrl+click on PC2 pin, the PB14 signal is highlighted in blue. This comes really handy during the layout of a board. If it is really hard to route a signal to that pin, or if that pin is needed for some other functionality, an alternate pin may simplify the board.

Figure 7: Alternate function of a pin

In the same way, most of MCU pins can have alternate functionalities. A contextual menu is shown when clicking on a pin. This allows us to select the function we are interested to enable for that signal. Such flexibility leads to the generation of conflicts between signal functions. CubeMX tries to resolve these conflicts automatically, assigning the signal to another pin. Pinned signals are those pins whose functionality is locked to a specific pin, preventing CubeMX to choose an alternate pin. When a

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conflict prevents a peripheral to be used, the pin mode in Chip View is disabled, and the pin is colored in orange. 4.1.1.2 IP Tree Pane The IP tree pane provides a convenient way to enable/disable and to configure the desired peripherals and software middleware. CubeMX shows the peripherals list in a smart way, using icons and different colors, so that the user can quickly understand if the peripheral is available and what configuration capabilities it has. Let us see them in depth.

Table 1: CubeMX way to show peripherals in IP tree pane

• Case 1: indicates that the peripheral is available and currently disabled, and all its possible modes can be used. For example, in case of I²C interface, all possible modes for this peripheral are: I²C, SMBus-Alert-mode, SMBus-two-wire-interface (TWI). • Case 2: shows that the peripheral is disabled due to a conflict with another peripheral. This means that both the peripherals use the same GPIOs, and it is not possible to use them simultaneously. Passing the mouse over it will show the other peripheral involved in conflict. For example, for an STM32F401RE MCU it is impossible to use I2C2 and SWD debug pins at the same time.

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• Case 3: indicates that the peripheral is available and currently disabled, but at least one of its modes is not available due to a conflict with other peripherals. For example, in an STM32F401RE MCU the fourth channel of TIM2 peripheral uses the PA2 GPIO, which is the USART_RX signal of the USART2 peripheral. This means that you cannot use the TIM2 channel 4 as input capture while using the Nucleo VCP. • Case 4: indicates that the peripheral is unavailable for the chosen package type (if you strongly need that peripheral, you have to switch to another package type - usually one with more pins). • Case 5: indicates that the peripheral is used and all its modes are available (refer to Case 7). • Case 6: shows that the peripheral is used, but some of its modes or I/Os are not available (refer to Case 3 and 8). • Case 7: when all peripheral modes are available, all configuration options are shown in black. • Case 8: when not all peripheral modes are available, unavailable configuration options are shown with red background.

4.1.2 Clock View

Figure 8: The CubeMX clock view

Clock view is the area where all configurations related to clocks management take place. Here we can set both the main core and the peripherals clocks. All clock sources and PLLs configurations are presented in a graphical way (see Figure 8). The first times the user see this view, he could be

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puzzled by the amount of configuration options. However, with a little bit of practice, this is the simplest way to deal with the STM32 clock configuration (which is quite complex if compared to 8-bit MCUs). If your board design needs an external source for the High Speed clock (HSE), the Low Speed clock (LSE) or both, you have to first enable it in the Pinout view in the RCC section, as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: HSE and LSE enabling in CubeMX

Once this is accomplished, you will be able to change clock sources in clock view. Clock tree configuration will be explored in Chapter 10. To avoid confusion in this phase, leave all parameters as automatically configured by CubeMX. Overclocking A common hacking practice is to overclock the MCU core, changing the PLL configuration so that it can run at a higher frequency. This author strongly discourages this practice, which not only could seriously damage the microcontroller, but it may result in abnormal behavior difficult to debug. Do not change anything unless you are absolutely sure of what you are doing.

4.1.3 Configuration View Configuration view allows to further setup peripherals and software components. For example, it is possible to enable pull-up for a GPIO pin, or to configure the FATFS options.

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Figure 10: The CubeMX configuration view

Configuration options defined in this view impact the automatically generated C source code. A good management of this CubeMX section allows to simplify a lot the development process related to peripherals optimizations. We will analyze each configuration view when we will deal with each type of peripheral.

4.1.4 Power Consumption Calculator View Power Consumption Calculator (PCC) view is a feature of CubeMX that, given a microcontroller, a battery model and a user-defined power sequence, provides an estimation of the following parameters: • Average power consumption. • Battery life. • Average DMIPS. It is possible to add user-defined batteries through a dedicated interface. For each step, the user can choose VBUS as possible power source instead of the battery. This will impact the battery life estimation. If power consumption measurements are available at different voltage levels, CubeMX will also propose a choice of voltage values.

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Figure 10: The CubeMX configuration view

PCC view will be analyzed in a following chapter.

4.2 Project Generation Once the configuration of the MCU, of its peripherals and middleware software is completed, we can use CubeMX to generate the C project skeleton for us. In this paragraph we will see all the required steps to: • Create a new “universal” Eclipse project, ready to accept CubeMX auto-generated C code. • Import the CubeMX generated files inside the Eclipse project. • Configure the project, if needed. The final result of this chapter will be another blinking application, but this time we will create it using the most of the code coming from the latest STCube framework. This will also give us the opportunity to start understanding the foundation blocks of the STCube Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL). Once we understand the steps explained here, we would be fully autonomous in setting up any project for the STM32 platform.

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4.2.1 Generate C Project with CubeMX The first step is to generate the C code containing HAL initialization code using CubeMX tool. If you have done experiments in the previous paragraph, it is better to start a totally new project, selecting your Nucleo board from the Board Selector Tool, as shown before.

Figure 11: The Project Settings dialog

Once CubeMX has created the new project, go to Project->Settings… menu. The Project Settings dialog appears, as shown in Figure 11. In the Project Name field write the name you like for the project. For the Project Location field, it is best to create a folder inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain⁸ folder (C:\STM32Toolchain for Windows users). A good folder name could be ∼/STM32Toolchain/cubemx-out. In the Toolchain/IDE field select the SW4STM32 entry. Leave all the other fields as default. ⁸Once again, you are completely free to choose the preferred path for your workspace. Here, to simplify the instructions, all path assumed relative to ∼/STM32Toolchain.

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Figure 12: The Code Generator section of Project Settings dialog

Switch now to Code Generator tab, and select the options as shown in Figure 12. Click on the OK button. Now we are ready to generate the C initialization code for our Nucleo. Go to Project->Generate Code menu. CubeMX may ask you to download the latest version of the STCube HAL framework for your Nucleo (e.g., if you have a Nucleo-F401RE it will ask you to download STCube-F4 HAL). If so, click on Yes button and wait for completion. After a while, you will find the C code inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/cubemx-out/ directory. The CubeHAL downloaded by CubeMX is a slightly different version of the official CubeHAL that you can download from the ST website. It is modified to be processed by CubeMX, and it contains template source files⁹ that are updated with the custom code generated by CubeMX according the MCU configuration. These sized packages are automatically downloaded inside the ∼/STM32Cube/Repository folder on UNIX like systems and in the C:\Documents and Settings\\STM32Cube\Repositoryfolder on Windows.

⁹The template files are made using the FreeMarker template engine (http://www.freemarker.org) and can be eventually customized according your needs.

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4.2.1.1 Understanding Generated Code Before we continue with the Eclipse project creation, it is a good thing to take a look to the code generated by CubeMX.

Figure 13: The generated code compared to the CMSIS architectural view

Opening the ∼/STM32Toolchain/cubemx-out/ folder, you will find several subfolders inside it. Figure 13 compares the generated project structure to the CMSIS software architecture¹⁰. As we have seen in Chapter 1, CMSIS is composed by several components. Here we are interested in CMSIS-CORE. CMSIS-CORE implements the basic run-time system for a Cortex-M device and gives the user access to the processor core and the device peripherals. In detail it defines: • HAL for Cortex-M processor registers, with standardized definitions for the SysTick, NVIC, System Control Block registers, MPU registers, FPU registers, and core access functions. • System exception names to interface to system exceptions without having compatibility issues. • Methods to organize header files that make it easy to learn new Cortex-M microcontroller products and improve software portability. This includes naming conventions for devicespecific interrupts. ¹⁰You will find also the sub-folder SW4STM32. It contains the project file for the ACS6 IDE, which we cannot import in our tool-chain. So, simply ignore it.

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• Methods for system initialization to be used by each MCU vendor. For example, the standardized SystemInit() function is essential for configuring the clock system when device starts. • Intrinsic functions used to generate CPU instructions that are not supported by standard C functions. • A global variable, named SystemCoreClock, to easily determine the system clock frequency. The CMSIS-CORE pack is subdivided in several files in the project generated with CubeMX, as shown in Figure 13: • Include folder contains several core_.h files (where is replaced by cm0, cm3, etc). These files define the core peripherals and provide helper functions that access the core registers (SysTick, NVIC, ITM, DWT etc.). These files are generic for all Cortex-M based MCUs. • Device folder contains device specific informations for all STM32F/L devices (e.g., STM32F4), such as interrupt numbers (IRQn) for all exceptions and device interrupts, definitions for the Peripheral Access to all device peripherals (all data structures and the address mapping for device-specific peripherals) - file system_.h. It also contains additional helper functions to simplify peripherals programming. Moreover, there are also several startup_.s assembly files: these contain startup code and system configuration code (reset handler which is executed after CPU reset, exception vectors of the Cortex-M Processor, interrupt vectors that are device specific). Finally, Inc and Src folders in the project root contain headers and source files of the skeleton application generated by CubeMX, and the STM32xxxx_HAL_Driver folder, inside the Drivers one, is the whole ST HAL for that microcontroller series. A Note About CubeMX Eclipse Plug-In For the sake of completeness, we have to say that ST distributes a CubeMX release as an Eclipse plug-in. It can be download from the official ST website. The plug-in as such works quite well, and it can be used on the three Operating Systems we are considering in this book. However, it is quite useless with our tool-chain, since its generated projects cannot be easily used with the GNU ARM Eclipse plug-in. So, we will consider only the standalone edition in this book. http://bit.ly/1W5Xgkc

4.2.2 Create Eclipse Project We are now going to create an Eclipse project that will host the files generated by CubeMX. Go to File->New->C Project menu. Type the project name you like and select Hello World ARM Cortex-M C/C++ Project as project type.

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Figure 14: Second step of project generation wizard

In the second step fill the fields Processor core, Clock, Flash size and RAM size according your Nucleo type (refer to Table 3 if you do not know them), and leave all other fields as shown in Figure 14.

Table 3: Project settings to select according the given Nucleo

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In the third step leave all fields as default, except for the last one: Vendor CMSIS name. That field must have this pattern: xx. For example, for a Nucleo-F1 write stm32f1xx, or for a Nucleo-L4 write stm32l4xx, as shown in Figure 15. Go ahead with the project wizard until it is completed. Once again, we have used the GNU ARM Eclipse plug-in to generate the project, but this time there are some files we do not need, since we will use the ones generated by CubeMX tool. Figure 16 shows the Eclipse project and five highlighted files in the Project Explorer view. You can safely delete them hitting the delete button on your keyboard.

Figure 15: Third step of project generation wizard

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Figure 16: Eclipse project with highlighted files to delete

We need to change one more thing to the files generated by GNU ARM plugin. Opening the file ldscripts/mem.ld we can see that the origin of FLASH memory is wrong because, as we have seen in Chapter 1, the flash memory is mapped from the address 0x0800 0000 for all STM32 devices. So, ensure that memory origin definitions¹¹ of your .ld file are equal to the following ones: ... MEMORY { FLASH (rx) : ORIGIN = 0x08000000, LENGTH = 512K RAM (xrw) : ORIGIN = 0x20000000, LENGTH = 96K ...

4.2.3 Importing Generated Files Into the Eclipse Project Manually Once we have created the Eclipse project, we need to import the CubeMX project inside it. There are two ways to do this: manually or using a convenient tool made by the author of this book. It is strongly suggested to execute the operation manually at least once, in order to understand exactly what software components are involved in this operation. ¹¹Clearly, the memory length depends on the specific MCU. Always double check that they correspond with the hardware specifications of your MCU. If they do not match, strange faults may occur at startup (we will learn how to deal with hardware faults in a following chapter). Another quick solution is offered to us by CubeMX. Opening the ∼/STM32Toolchain/cubemx-out//SW4STM32/ Configuration folder you will find a file ending with .ld. It is the linker script containing the right memory origin definitions for your MCU. You can simply copy the MEMORY section contained in that file and past it into the ldscripts/mem.ld file.

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Starting from now, all paths are relative to the ∼/STM32Toolchain/cubemx-out/ folder. Go inside the Inc filesystem folder and drag all its content inside the include Eclipse folder. Eclipse will ask you how to import the files. Select the Copy files options and click on the OK button. In the same way, go inside the Src filesystem folder and drag all its content inside the src Eclipse folder. With these two operations, we have imported the application code inside the Eclipse project. Starting from this point, you will find several paths and filenames related to F4 MCUs. For example, a path having this structure ‘Drivers/STM32F4xx_HAL_Driver/Inc’ or a file name like this one ‘system_stm32f4xx.c’. Please, note that you have to substitute the F4 with the STM32 family of your MCU (F0, F1, F2, F3, F7, L0, L1, L4). Pay attention if the path or the filename has a capital letter (F4) or not (f4). Please, take also note that starting from this paragraph we will use the Courier font to indicate filesystem paths (e.g. Drivers/STM32F4xx_HAL_Driver/Inc); instead, we will indicate Eclipse folders in bold (e.g. system/include/stm32f4xx). This convention is valid in the whole book.

Now, go inside the Drivers/STM32F4xx_HAL_Driver/Inc filesystem folder and import all its content inside the system/include/stm32f4xx Eclipse folder. In the same way, go inside the Drivers/STM32F4xx_HAL_Driver/Src filesystem folder and import all its content inside the system/src/stm32f4xx Eclipse folder. We have successfully imported the ST HAL in our project. It is now the turn of CMSIS-CORE package. First, we start importing the official CMSIS-CORE package. Go inside the Drivers/CMSIS/Include filesystem folder and drag all its content inside the system/include/cmsis Eclipse folder. When asked, answer Yes to replace existing files. Now we have to import the specific device files for the CMSIS-CORE. Please, take note that the GNU ARM Plugin already embeds the CMSIS-CORE inside the generated project, but it is an old version (3.20). We are replacing it with the latest official version shipped by ST (4.30 at the time of writing this chapter).

Go inside the Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Include filesystem folder and drag all its content inside the system/include/cmsis Eclipse folder. Eclipse will ask you to overwrite existing files: answer Yes. Now go inside the Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Source/Templates filesystem folder and drag the file system_stm32f4xx.c inside the system/src/cmsis Eclipse folder. Again, go inside the Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Source/Templates/gcc folder and drag the file startup_stm32f4xxxx.s inside the system/src/cmsis Eclipse folder.

You will find several .s files inside this folder. Select the one corresponding to the MCU of your Nucleo. For example, for a Nucleo-F401RE select the file startup_stm32f401xe.s.

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Read Carefully .s files are assembly files that need to be processed directly by the GNU Assembler (AS). However, Eclipse CDT is programmed to expect the assembly file ending with .S (capital S). So rename the file from startup_stm32f4xxxx.s to startup_stm32f4xxxx.S. To do this,

right click on the file in Eclipse and choose Rename entry.

So, let us recap what we have done until now. 1. First, we have created an Empty ARM C/C++ project, using the specs of our MCU. 2. Then we have deleted some files generated by GNU ARM plugin and imported those generated by CubeMX; we have also updated the FLASH address origin in mem.ld file. 3. Then we have imported the ST HAL for our MCU and the latest CMSIS-CORE package. 4. Then we have imported the device adapter file (system_stm32f4xx{.h,.c} and stm32f4xx.h files) for the CMSIS-CORE package. 5. Finally we have added the right startup assembly file startup_stm32f4xxxx.s for our MCU, and renamed it in startup_stm32f4xxxx.S (ending with capital .S). Table 2 summarizes the files and folders that have to be imported in the Eclipse project. Paths on the left are filesystem paths (relative to the CubeMX project output directory); paths on the right are the corresponding Eclipse folder. Table 2: Files and folders that have to be imported in the corresponding Eclipse folders

Filesystem Paths and Files

Eclipse Folders

Drivers/STM32F4xx_HAL_Driver/Inc Drivers/STM32F4xx_HAL_Driver/Src Drivers/CMSIS/Include Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Include Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Source/Templates/system_stm32f4xx.c Drivers/CMSIS/Device/ST/STM32F4xx/Source/Templates/gcc/startup_stm32f4xxxx.S

system/include/stm32f4xx system/src/stm32f4xx system/include/cmsis system/include/cmsis system/src/cmsis system/src/cmsis

I am aware of the fact that this procedures seems cumbersome, but trust me: once you get familiar with this procedure, you will be able to create a project for every STM32 MCU, including the latest STM32F7 and future STM32 microcontrollers. However, in the next paragraph we will review a way to automatize this task.

If you try to compile the project, you will see a lot of errors and warnings. To complete its configuration, we still need another two steps. The ST HAL is designed to work with all MCUs of a given series (F0, F1, etc.). Several conditional

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macros are used inside the HAL to discriminate the MCU type. So we have to specify the MCU equipping our Nucleo. Go to Project->Properties menu, and then in C/C++ Build->Settings section. Select the Cross ARM C Compiler->Preprocessor section and then click on the Add… icon (the one circled in red in Figure 17). Use the macro corresponding to your Nucleo (refer to Table 3, column HAL Macro). For example, for a Nucleo-F401RE, use the macro STM32F401xE.

Figure 17: Eclipse project settings and MCU macro definition

If you are using a custom board with a microcontroller not listed in Table 3, you can find the macro for your MCU inside the file system/include/cmsis/stm32XXxx.h.

The last step is to delete the following files from the Eclipse project¹²: • system/src/stm32XXxx/stm32XXx_hal_msp_template.c • system/src/stm32XXxx/stm32XXxx_hal_timebase_tim_template.c • system/src/stm32XXxx/stm32XXxx_hal_timebase_rtc_alarm_template.c: These files are templates generated by CubeMX inside the system/stm32XXxx folder (I think that CubeMX should not put that file inside the generated project). We will analyze them later in the book. ¹²Some of these file are still not present in all CubeHALs - if you cannot find it, do not care about this. If you find other files ending in template.c remove them.

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Congratulations: you are now ready to compile the project. If all has gone well, the project should compile generating the binary file without errors (some warnings are still there, but do not care about them).

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Eclipse Intermezzo You might have noticed that every time you change something to the project settings, a lot of time is required to compile the whole source tree. This happens because Eclipse recompiles all the HAL source files, contained in system/src/stm32XXxx/. This is really annoying, and you can speed up the compile time by disabling all those files not needed to your application. For example, if your board does not need to use I²C devices, you can safely disable the compilation of stm32XXxx_hal_i2c_ex.c and stm32XXxx_hal_i2c.c files by right clicking on them and then choosing Resource configuration->Exclude from build, and selecting all the project configurations defined.

Another solution to the same problem is to configure CubeMX so that it adds to the project only necessary library files. To do it, choose in CubeMX project settings the entry Copy only the necessary library files, as shown below.

However, keep in mind that excluding the unused HAL files from compilation will not impact on the size of binary file: any modern liker is able to automatically exclude from generation of the absolute file (the binary file we will load on our board) all those relocatable files that contains unused code and data (more about the linking process of an STM32 binary in a following chapter). This will cause that if you need to use an additional peripheral later, you will have to import the corresponding HAL files manually.

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4.2.4 Importing Files Generated With CubeMX Into the Eclipse Project Automatically The previous steps can be executed automatically using a bare-bone Python script. Its name is CubeMXImporter and it can be downloaded by this author’s github account¹³. Read Carefully The tool automatically deletes all unneeded existing project files. This includes also the main.c file and all other files contained in src and include Eclipse Folder. For this reason, do not execute the CubeMXImporter on an existing project. Always execute it on a fresh new Eclipse project generated with the GNU ARM Eclipse plugin.

This script works well only if you have generated a CubeMX project for the SW4STM32 (aka AC6) tool-chain.

CubeMXImporter relies on Python 2.7.x and the lxml library. Here you can find the installation instructions for Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. Windows In Windows we have to install first the latest Python 2.7 release. We can download it directly from this link¹⁴. Once downloaded, launch the installer and ensure that all installation options are enabled, as shown in Figure 18. When the installation is completed, you can install a pre-compiled lxml package, downloading it from here¹⁵.

Linux and MacOS X On these two Operating Systems, Python 2.7 is installed by default. So, we only need to install the lxml library (if it is not already installed). We can simply install it using the pip command: $ sudo pip install lxml

¹³http://github.com/cnoviello/CubeMXImporter ¹⁴http://bit.ly/1MjXoGb ¹⁵http://bit.ly/1P4lxSO

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Figure 18: all installation options have to be enabled when installing Python in Windows

Once we have installed Python and the lxml library, we can download the CubeMXImporter script from github and place it in a convenient place (I assume that it is downloaded inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/CubeMXImporter folder). Now, close the Eclipse project (do not skip this step) and execute the CubeMXImporter at terminal console in the following way: $ python cubemximporter.py

After few seconds, the CubeMX project is correctly imported. Now, open again the Eclipse project and perform a refresh of the source tree, clicking with the right mouse button on the project root and selecting the Refresh entry. You can proceed building the project.

4.3 Understanding Generated Application Code We finally have a fully working project template to start with. If you want, to avoid repeating the previous annoying procedures, you can follow this recipe: • store the template project in a place separated from the Eclipse workspace; • import it inside the workspace when you need to start a new project (Go to File->Import… and choose the entry Import Existing Projects into Workspace); • open the project and rename it as you want by clicking with the right mouse button on the project root and choosing the entry Rename….

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We are now going to customize its main.c to do something useful with our Nucleo. But, before changing application files, let us have a look to them. The first important file we are going to analyze is include/stm32XXxx_hal_conf.h. This is the file where the HAL configurations are translated into C code, using several macro definitions. These macros are used to “instruct” the HAL about enabled MCU functionalties. You will find a lot of commented macros, as shown below: Filename: include/stm32XXxx_hal_conf.h 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

//#define HAL_QSPI_MODULE_ENABLED //#define HAL_CEC_MODULE_ENABLED //#define HAL_FMPI2C_MODULE_ENABLED //#define HAL_SPDIFRX_MODULE_ENABLED //#define HAL_DFSDM_MODULE_ENABLED //#define HAL_LPTIM_MODULE_ENABLED #define HAL_GPIO_MODULE_ENABLED #define HAL_DMA_MODULE_ENABLED #define HAL_RCC_MODULE_ENABLED #define HAL_FLASH_MODULE_ENABLED #define HAL_PWR_MODULE_ENABLED #define HAL_CORTEX_MODULE_ENABLED

These macros are used to selectively include HAL modules at compile time. When you need a module, you can simply uncomment the corresponding macro. We will have the opportunity to see all the other macros defined in this file throughout the rest of the book. The file src/stm32f4xx_it.c is another fundamental source file. It is where all the Interrupt Service Routines (ISR) generated by CubeMX are stored. Let us see its content. Filename: src/stm32XXxx_it.c 42

/* External variables --------------------------------------------------------*/

43 44 45 46

/******************************************************************************/ /* Cortex-M4 Processor Interruption and Exception Handlers */ /******************************************************************************/

47 48 49 50 51 52 53

/** * @brief This function handles System tick timer. */ void SysTick_Handler(void) { /* USER CODE BEGIN SysTick_IRQn 0 */

54 55

/* USER CODE END SysTick_IRQn 0 */

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56 57 58 59

/* USER CODE END SysTick_IRQn 1 */

60 61

}

Given the CubeMX configuration we have chosen, the file contains essentially only the definition of the function void SysTick_Handler(void), which is declared inside the file system/include/cortexm/ExceptionHandlers.h. SysTick_Handler() is the ISR of the SysTick timer, that is the routine that is invoked when the SysTick timer reaches 0. But where is this ISR invoked? The answer to this question gives us the opportunity to start dealing with one of the most interesting features of Cortex-M processors: the Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC). Table 1 in Chapter 1 shows the Cortex-M exception types. If you remember, we have said that in Cortex-M CPU interrupts are a special type of exceptions. Cortex-M defines the SysTick_Handler to be the fifteenth exception in the NVIC vector array. But where is this array defined? In the previous paragraph we have added a special file written in assembly, that we have called startup file. Opening this file we can see the minimal vector table for a Cortex processor, about at line 140, as shown below: Filename: system/src/cmsis/startup_stm32f401xe.S 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158

g_pfnVectors: .word _estack .word Reset_Handler .word NMI_Handler .word HardFault_Handler .word MemManage_Handler .word BusFault_Handler .word UsageFault_Handler .word 0 .word 0 .word 0 .word 0 .word SVC_Handler .word DebugMon_Handler .word 0 .word PendSV_Handler .word SysTick_Handler

/* Not available in Cortex-M0/0+ */ /* Not available in Cortex-M0/0+ */ /* Not available in Cortex-M0/0+ */

/* Not available in Cortex-M0/0+ */

Line 158 is where the SysTick_Handler() is defined as ISR for the SysTick timer.

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Please, consider that startup files have minor modifications between the ST HALs. Line numbers reported here could differ a little bit from the startup file for your MCU. Moreover, the MemManage Fault, Bus Fault, Usage Fault and Debug Monitor exceptions are not available (and hence the corresponding vector entry is RESERVED - see the Table 1 in Chapter 1) in Cortex-M0/0+ based processors. However, the first fifteen exceptions in NVIC are always the same for all Cortex-M0/0+ based processors and all Cortex-M3/4/7 based MCUs.

Another really important file to analyze is the src/stm32XXxx_hal_msp.c. First of all, it is important to clarify the meaning of “MSP”. It stands for MCU Support Package, and it defines all the initialization functions used to configure the on-chip peripherals according to the user configuration (pin allocation, enabling of clock, use of DMA and Interrupts). Let us explain this in depth with an example. A peripheral is essentially composed of two things: the peripherals itself (for example, the SPI2 interface) and the hardware pins associated with this peripheral.

Figure 19: The relation between MSP files and the HAL

The ST HAL is designed so that the SPI module of the HAL is generic and abstracts from the specific I/O settings, which may differ due to the MCU package and the user-defined hardware configuration. So, ST developers have leaved to the user the responsibility to “fill” this piece of the HAL with the code necessary to configure the peripheral, using a sort of callback routines, and this code resides inside the src/stm32XXxx_hal_msp.c file (see Figure 19). Let us open the src/stm32XXxx_hal_msp.c file. Here we can find the function void HAL_MspInit(void): Filename: src/ch4-stm32XXxx_hal_msp.c 44 45 46

void HAL_MspInit(void) { /* USER CODE BEGIN MspInit 0 */

47 48

/* USER CODE END MspInit 0 */

49 50

HAL_NVIC_SetPriorityGrouping(NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_0);

51 52

/* System interrupt init*/

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/* SysTick_IRQn interrupt configuration */ HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(SysTick_IRQn, 0, 0);

55

/* USER CODE BEGIN MspInit 1 */

56 57

/* USER CODE END MspInit 1 */

58 59

}

HAL_MspInit(void) is called inside the function HAL_Init(), which is in turn called in the main.c file as we will see soon. The function simply defines the priority of SysTick_IRQn exception, the one handled by the SysTick_Handler() ISR. The code assigns the highest user defined priority (the

lower the number, the higher is the priority). The last file that remains to analyze is src/main.c. It essentially contains three routines: SystemClock_Config(void), MX_GPIO_Init(void) and int main(void). The first function is used to initialize core and peripheral clocks. Its explanation is outside the scope of this chapter, but its code is not so much complicated to understand. MX_GPIO_Init(void) is the function that configures the GPIO. Chapter 6 will explain this matter in depth. Finally, we have the main(void) function, as shown below. Filename: src/main.c 60 61 62

int main(void) { /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */

63 64

/* USER CODE END 1 */

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

/* MCU Configuration----------------------------------------------------------*/ /* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the Systick. */ HAL_Init(); /* Configure the system clock */ SystemClock_Config(); /* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_GPIO_Init();

73 74

/* USER CODE BEGIN 2 */

75 76

/* USER CODE END 2 */

77 78 79 80 81 82

/* Infinite loop */ /* USER CODE BEGIN WHILE */ while (1) { /* USER CODE END WHILE */

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83

/* USER CODE BEGIN 3 */ } /* USER CODE END 3 */

84 85 86 87

}

88 89 90 91 92

/** System Clock Configuration */ void SystemClock_Config(void) {

The code is really self-explaining. First, the HAL is initialized by calling the function HAL_Init(). Don’t forget that this causes the function HAL_MSP_Init() to be automatically called by the HAL. Then, clocks and GPIOs are initialized. Finally, the application enters an infinite loop: that is the place where our code must be placed. You will have noticed that the code generated by CubeMX is full of these commented regions: /* USER CODE BEGIN 1 */ ... /* USER CODE END 1 */

What are those comments for? CubeMX is designed so that if you change the hardware configuration you can regenerate the project code without losing the pieces of code you have added. Placing your code inside those “guarded regions” should guarantee that you will not lose your work. However, I have to admit that CubeMX often makes a mess with generated files, and the user code goes lost. So, I suggest always generating another separated project and doing a copy and paste of the changed code inside the application files. This also gives you the full control over your code.

4.3.1 Add Something Useful to the Firmware Now that we are masters of the code generated by CubeMX, we can add something useful to the main() function. We will add the code required to blink the LD2 LED when the user presses the Nucleo blue button connected to PC13.

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Filename: src/main.c 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

while (1) { if(HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(B1_GPIO_Port, B1_Pin) == GPIO_PIN_RESET) { while(1) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin); HAL_Delay(500); } } }

At line 72 there is an infinite loop that waits until HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(B1_GPIO_Port, B1_Pin) returns the value GPIO_PIN_RESET, that is the user has pressed the blue button. When this happens, the MCU enters another infinite loop where the LD2_Pin pin is toggled every 500ms. The macros LD2_Pin, B1_GPIO_Port and B1_Pin are defined inside the mxconstants.h file. Why do we have to check when the PC13 goes low (that is HAL_GPIO_ReadPin() returns GPIO_PIN_RESET state) to detect that the button was pressed? The answer comes from the Nucleo schematics. Looking below, we can see that one side of the button is connected to the ground, and resistor R30 pulls up the MCU pin when the button is not pressed.

Now compile and try out the program on your Nucleo board!

4.4 Downloading Book Source Code Examples All examples presented in this book are available for downloading from its GitHub repository: http://github.com/cnoviello/mastering-stm32¹⁶. ¹⁶http://github.com/cnoviello/mastering-stm32

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Figure 20: The content of the GitHub repository containing all the book examples

The examples are divided for each Nucleo model, as you can see in Figure 20. You can clone the whole repository using git command: $ git clone http://github.com/cnoviello/mastering-stm32.git

or you can download only the repository content as a .zip package following this link¹⁷. Now you have to import the Eclipse project for your Nucleo into the Eclipse workspace. Open Eclipse and go to File->Import…. The Import dialog appears. Select the entry General>Existing Project into Workspace and click on the Next button. Now browse to the folder containing the example projects clicking on the Browse button. Once selected the folder, a list of the contained projects appear. Select the project you are interested in and check the entry Copy projects into workspace as shown in Figure 21 and click the Finish button. ¹⁷http://github.com/cnoviello/mastering-stm32/archive/master.zip

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Figure 21: Eclipse project import wizard

Now you can see all imported projects inside the Project Explorer pane. Close the projects you are not interested in. For example, if your Nucleo is based on an STM32F030 MCU, than close all projects except the nucleo-F030R8 one¹⁸ (or you can simply import only projects that fits your Nucleo boards).

Figure 22: Quick way to select project configurations

Each project contains all the examples shown in this book. This is done using different build configurations for each type of Nucleo. Build configurations is a feature that all modern IDEs ¹⁸You can do this simply by clicking with the right mouse button on the project you are interested in (in our example case, the stm32nucleo-F0) and select the entry Close Unrelated Projects.

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support. It allows having several project configurations inside the same project. Every Eclipse project has at least two build configurations: Debug and Release. The former is used to generate a binary file suitable to be debugged. The latter is used to generate optimized firmware for production. To select the configuration for your Nucleo go to Project->Build Configurations->Set Active menu and choose the corresponding configuration, or click the down arrow close the build icon, as shown in Figure 22. Now you can compile the whole project. At the end, you will find the binary file of your firmware inside the folder ∼/STM32Toolchain/projects/nucleo-XX/CHx-EXx folder.

5. Introduction to Debugging Coding is all about debugging, said a friend of mine one day. And this is dramatically true. We can do all the best writing really great code, but sooner or later we have to deal with software bugs (hardware bugs are another terrible beast to fight). And a good debugging of embedded software is all about to be a happy embedded developer. In this chapter we will start analyzing an important debugging tool: OpenOCD. It has become a sort of standard in the embedded development world, and thanks to the fact that many companies (including ST) are officially supporting its development, OpenOCD is facing a rapid growth. Every new release includes the support for tens of microcontrollers and development boards. Moreover, being portable among the three major Operating Systems (Windows, Linux and Mac OS), it allows us to use one unique and consistent tool to debug examples in this book. This chapter also covers another important debugging mechanism: ARM semi-hosting. It is a way to communicate input/output requests from application code to a host computer running a debugger and it is extremely useful to execute functions that would be too complicated (or impossible due to the lack of some hardware features) to execute on the target microcontroller. This chapter is a preliminary view of the debugging process, which would require a separate book even for simpler architectures like the STM32. A following chapter will give a close look to other debugging tools, and it will focus on Cortex-M exception mechanism, which is a distinctive feature of this platform.

5.1 Getting Started With OpenOCD The Open On-Chip Debugger¹ (OpenOCD) started as thesis work by Dominic Rath and now is actively developed and maintained by a large and growing community, with the official support from several silicon vendors. OpenOCD aims to provide debugging, in-system programming and boundary-scan testing for embedded target devices. It does so with the assistance of a hardware debug adapter, which provides the right kind of electrical signaling to the target being debugged. In our case, this adapter is the integrated ST-LINK debugger provided by the Nucleo board². Every debug adapter uses a transport protocol that mediates between the hardware under debugging and the host software, that is OpenOCD. ¹http://openocd.org ²The Nucleo ST-LINK debugger is designed so that it can be used as standalone adapter to debug an external device (e.g., a board designed by you equipping an STM32 MCU).

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Figure 1: How OpenOCD interacts with a Nucleo board

OpenOCD is designed to be a generic tool able to work with tens of hardware debuggers, using several transport protocols. This requires a way to configure how to interface the specific debugger, and this is done through the use of script files. OpenOCD uses an extended definition of Jim-TCL, which in turn is a subset of the TCL programming language. Figure 1 shows a typical debugging environment for the Nucleo board. Here we have the hardware part, composed by a Nucleo with its integrated ST-LINK interface, and OpenOCD interacting with the ST-LINK debugger using libusb, or any API-compatible library able to allow user-space applications to interface USB devices. OpenOCD also provides needed drivers to interact with the internal STM32 flash memory³ and the ST-LINK protocol. So it is instructed about the specific hardware under debugging (and the used debugger) through configuration files. Once OpenOCD has established the connection with the board to debug, it provides two ways to communicate with the developer. The first one is through a local telnet connection on the port 4444. OpenOCD provides a convenient shell that is used to send commands to it and to receive information about the board under debugging. The second option is offered by using it as remote server for GDB. OpenOCD also implements the GDB remote protocol and it is used as “mediator” component between GDB and the hardware. This allows us to debug the firmware using GDB and, more important, using Eclipse as graphical debugging environment.

5.1.1 Launching OpenOCD Before we configure Eclipse to use OpenOCD in our project, it is better to take a look to how OpenOCD works at a lower level. This will allow us to familiarize with it and, in case something does not works properly, it will allow to better investigate for issues related to the OpenOCD configuration. ³One common misunderstanding about the STM32 platform is that all STM32 devices have a common and standardized way to access to their internal flash. This is not true, since every STM32 family has specific capabilities regarding their peripherals, including the internal flash. This requires OpenOCD to provide drivers to handle all STM32 devices.

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The instructions to start OpenOCD are different between Windows and UNIX like systems. So, jump to the paragraph that fits your OS. 5.1.1.1 Launching OpenOCD on Windows Open the Windows Command Line tool⁴ and go inside the C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd\scripts folder and execute the following command: $ cd C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd\scripts $ ..\bin\openocd.exe -f board\

where must be substituted with the config file that fits your Nucleo board, according to Table 1⁵. For example, if your Nucleo is the Nucleo-F401RE, then the proper config file to pass to OpenOCD is st_nucleo_f4.cfg. Table 1: Corresponding OpenOCD board file for a given Nucleo

Nucleo P/N

OpenOCD 0.9.0 board script file

NUCLEO-F446RE NUCLEO-F411RE NUCLEO-F410RB NUCLEO-F401RE NUCLEO-F334R8 NUCLEO-F303RE NUCLEO-F302R8 NUCLEO-F103RB NUCLEO-F091RC NUCLEO-F072RB NUCLEO-F070RB NUCLEO-F030R8 NUCLEO-L476RG NUCLEO-L152RE NUCLEO-L073RZ NUCLEO-L053R8

st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg stm32f334discovery.cfg st_nucleo_f3.cfg st_nucleo_f3.cfg st_nucleo_f103rb.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f0.cfg st_nucleo_f4.cfg st_nucleo_l1.cfg stm32l0discovery.cfg stm32l0discovery.cfg

If everything went the right way, you should see messages similar to those appearing in Figure 2. ⁴It is strongly suggested to use a decent terminal emulator like ConEmu(http://conemu.github.io/) or similar. ⁵OpenOCD 0.9.0 still does not provide full support to all types of Nucleo boards, but the community is working hard on this and in the next main release the support will be completed. However, you can use alternative configuration files to work with your Nucleo at the time of writing this chapter.

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Figure 2: What appears on the command line prompt when OpenOCD starts correctly

At the same time, the LED LD1 on the Nucleo board should start blinking GREEN and RED alternatively. Now we can jump to the next paragraph. 5.1.1.2 Launching OpenOCD on Linux and MacOS X. Linux and MacOS X users share the same instructions. Go inside the ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd/tcl folder and execute the following command: $ cd ~/STM32Toolchain/openocd/tcl $ ../src/openocd -f board/

where must be substituted with the config file that fits your Nucleo board, according to Table 1. For example, if your Nucleo is the Nucleo-F401RE, then the proper config file to pass to OpenOCD is st_nucleo_f4.cfg. If everything went the right way, you should see messages similar to those appearing in Figure 2. At the same time, the LED LD1 on the Nucleo board should start blinking GREEN and RED alternatively. Now we can jump to the next paragraph.

Introduction to Debugging

Common OpenOCD Issues on the Windows Platform If you experienced issues trying to use OpenOCD on Windows, probably this paragraph could help you solving them. It happens really often that Windows users cannot use OpenOCD the first time they install it. When OpenOCD is executed, an error message regarding libusb is thrown, as shown at lines 12-14 below. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Open On-Chip Debugger 0.9.0 (2015-05-19-12:09) Licensed under GNU GPL v2 For bug reports, read http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html Info : The selected transport took over low-level target control. The results might differ\ compared to plain JTAG/SWD adapter speed: 2000 kHz adapter_nsrst_delay: 100 none separate srst_only separate srst_nogate srst_open_drain connect_deassert_srst Info : Unable to match requested speed 2000 kHz, using 1800 kHz Info : Unable to match requested speed 2000 kHz, using 1800 kHz Info : clock speed 1800 kHz Error: libusb_open() failed with LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED Error: libusb_open() failed with LIBUSB_ERROR_NOT_SUPPORTED Error: libusb_open() failed with LIBUSB_ERROR_ACCESS Error: open failed in procedure 'init' in procedure 'ocd_bouncer'

This happens because a wrong version of libusb is used to interface the ST-LINK Debug Interface. To solve this, download the Zadig utility for your Windows version. Launch the Zadig tool ensuring that your Nucleo board is plugged to the USB port, and go to the Option->List All Devices menu. After a while the ST-LINK Debug (Interface 0) entry should appear inside the device list combo box. If the installed driver is not the WinUSB one, then select it and click on Reinstall Driver button, as shown below.

http://zadig.akeo.ie/

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5.1.2 Connecting to the OpenOCD Telnet Console Once OpenOCD starts, it acts as a daemon program⁶ waiting for external connections. OpenOCD offers two ways to interact with it. One of this is through a telnet⁷ connection to the localhost port 4444 ⁸. Let us start a connection. $ telnet localhost 4444 Trying ::1... telnet: connect to address ::1: Connection refused Trying 127.0.0.1... Connected to localhost. Escape character is '^]'. Open On-Chip Debugger >

To access to the list of supported commands, we can type help. The list is quite huge, and its content is outside of the scope of this book (the official OpenOCD document is a good place to start understanding what those commands are used for). Here, we will simply see how to flash the firmware. Before we can upload a firmware to the target MCU of our Nucleo, we have to halt the MCU. This is done issuing a reset init command: Open On-Chip Debugger > reset init target state: halted target halted due to debug-request, current mode: Thread xPSR: 0x01000000 pc: 0x080002a8 msp: 0x20018000, semihosting

OpenOCD says to us that the micro is now halted and we can proceed to upload the firmware using the flash write_image command:

⁶Daemon is the way in UNIX to name those programs that works like a service. For example, a hTTP server or an FTP server is called a daemon in UNIX. In the Windows world these kind of programs are called services. ⁷Starting from Windows 7, telnet is an optional component to install. However, it is strongly suggested to use a more evolute telnet client like putty (http://bit.ly/1jsQjnt). ⁸The default port can be changed issuing a telnet_port command inside the board configuration file. This can be useful if we are debugging two different boards using two OpenOCD sessions, as we will see next.

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Introduction to Debugging > flash write_image erase auto erase enabled Padding image section 0 with 3 bytes target state: halted target halted due to breakpoint, current mode: Thread xPSR: 0x61000000 pc: 0x20000042 msp: 0xfffffffc, semihosting wrote 16384 bytes from file in 0.775872s (20.622 KiB/s)

>

where is the full path to the binary file (it is usually stored inside the Debug subdirectory in the Eclipse project folder). To start running our firmware we can simply type the reset command to the OpenOCD command line. There are other few OpenOCD commands that may be useful during firmware debugging, especially when dealing with hardware faults. The reg commands shows the current status of all Cortex-M core registries when the target MCU is halted: > reset halt ... > reg ===== arm v7m registers (0) r0 (/32): 0x00000000 (1) r1 (/32): 0x00000000 ...

Another group of useful commands are md[whb] to read a word, half-word and byte respectively. For example, the command: > mdw 0x8000000 0x08000000: 12345678

reads 32 bit (a word) from the address 0x8000 000. The commands mw[whb] are the equivalent commands to store data in a given memory location. Now you can close the OpenOCD daemon sending the shutdown command to the telnet console. This will also close the telnet session.

5.1.3 Configuring Eclipse Now that we are familiar with the way OpenOCD works, we can configure Eclipse to debug our application from the IDE. This will dramatically simplify the debugging process, allowing us to easily set breakpoints in our code, to inspect the content of variables and to do step-by-step execution.

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Eclipse is a generic and high configurable IDE, and it allows to create configurations that easily integrate external tools like OpenOCD in its development life-cycle. The process we are going to accomplish here is essentially to create a debug configuration. There are at least three ways to integrate OpenOCD in Eclipse, but only one is probably the more convenient way when we deal with the ST-LINK debugger. We will configure OpenOCD as external debugging tool that we execute only once and leave as daemon process, like we have done in the previous paragraph executing it from command line prompt. The next step is to create a GDB debug configuration that instructs GDB to connect to OpenOCD port 3333 and use it as GDB server.

Figure 3: The External Tools Configurations dialog

First, ensure that you have a project opened in Eclipse. Then, go to Run->External Tools->External Tools Configurations… menu. The External Tools Configurations dialog appears. Highlight the Program entry in the list view on the left and click on the New icon (the one circled in red in Figure 3). Now, fill the following fields in this way: • Name: write the name you like for this configuration; it is suggested to use OpenOCD FX, where FX is the STM32 family of your Nucleo board (F0, F1, and so on). • Location: choose the location of the OpenOCD executable (C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd\bin\ openocd.exe for Windows users, ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd/src/openocd for Linux and Mac OS users). • Working directory: choose the location of the OpenOCD scripts directory (C:\STM32Toolchain\openocd\scripts for Windows users, ∼/STM32Toolchain/openocd/tcl for Linux and Mac OS users). • Arguments: write the command line arguments for OpenOCD, that is “-f board\” for Windows users and “-f board/” for Linux

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and Mac OS users. must be substituted with the config file that fits your Nucleo board, according to Table 1. When completed, click on the Apply button and than on the Close one. To avoid mistakes that could cause confusion, Figure 4 shows how to fill the fields on Windows and Figure 5 on a UNIX-like system (arrange the home directory accordingly).

Figure 4: How to fill the External Tools Configurations fields on Windows

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Figure 5: How to fill the External Tools Configurations fields on UNIX systems

To launch OpenOCD now you can simply go to Run->External Tools menu and choose the configuration you have created. If everything went the right way, you should see the classical OpenOCD messages inside the Eclipse Console, as shown in Figure 6. At the same time, the LED LD1 on the Nucleo board should start blinking GREEN and RED alternatively.

Figure 6: The OpenOCD output in the Eclipse console

Now we are ready to create a Debug Configuration to use GDB in conjunction with OpenOCD. This operation must be repeated every time we create a new project.

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Go to Run->Debug Configurations… menu. Highlight the GDB OpenOCD Debugging entry in the list view on the left and click on the New icon (the one circled in red in Figure 7).

Figure 7: The Debug Configuration dialog

Eclipse fills automatically all the needed fields in the Main tab. However, if you are using a project with several build configurations, you need to click on the Search Project button and choose the ELF file for the active build configuration. Unfortunately, sometimes Eclipse is not able to automatically locate the binary file. This is probably a bug, or at least a wired behaviour. It may happens really often especially when there are more than one project opened. To address this issue, click on the Browse button and find the binary file in the project folder (usually you find it inside the /Debug sub-directory). Alternatively, another solution consists in closing the Debug Configuration dialog, then refreshing the whole project tree (by clicking with the right mouse button on the project root and selecting the Refresh entry). You will notice that Eclipse updates the content of Binaries subfolder. Now you can re-open again the Debug Configuration dialog and complete the configuration by clicking on the Search Project button.

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Figure 8: The Debug Configuration dialog - Debugger section

Next, go in the Debugger tab and uncheck the entry Start OpenOCD locally, since we have created the specific OpenOCD external tool configuration. Ensure that all other fields are equal to the ones shown in Figure 8.

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Figure 9: The Debug Configuration dialog - Startup section

Now, go in the Startup section and leave all options as default but do not forget to add the OpenOCD command set remotetimeout 20 as shown in Figure 9. What Do All Those Fields Mean? If you take a pause and look at the fields in this section, you should recognize most of commands we have typed when using the OpenOCD telnet session to load the firmware on our Nucleo board. The Initial reset checkbox is the equivalent of the reset init to reset the MCU. The Load symbols and the Load executables are the equivalent flash write_image command⁹. Finally, the set remotetimeout 20 increases the keep alive time between GDB and OpenOCD, which ensures that the OpenOCD backend is still alive. 20(ms) is a proven value to use. ⁹Experienced STM32 users would dispute this sentence. They would be right: here we are issuing different GDB load commands, and not the OpenOCD flash write_image command. However, for the sake of simplicity, consider that sentence true. A later chapter will explain this better.

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Figure 10: The Debug Configuration dialog - Common section

Finally, go in the Common section and check the option Shared file¹⁰ in Save as frame box and check the entry Debug in Display in favorites menu frame box, as shown in Figure 10. Click on the Apply button and then on the Close one. Now we are ready to start debugging.

5.1.4 Debugging in Eclipse Eclipse provides a complete separated perspective dedicated to debugging. It is designed to offer the most of required tools during the debugging process, and it can be customized at need adding other views offered by additional plug-ins (more about this later). ¹⁰This setting saves the debug configuration at project level, and not as global Eclipse setting. This will allow us to share the configuration with other people if we work in team.

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Figure 11: The Debug icon to start debugging in Eclipse

To start a new debug session using the debug configuration made earlier, you can click on the arrow near the Debug icon on the Eclipse toolbar and choose the debug configuration, as shown in Figure 11. Eclipse will ask you if you want to switch to the Debug Perspective. Click on the Yes button (it is strongly suggested to flag the Remember my decision checkbox). Eclipse switches to the Debug Perspective, as shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12: The Debug Perspective

Let us see what each view is used for. The top-left view is called Debug and it shows all the running debug activities. This is a tree-view, and the first entry represents the OpenOCD process launched using the external debug configuration. We can eventually stop the execution of OpenOCD

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highlighting the executable program and clicking on the Terminate icon on the Eclipse toolbar, as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13: How to terminate the execution of a debug activity

The second activity showed in the Debug view represents the GDB process. This activity is really useful, because when the program is halted the complete call stack is shown here and it offers a quick way to navigate inside the call stack.

Figure 14: The variables inspection pane in the debug perspective

The top-right view contains several sub-panes. The Variables one offers the ability to inspect the content of variables defined in the current stack frame (that is, the selected procedure in the call stack). Clicking on an inspected variable with the right button of mouse, we can further customize the way the variable is shown. For example, we can change its numeric representation, from decimal

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(the default one) to hexadecimal or binary form. We can also cast it to a different datatype (this is really useful when we are dealing with raw amount of data that we know to be of a given type - for example, a bunch of bytes coming from a stream file). We can also go to the memory address where the variable is stored clicking on the View Memory… entry in the contextual menu. The Breakpoint pane lists all the used breakpoints in the application. A breakpoint is a hardware primitive that allows to stop the execution of the firmware when the Program Counter(PC) reaches a given instruction. When this happens, the debugger is warned and Eclipse will show the context of the halted instruction. Every Cortex-M base MCU has a limited number of hardware breakpoints. Table 2 summarizes the maximum breakpoints and watchpoints¹¹ for a given Cortex-M family. Table 2: Available breakpoints/watchpoints in Cortex-M cores

Cortex-M

Breakpoints

Watchpoints

M0/0+ M3/4/7

4 6

2 4

Figure 15: How to add a breakpoint at a given line number

Eclipse allows to easily setup breakpoints inside the code from the editor view in the center of Debug perspective. To place a breakpoint, simply double-click on the blue stripe on the left of the editor, near to the instruction where we want to halt the MCU execution. A blue bullet will appear, as shown in Figure 15. When the program counter reaches the first assembly instruction constituting to that line of code, the execution is halted and Eclipse shows the corresponding line of code as shown in Figure 12. Once we have inspected the code, we have several options to resume the execution. ¹¹A watchpoint, indeed, is a more advanced debugging primitive that allows to define conditional breakpoints over data and peripheral registers, that is the MCU halts its execution only if a variable satisfies an expression (e.g. var == 10). We will analyze watchpoints in a following chapter.

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Figure 16: The Eclipse debug toolbar

Figure 16 shows the Eclipse debug toolbar. The highlighted icons allow to control the debug process. Let us see each of them in depth. • Skip all breakpoints: this toggle icon allows to temporarily ignore all the breakpoint used. This allows to run the firmware without interruption. We can resume breakpoints by deactivating the icon. • Resume execution: this icon restarts the execution of the firmware from the current PC. The adjacent icon, the pause, will stop the execution on request. • Stop debug: this icon causes the end of the debug session. GDB is terminated and the target board is halted. • Step into routine: this icon is the first one of two icons used to do step-by-step debugging. When we execute the firmware line-by-line, it could be important to enter inside a called routine. This icon allows to do this, otherwise the next icon is what needed to execute the next instruction inside the current stack frame. • Step over: the next icon of the debug toolbar has a counterintuitive name. It is called step over, and its name might suggest “skip the next instruction” (that is, go over). But this icon is the one used to execute the next instruction. Its name comes from the fact that, unlike the previous icon, it executes a called routine without entering inside it. • Reset MCU: this icon is used to do a soft reset of MCU, without stopping the debug and relaunch it again. Finally, another interesting pane of that view is the Registers one. It displays the content of all Cortex-M registers and it is the equivalent of the reg OpenOCD command we have seen before. It

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can be really useful to understand the current state of the Cortex-M core. In a subsequent chapter about debugging we will see how to deal with Cortex-M exceptions and we will learn how to interpret the content of some important Cortex-M registers.

5.2 ARM Semihosting ARM semihosting is a distinctive feature of the Cortex-M platform, and it is extremely useful for testing and debug purpose. It is a mechanism that allows target boards (e.g. the Nucleo board) to “exchange messages” from the embedded firmware to a host computer running a debugger. This mechanism enables some functions in the C library, such as printf() and scanf(), to use the screen and keyboard of the host instead of having a screen and keyboard on the target system. This is useful because development hardware often does not have all the input and output facilities of the final system. Semihosting enables the host computer to provide these facilities. Semihosting requires additional runtime library code and it can be implemented in several ways on Cortex-M architecture. However, the preferred one is by the use of the bktp ARM assembly instruction, the one used by the debugger to set breakpoints. Luckily for us, Liviu Ionescu has already packed in his GNU ARM Eclipse plugin a working support for the most common semihosting operations. So it is extremely easy to enable this feature for our projects. However, a deep understanding of how semihosting works can dramatically simplify the debug process in certain critical operations. The next paragraph will give a quick explanation of how to configure our Eclipse project to use semihosting in our code. This will allows us to print messages on the OpenOCD console. This is a fantastic debug tool, especially when you need to understand what is happening to your firmware.

5.2.1 Enable Semihosting on a New Project GNU ARM plug-in allows to easily enable semihosting support during the project generation. We already encountered these options so far, but for the sake of simplicity we did not care about them. Now it is the right time to have a look. Let us generate a new project.

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Figure 17: Project settings needed to enable semihosting

Go to File->New->C Project menu. Select the Hello World ARM Cortex-M C/C++ project type and choose the project name you like. In the next step, compile the Cortex-M core related fields according your target board. Choose “Freestanding (no POSIX system calls)” for the field Use system calls and “Semihosting DEBUG channel” for the field Trace output. Continue with the project wizard until it finishes. Next, import the ST HAL and project skeleton from CubeMX as described in Chapter 4. Now we have a project ready to use semihosting. The tracing routines are available inside the system/src/diag/Trace.c file. They are: • trace_printf(): it is the equivalent of C printf() function. It allows to format string with a variable number of parameters, and it adopts the same string formatting convention of the C programming languange. • trace_puts(): writes a string to the debug console terminating it with a newline char '\n' automatically. • trace_putchar(): writes one char to the debug console. • trace_dump_args() it is a convenient routine that automatically does pretty printing of command line arguments. The following example shows how to use the trace_printf() function.

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Filename: src/main-ex1.c 34 35

#include "stm32f4xx_hal.h" #include "diag/Trace.h"

36 37 38

void SystemClock_Config(void); static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);

39 40 41 42

int main(void) { char msg[] = "Hello STM32 lovers!\n";

43

HAL_Init(); SystemClock_Config(); MX_GPIO_Init();

44 45 46 47

trace_printf(msg);

48 49

while(1) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); HAL_Delay(500); }

50 51 52 53 54

}

First of all, to use tracing routines we have to correctly import the Trace.h header file, as done at line 35. Next, at line 48, we call the trace_printf() function passing a string to print. The rest of the main() simply blinks the Nucleo LD2 for ever. Read Carefully Semihosting implementation in OpenOCD is designed so that every string must be terminated with the newline character (\n) before the string appears on the OpenOCD console. This is a really common error, and it leads to a lot of frustration the first times programmers start using it. Never forget to terminate every string passed to trace_printf() or the C printf() routine with the (\n).

To use semihosting we need one more important step: we have to instruct OpenOCD to enable it. Create a new Debug configuration as shown in the previous paragraphs, but ensure that in the Startup section the entry Enable ARM semihosting is checked, as shown in Figure 9 (this is the default behavior, but it is better to give a look). Ok. Now we are ready to launch our firmware. The “Hello STM32 lovers” string will appear on the OpenOCD console, as shown in Figure 18.

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Figure 18: The output string coming from the Nucleo routed on the OpenOCD console

Sometimes, it happens that the OpenOCD console is not shown automatically when a message is printed, but the GDB console remains active. You can switch to OpenOCD console clicking on the console icon (circled in red in the image below).

This behavior can be changed by going in the global Eclipse preferences->Run/Debug>Console and checking the Show when program writes to standard out flag.

5.2.1.1 Using Semihosting With C Standard Library C run-time library provides several functions used to do I/O manipulation, like the printf()/scanf() routines for terminal output/input management and the file manipulation functions (fopen(), fseek() and so on). These functions are built around low-level services provided by the underlying operating system, also called system calls.

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STM32 applications developed with GCC are automatically linked with the newlib-nano, a lightweight version of the standard C/C++ library explicitly designed to work with microcontrollers. newlibnano does not provide an implementation of low-level system calls. It is our responsibility to provide an implementation for those functions if we need to use them. Since the target board lacks of terminal management capabilities (no screen and no input devices), we can use semihosting to route those low-level functions to the host debugger, that is OpenOCD.

Figure 19: How syscalls are routed to debugger using semihosting

Figure 19 clearly shows the whole process. For example, let us consider the printf() function. When we invoke it in our firmware, newlib transfers the control to the _write() routine. So, we have to provide our implementation of this function that sends the string to OpenOCD, which in turns display it on the Host PC console. Liviu Ionescu has already packed in his plugin the most used low-levels system calls. We only need to enable their compilation, and we can start using the classical C run-time I/O manipulation environment. To enable it, go to Project->Properties menu. Next go inside the C/C++ Build->Settings section. In the Optimization section, uncheck the entry Assume freestanding environment (ffreestanding). Click on the OK button, go to Project->Clean.. and rebuild the whole project.

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What Does Exactly Mean Freestanding Environment? The standard C not only precisely defines the main language, but it also characterizes some libraries that are considered essential part of the language itself. For example, strings management, sorting and comparison, character manipulation and similar services are invariably expected in all C compilers implementation. Some of these libraries function inevitably rely on the underlying Operating Systems. For example, it is almost impossible to talk about file manipulation routines without the underlying notion of filesystem (open(), write(), etc.). The same happens for terminal management functions (printf(), scanf(), etc.). The standard defines as hosted environment a run-time environment that provides all the standard library functions, including those functions that need some underlying OS services to accomplish their task. Instead, it defines as freestanding environment a runtime environment that does not rely on the underling OS and, hence, it does not provide all those standard library functions related to “more low-level” activities. When coding applications for the bare metal (that is, when we develop applications for embedded devices like the STM32 platform) is common to assume a freestanding environment. Otherwise, it is our responsibility to provide those low-level routines (_write(), _seek(), and so on) which the standard library assumes in its standard library functions.

The following code can be used to test if all works correctly. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 34 35

#include "stm32f4xx_hal.h" #include

36 37 38

void SystemClock_Config(void); static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);

39 40 41 42

int main(void) { char msg[20], name[20];

43 44 45 46

HAL_Init(); SystemClock_Config(); MX_GPIO_Init();

47 48 49 50 51

printf("What's your name?: \r\n"); scanf("%s", name); sprintf(msg, "Hello %s!\r\n", name); printf(msg);

52 53 54 55

FILE *fd = fopen("/tmp/test.out", "w+"); fwrite(msg, sizeof(char), strlen(msg), fd); fclose(fd);

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The code is really self-explaining. It uses standard C functions like printf() and scanf() to print and to retrieve a string from the OpenOCD console (lines 48-51). Next it opens the test.out file in the /tmp folder on the host PC¹² and it writes the same string inside it (lines 53-55). This feature is extremely useful in many situations. For example, it can be used to log firmware activities inside a file on the PC for debugging purpose. Another example is a web server running on a target board, and all HTML files resides on the host PC: you are free to change them to test how they render without the need to re-flash the target file every time you change it.

5.2.2 Enable Semihosting on an Existing Project If you have an existing project and you want to enable semihosting, we need to distinguish between two cases. The first one is the more simple. If you have generated the project using the GNU ARM plug-in, you only need to add the following global macro to project settings: • If you want to use only the trace_printf() functions from Liviu Ionescu, then add the macros TRACE and OS_USE_TRACE_SEMIHOSTING_DEBUG. • If you want to use the C standard library I/O manipulation functions, then add the macro OS_USE_SEMIHOSTING and uncheck the flag Assume freestanding environment (-ffreestanding). The second case is the more complex. You have an existing project imported in Eclipse that has not been generated using the GNU ARM Eclipse plugin. If it is sufficient to use the trace_printf() function, then you can import inside your project these files taken from a project generated with the GNU ARM plugin: • src/diag/trace_impl.c • src/diag/Trace.c • include/diag/Trace.h Next, you have to define the macros TRACE and OS_USE_TRACE_SEMIHOSTING_DEBUG at project level and to call the routine initialise_monitor_handles() in your main() routine. In case you want to use all standard C library I/O routines, you need to: • • • •

import inside your project the src/newlib/_syscalls.c file; define the macro OS_USE_SEMIHOSTING at project level; uncheck the flag Assume freestanding environment (-ffreestanding); call the routine initialise_monitor_handles() in your main() routine.

¹²Windows users have to rearrange the path accordingly. For example, use C:\Temp\test.out¹³ as filename.

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5.2.3 Semihosting Drawbacks Semihosting is an excellent feature, but it has also several drawbacks. First of all, it works only during a debug session, and it completely hangs the firmware if not running under the GDB control. For example, upload one of the previous examples on your Nucleo board and terminate the debug session. If you reset your board pressing the RESET button, you will not see the LD2 LED blinking. This happens because the firmware is stuck in the trace_printf() routine (more about why this happens in the next paragraph). This is a really common issue that every novice encounters every time it starts working with the STM32 platform. Another important aspect to keep in mind is that semihosting has a great impact on the firmware performance. Every semihosting call costs several CPU cycles, and it impacts on the overall performance. Moreover, this cost in unpredictable, because it involves activities that happens outside the MCU execution streams (more about this in the next paragraph). In Chapter 8 we will see another interesting technique to exchange messages with the host PC using one of the STM32 USARTs.

5.2.4 Understanding How Semihosting Works If you are new to the STM32 world and you are a little bit confused by its initial complexity, you can stop reading this paragraph and jump to next chapter. What we will be described here is an advanced topic, that needs a bit of understanding of how ARM architecture works and some advanced GCC features. It is not required you read this paragraph, but having a look at it could improve your global understanding. There are several ways to implement semihosting capabilities. One of this is through the use of software breakpoints. ARM Cortex-M offers two types of breakpoints: Hardware (HBP) and Software (SBP) breakpoints. HBP is set by programming the Break Point Unit (a hardware unit inside every Cortex-M core) to monitor the core buses for an instruction fetch from a specific memory location. HBP can be set on any location in RAM or ROM using an external physical programmer connected to the Debug Interface. In case of the Nucleo board, the integrated ST-LINK programmer is connected to the MCU Debug Interface, and it is in turn managed by OpenOCD. Figure 20 shows the relation between the external debugger and the internal MCU debug unit.

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Figure 20: Debug components in Cortex-M microcontrollers

SWP are implemented by adding a special bkpt instruction immediately before the code we want to inspect. When the core executes the breakpoint instruction, it will be forced into debug state. The debugger sees that the MCU is halted and start debugging the MCU. The bkpt instruction accepts an immediate 8-bit opcode, which can be used to specify particular break condition. If you want to halt the execution of your firmware and transfer the control to the debugger, then the instruction: asm("bkpt #0")

is what you need. This technique is used to implement software conditional breakpoint. For example, suppose you have a strange fault condition that you need to inspect. You could have a piece of code like the following one: if(cond == 0) { ... } else if(cond > 0) { ... } else { /* Abnormal state, let us debug it */ asm("bkpt #0"); }

In the above code, if cond variable assumes a negative value, the MCU is halted and the control is transferred to GDB, which allows us to inspect the call stack and the current stack frame. Semihosting is implemented using the special immediate opcode 0xAB. That is, the instruction: asm("bkpt #0xAB")

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causes the MCU to stop, but this time OpenOCD sees the special opcode and interprets it as semihosting operation. By convention, the r0 register contains the type of operation (_write(), _read(), etc) and the r1 register contains the pointer to the region of memory containing the function parameters. For example, if we want to write a null terminated string on the host PC console, then we can write the following assembly instructions: asm ( "mov r0, 0x4 \n" "mov r1, 0x20001400 \n" "bkpt #0xAB"

/* OPCODE for WRITE0 */ /* address of string to transfer to OpenOCD */

);

Table 3 summarizes the supported semihosting operations. Please, take note that OpenOCD currently does not support all of them. The following complete C code shows how to implement the trace_printf() function. Filename: src/main-ex3.c 34

#include "stm32f4xx_hal.h"

35 36 37

void SystemClock_Config(void); static void MX_GPIO_Init(void);

38 39 40 41

int main(void) { char msg[] = "Hello STM32 lovers!\n";

42

HAL_Init(); SystemClock_Config(); MX_GPIO_Init();

43 44 45 46

asm volatile ( " mov r0, 0x4 \n" " mov r1, %[msg] \n" " bkpt #0xAB" : : [msg] "r" (msg) : "r0", "r1" );

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

while(1);

56 57

}

Here we use the capabilities of GCC asm() function to pass the pointer of the msg buffer, containing the string “Hello STM32 lovers!\n”.

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Now you can understand why semihosting causes the MCU to become stuck if the debugger is not active. The bkpt instruction halts the MCU execution, and there is no way to restore it without using an external debugger (or doing a hardware reset). Moreover, every time the bkpt instruction is issued, the internal MCU activities are suspended until the control passes to the debugger. During this time, important asynchronous events (like interrupts generated by peripherals) could be lost. This interval time is totally unpredictable, and it depends on many factors (speed of the hardware interface, current Host PC load, speed of ST-LINK firmware, etc., etc.). Table 3: Summary of semihosting operations

Semihosting operation

immediate opcode

Description

EnterSVC

0x17

ReportException

0x18

SYS_CLOSE

0x02

SYS_CLOCK

0x10

SYS_ELAPSED

0x30

SYS_ERRNO

0x13

SYS_FLEN SYS_GET_CMDLINE

0x0C 0x15

SYS_HEAPINFO

0x16

SYS_ISERROR

0x08

SYS_ISTTY

0x09

SYS_OPEN

0x01

SYS_READ SYS_READC SYS_REMOVE

0x06 0x07 0x0E

Sets the processor to Supervisor mode and disables all interrupts by setting both interrupt mask bits in the new CPSR. This SVC can be called by an application to report an exception to the debugger directly. The most common use is to report that execution has completed, using ADP_Stopped_ApplicationExit. Closes a file on the host system. The handle must reference a file that was opened with SYS_OPEN. Returns the number of centiseconds since the execution started. Returns the number of elapsed target ticks since execution started. Use SYS_TICKFREQ to determine the tick frequency. Returns the value of the C library errno variable associated with the host implementation of the semihosting SVCs. Returns the length of a specified file. Returns the command line used to call the executable, that is, argc and argv. Returns the system stack and heap parameters. The values returned are typically those used by the C library during initialization. Determines whether the return code from another semihosting call is an error status or not. This call is passed a parameter block containing the error code to examine. Checks whether a file is connected to an interactive device. Opens a file on the host system. The file path is specified either as relative to the current directory of the host process, or absolute, using the path conventions of the host operating system. Reads the contents of a file into a buffer. Reads a byte from the console. Deletes a specified file on the host filing system.

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Table 3: Summary of semihosting operations

Semihosting operation

immediate opcode

Description

SYS_RENAME SYS_SEEK

0x0F 0x0A

SYS_SYSTEM

0x12

SYS_TICKFREQ SYS_TIME

0x31 0x11

SYS_TMPNAM

0x0D

SYS_WRITE

0x05

SYS_WRITEC

0x03

SYS_WRITE0

0x04

Renames a specified file. Seeks to a specified position in a file using an offset specified from the start of the file. The file is assumed to be a byte array and the offset is given in bytes. Passes a command to the host command-line interpreter. This enables you to execute a system command such as dir, ls, or pwd. The terminal I/O is on the host, and is not visible to the target. Returns the tick frequency. Returns the number of seconds since 00:00 January 1, 1970. Returns a temporary name for a file identified by a system file identifier. Writes the contents of a buffer to a specified file at the current file position. Current OpenOCD implementation expects that the buffer is terminated with the newline character (\n). Writes a character byte, pointed to by R1, to the debug channel. When executed under an ARM debugger, the character appears on the host debugger console. Writes a null-terminated string to the debug channel. When executed under an ARM debugger, the characters appear on the host debugger console.

II Diving into the HAL

6. GPIO Management With the advent of the STCube initiative, ST has decided to completely revamp the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) for its STM32 microcontrollers. Prior to the release of the STCube HAL, the official library to develop STM32 applications was for a long time the Standard Peripheral Library. Despite of the fact it is still widespread between STM32 developers, and you can find a lot of examples on the web using this library, the STCube HAL is a great improvement respect of the old Standard Peripheral Library. In fact, being the first library developed by ST, not all of its parts were consistent between different STM32 families and a lot of bugs were present in the early versions of the library. This caused the emergence of different alternatives to the Standard Peripheral Library, and the official software from ST is still considered poor by many people. So, ST has completely redesigned the HAL and, even if it still needs a little bit of tuning, it is what ST will officially support in the future. Moreover, the new HAL simplifies a lot the porting of code between the STM32 sub-families (F0, F1, etc.), reducing the effort needed to adapt your application to a different MCU (without a good abstraction layer, the pin-to-pin compatibility is just an advantage from the marketing point of view). For this and several other reasons, this book is based exclusively on the STCube HAL. This chapter starts our journey inside the HAL looking to one of its simplest modules: HAL_GPIO. We have already used many functions from this module in the early examples in this book, but now it is the right time to understand all possibilities offered by a so simple and commonly used peripheral. However, before we can start describing HAL features, it is best to give a quick look to how the STM32 peripherals are mapped to logical addresses and how they are represented inside the HAL library.

6.1 STM32 Peripherals Mapping and HAL Handlers Every STM32 peripheral is interconnected to the MCU core by several orders of buses, as shown in Figure 1¹. ¹Here, to simplify this topic, we are considering the bus organization of one of the simplest STM32 microcontrollers, the STM32F030. STM32F4 and STM32F7, for example, have a more advanced bus interconnection system, which is outside the scope of this book. Please, always refer to the reference manual of your MCU.

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Figure 1: Bus architecture of an STM32F030 microcontroller

• The System bus connects the system bus of the Cortex-M core to a BusMatrix, which manages the arbitration between the core and the DMA. Both the core and the the DMA act as masters. • The DMA bus connects the Advanced High-performance Bus(AHB) master interface of the DMA to the BusMatrix, which manages the access of CPU and DMA to SRAM, flash memory and peripherals. • The BusMatrix manages the access arbitration between the core system bus and the DMA master bus. The arbitration uses a Round Robin algorithm. The BusMatrix is composed of two masters (CPU, DMA) and four slaves (flash memory interface, SRAM, AHB1 with AHB to Advanced Peripheral Bus(APB) bridge and AHB2). AHB peripherals are connected on system bus through a BusMatrix to allow DMA access. • The AHB to APB bridge provides full synchronous connections between the AHB and the APB bus, where the most of peripherals are connected. As we will see in a later chapter, each of these buses is connected to different clock sources, which determine the maximum speed for the peripheral connected to that bus². In Chapter 1 we have learned that peripherals are mapped to a specific region of the 4GB address space, starting from 0x4000 0000 and lasting up to 0x5FFF FFFF. This region is further divided in several sub-regions, each one mapped to a specific peripheral, as shown in Figure 2. ²For some of you the above description may be unclear and too complex to understand. Don’t worry and keep reading the next content in this chapter. They will become clear once you reach the chapter dedicated to the DMA.

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Figure 2: Memory map of peripheral regions for an STM32F030 microcontroller

The way this space is organized, and hence how peripherals are mapped, is specific of a given STM32 microcontroller. For example, in an STM32F030 microcontroller the AHB2 bus is mapped to the region ranging from 0x4800 0000 to 0x4800 17FF. This means that the region is 6144 bytes wide. This region is further divided in several sub-regions, each one corresponding to a specific peripheral. Following the previous example, the GPIOA peripheral (which manages all pins connected to the PORT-A) is mapped from 0x4800 0000 to 0x4800 03FF, which means that it occupies 1KB of aliased peripheral memory. How this memory-mapped space is in turn organized depends on the specific peripheral. Table 1³ shows the memory layout of a GPIO peripheral.

Figure 3: GPIO MODER register memory layout

³Both Table 1 and Figure 1 are taken from the ST STM32F030 Reference Manual (http://bit.ly/1GfS3iC).

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Table 1: GPIO peripheral memory map for an STM32F030 microcontroller

A peripheral is controlled modifying and reading each register of these mapped regions. For example,

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continuing the example of the GPIOA peripheral, to enable PA5 pin as output pin we have to configure the MODER register so that bits[11:10] are configured as 01 (which corresponds to General purpose output mode), as shown in Figure 3. Next, to pull the pin high, we have to set the corresponding bit[5] inside the Output Data Register(ODR), which according Table 1 is mapped to the GPIOA + 0x14 memory location, that is 0x4800 0000 + 0x14. The following minimal example shows how to use pointers to access to the GPIOA peripheral mapped memory in an STM32F030 MCU. int main(void) { volatile uint32_t *GPIOA_MODER = 0x0, *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; GPIOA_MODER = (uint32_t*)0x48000000; // Address of the GPIOA->MODER register GPIOA_ODR = (uint32_t*)(0x48000000 + 0x14); // Address of the GPIOA->ODR register // This ensure that the peripheral is enabled and connected to the AHB1 bus __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE(); *GPIOA_MODER = *GPIOA_MODER | 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1 *GPIOA_ODR = *GPIOA_ODR | 0x20; // Sets ODR[5] = 0x1, that is pulls PA5 high while(1); }

It is important to clarify once again that every STM32 family (F0, F1, etc.) and every member of the given family (STM32F030, STM32F1, etc.) provides its subset of peripherals, which are mapped to specific addresses. Moreover, the way how peripherals are implemented differs between STM32series. One of the HAL roles is to abstract from the specific peripheral mapping. This is done by defining several handlers for each peripheral. A handler is nothing more then a C struct, whose references are used to point to real peripheral address. Let us see one of them. In the previous chapters, we have configured the PA5 pin with the following code: /*Configure GPIO pin : PA5 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

Here, the GPIOA variable is a pointer of type GPIO_TypeDef defined in this way:

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uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t

MODER; OTYPER; OSPEEDR; PUPDR; IDR; ODR; BSRR; LCKR; AFR[2]; BRR;

The GPIOA pointer is defined so that it points⁴ to the address 0x4800 0000: GPIO_TypeDef *GPIOA = 0x48000000; GPIOA->MODER |= 0x400; GPIOA->ODR |= 0x20;

6.2 GPIOs Configuration Every STM32 microcontroller has a variable number of general programmable I/Os. The exact number depends on: • The type of package chosen (LQFP48, BGA176, and so on). • The family of microcontroller (F0, F1, etc.). • The usage of external crystals for HSE and LSE. GPIOs are the way an MCU communicates with the external world. Every board uses a variable number of I/Os to drive external peripherals (e.g. an LED) or to exchange data through several types of communication peripherals (UART, USB, SPI, etc.). Every time we need to configure a peripheral that uses MCU pins, we need to configure its corresponding GPIOs using the HAL_GPIO module. As seen before, the HAL is designed so that it abstracts from the specific peripheral memory mapping. But, it also provides a general and more user-friendly way to configure the peripheral, without forcing the programmers to now how to configure its registers in detail. To configure a GPIO we use the HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIO_TypeDef *GPIOx, GPIO_InitTypeDef *GPIO_Init) function. GPIO_InitTypeDef is the C struct used to configure the GPIO, and it is defined in the following way: ⁴This not exactly true, since the HAL, to save RAM space, defines GPIOA_BASE)).

GPIOA as a macro (#define GPIOA ((GPIO_TypeDef *)

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GPIO Management typedef struct { uint32_t Pin; uint32_t Mode; uint32_t Pull; uint32_t Speed; uint32_t Alternate; } GPIO_InitTypeDef;

This is the role of each field of the struct: • Pin: it is the number, starting from 0, of the pins we are going to configure. For example, for PA5 pin it assumes the value GPIO_PIN_5⁵. We can use the same GPIO_InitTypeDef instance to configure several pins at once, doing a bitwise OR (e.g., GPIO_PIN_1 | GPIO_PIN_5 | GPIO_PIN_6). • Mode: it is the operating mode of the pin, and it can assume one of the values in Table 2. More about this field soon. • Pull: specifies the Pull-up or Pull-Down activation for the selected pins, according Table 3. • Speed: defines the pin speed. More about this later. • Alternate: specifies which peripheral to associate to the pin. More about this later.

Table 2: Available GPIO_InitTypeDef.Mode for a GPIO

Pin Mode

Description

GPIO_MODE_INPUT GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_OD GPIO_MODE_AF_PP GPIO_MODE_AF_OD GPIO_MODE_ANALOG GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING GPIO_MODE_IT_FALLING GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING_FALLING GPIO_MODE_EVT_RISING GPIO_MODE_EVT_FALLING GPIO_MODE_EVT_RISING_FALLING

Input Floating Mode ⁶ Output Push Pull Mode Output Open Drain Mode Alternate Function Push Pull Mode Alternate Function Open Drain Mode Analog Mode External Interrupt Mode with Rising edge trigger detection External Interrupt Mode with Falling edge trigger detection External Interrupt Mode with Rising/Falling edge trigger detection External Event Mode with Rising edge trigger detection External Event Mode with Falling edge trigger detection External Event Mode with Rising/Falling edge trigger detection

⁵Take note that the GPIO_PIN_x is a bit mask, where the i-th pin corresponds to the i-th bit of a uint16_t datatype. For example, the GPIO_PIN_5 has a value of 0x0020, which is 32 in base 10. ⁶During and just after reset, the alternate functions are not active and all the I/O ports are configured in Input Floating mode.

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Table 3: Available GPIO_InitTypeDef.Pull modes for a GPIO

Pin Mode

Description

GPIO_NOPULL GPIO_PULLUP GPIO_PULLDOWN

No Pull-up or Pull-down activation Pull-up activation Pull-down activation

6.2.1 GPIO Mode STM32 MCUs provide a really flexible GPIOs management. Figure 4⁷ shows the hardware structure of a single I/O of an STM32F030 microcontroller.

Figure 4: Basic structure of an I/O port bit

Depending on the GPIO GPIO_InitTypeDef.Mode field, the MCU changes the way the hardware of an I/O works. Let us have a look to the main modes. When the I/O is configured as GPIO_MODE_INPUT: • • • •

The output buffer is disabled. The Schmitt trigger input is activated. The pull-up and pull-down resistors are activated depending on the value of the Pull field. The data present on the I/O pin are sampled into the input data register every AHB clock cycle. • A read access to the input data register provides the I/O state. ⁷The figure is taken from the ST STM32F030 Reference Manual (http://bit.ly/1GfS3iC).

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When the I/O port is programmed as GPIO_MODE_ANALOG: • The output buffer is disabled. • The Schmitt trigger input is deactivated, providing zero consumption for every analog value of the I/O pin. • The weak pull-up and pull-down resistors are disabled by hardware. • Read access to the input data register gets the value 0. When the I/O port is programmed as output: • The output buffer is enabled as follow: – if mode is GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_OD: A 0 in the Output register (ODR) activates the N-MOS whereas a 1 leaves the port in Hi-Z (the P-MOS is never activated); – if mode is GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP: A 0 in the ODR activates the N-MOS whereas a 1 activates the P-MOS. • The Schmitt trigger input is activated. • The pull-up and pull-down resistors are activated depending on the value of the Pull field. • The data present on the I/O pin are sampled into the input data register every AHB clock cycle. • A read access to the input data register gets the I/O state. • A read access to the output data register gets the last written value. When the I/O port is programmed as alternate function: • The output buffer can be configured in open-drain or push-pull mode. • The output buffer is driven by the signals coming from the peripheral (transmitter enable and data). • The Schmitt trigger input is activated. • The weak pull-up and pull-down resistors are depending on the value of the Pull field. • The data present on the I/O pin are sampled into the input data register every AHB clock cycle. • A read access to the input data register gets the I/O state. The GPIO modes GPIO_MODE_EVT_* are related to sleep modes. When an I/O is configured to work in one of these modes, the CPU will be woken up (when placed in sleep mode with a WFE instruction) if the corresponding I/O is triggered, without generating the corresponding interrupt (more about this topic in a following chapter). The GPIO modes GPIO_MODE_IT_* modes are related to interrupts management, and they will be analyzed in the next chapter.

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However, keep in mind that this implementation scheme can vary between the STM32-families, especially for the low-power series. Always refer to the reference manual of your MCU, which exactly describes I/O modes and their impact on the MCU working and power consumption. It is also important to remark that this flexibility represents an advantage for the hardware design too. For example, there is no need to use external pull-up resistors to drive I²C devices, since the corresponding GPIOs can be configured setting GPIO_InitTypeDef.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP and GPIO_InitTypeDef.Pull = GPIO_PULLUP. This saves space on the PCB and simplifies the BOM.

Figure 5: Pin Configuration dialog can be used to configure I/O mode

I/O mode can be eventually configured using the CubeMX tool, as shown in Figure 5. Pin Configuration dialog can be reached inside the Configuration view, clicking on the GPIO button.

6.2.2 GPIO Alternate Function Most of GPIOs have “alternate functions”, that is they can be used as I/O pin for at least one internal peripheral. However, keep in mind that an I/O can be associated to only one peripheral at a time.

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Figure 6: CubeMX can be easily used to discover alternate functions of an I/O

To discover which peripherals can be bound to an I/O, you can refer to the MCU datasheet or simply use the CubeMX tool. Clicking on a pin in the Pin View causes a pop-up menu to appear. In this menu we can set the wanted alternate function. For example, in Figure 6 you can see that PA3 can be used as USART2_RX (that is, it can be used as RX pin for USART/UART2 peripheral, and this is possible for every STM32 MCU with LQFP48 package). CubeMX will automatically generate the right initialization code for us, as shown below: /* Configure GPIO pins : PA2 PA3 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_2|GPIO_PIN_3; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; GPIO_InitStruct.Alternate = GPIO_AF1_USART2; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

Those of you working on an STM32F1 MCU will notice that the GPIO_InitTypeDef.Alternate field is missed in the CubeF1 HAL. This happens because STM32F1 MCUs have a less flexible way to define alternate functions of a pin. While other STM32 microcontrollers define the possible alternate functions at GPIO level (by configuring dedicated registers GPIOx_AFRL and GPIOx_AFRH), allowing to have up to sixteen different alternate functions associated of a pin (this only happens in packages with high pin count), GPIOs of an STM32F1 MCU have really limited remapping capabilities. For example, in an STM32F103RB MCU only the USART3 can have two couple of pins that can be used as peripheral I/O alternatively. Usually, two dedicated peripheral registers, AFIO_MAPR and AFIO_MAPR2 “remap” signal I/Os of those peripherals allowing this operation.

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This is essentially the reason why that field is not available in CubeF1 HAL.

6.2.3 Understanding GPIO Speed One of the most misleading things of STM32 microcontrollers is the GPIO_InitTypeDef.Speed parameter. This field can assume the values from Table 4 and it has effect only when the GPIO is configured in output mode. Unfortunately, ST has not adopted a consistent name for those constants inside the different Cube HALs. Table 4: Available Speed modes for a GPIO

CubeF0/1/3/L0/L1

CubeF4/L4

GPIO_SPEED_LOW GPIO_SPEED_MEDIUM GPIO_SPEED_FAST GPIO_SPEED_HIGH⁸

GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_MEDIUM GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_HIGH GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_VERY_HIGH

Speed. A so sweet word for anybody loving performances. But what does it exactly means when it refers to a GPIO? Here a GPIO speed is not related to switching frequency, that is how many times a pin goes from ON to OFF in a unit of time. The GPIO_InitTypeDef.Speed parameter, instead, defines the slew rate of a GPIO, that is how fast it goes from the 0V level to VDD one, and vice versa.

Figure 7: Slew rate effect on a square wave - red=desired output, green=actual output

Figure 7 clearly shows this phenomenon. The red wave is the one that we will get if the response speed was maximum, and therefore there was no response delay. In practice, what we get is that shown by the green wave. But how much does this parameter impact on the slew rate of an STM32 I/O? First of all, we have to say that every STM32 family has its I/O driving characteristics. So you need to check the datasheet of your MCU inside the Absolute Maximum Ratings section. Next, we can use this simple test to measure the slew rate (the test is conducted on a Nucleo-F446RE board). ⁸These modes are available only in some high performance version of STM32 MCUs. Check the reference manual for your MCU.

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int main(void) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct; HAL_Init(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE(); /* Configure GPIO pin : PC4 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_4; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct); /* Configure GPIO pin : PC8 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_8; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_VERY_HIGH; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct); while(1) { GPIOC->ODR = 0x110; GPIOC->ODR = 0; } }

The code is really self-explaining. We are configuring two pins as output I/Os. One of them, PC4, is configured with a GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_LOW speed. The other one, PC8, with GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_VERY_HIGH. Figure 8 shows the difference between the two pins. As we can see, the PC4 speed is about 25MHz, while the speed of PC8 pin is about 50MHz⁹.

⁹Unfortunately, my oscilloscope probes have a load capacitance two high to conduct a precise measurement. According to STM32F446RE datasheet, its maximum switching frequency is 90MHz, when CL = 30 pF, VDD ≥ 2.7 V and the compensation cell is activated. But I was not able to obtain those results, due the poor oscilloscope and probably thanks to the length of the traces connecting the Nucleo morpho header and the MCU pins.

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Figure 8: The top figure shows the slew rate of PC4 pin and the one below the slew rate of PC8 pin

However, keep in mind that driving a pin “too hard” impacts on the overall EMI emissions of your board. Professional design is nowadays all about EMI minimizing. Unless differently required, it is strongly suggested you leave the default GPIO speed parameter to the minimum level. What about the effective switching frequency? ST claims in its datasheets that the fastest toggle speed of an output pin is every two clock cycles. The AHB1 bus, where the GPIO peripheral is connected, runs at 42MHz for an STM32F446 MCU. So a pin should toggle in about 20MHz. However, we have to add an additional overhead related to the memory transfer between the GPIO->ODR register and the value we are going to store inside it (0x110), which costs another CPU cycle. So the expected GPIO maximum switching speed is ∼14MHz. The oscilloscope confirms this, as shown in Figure 9¹⁰.

Figure 9: The maximum I/O switching frequency achieved with an STM32F446

Curiously, driving an I/O through the bit-banding region, using the same number of assembly instructions, dramatically reduces the switching frequency down to 4MHz, as shown in Figure 10. ¹⁰Tests were conducted toggling the maximum GCC optimization level (-O3), prefetch enabled and all internal caches enabled. This justifies that the detected speed is a little bit higher then 14MHz.

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Figure 10: Switching frequency when toggling an I/O through bit-banding region

The code used to drive the test is the following (non relevant code was omitted): #define BITBAND_PERI_BASE 0x40000000 #define ALIAS_PERI_BASE 0x42000000 #define BITBAND_PERI(a,b)((ALIAS_PERI_BASE+((uint32_t)a-BITBAND_PERI_BASE)*32+(b*4))) ... volatile uint32_t *GPIOC_ODR = (((((uint32_t)0x40000000) + 0x00020000) + 0x0800) + 0x14); volatile uint32_t *GPIOC_PIN8 = (uint32_t)BITBAND_PERI(GPIOC_ODR, 8); ... while(1) { *GPIOC_PIN8 = 0x1; *GPIOC_PIN8 = 0; }

6.3 Driving a GPIO CubeHAL provides four manipulation routines to read, change and lock the state of an I/O. To read the status of an I/O we can use the function: GPIO_PinState HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(GPIO_TypeDef* GPIOx, uint16_t GPIO_Pin)

which accepts the GPIO descriptor and the pin number. It returns GPIO_PIN_RESET when the I/O is low or GPIO_PIN_SET when high. Conversely, to change the I/O state, we have the function: void HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIO_TypeDef* GPIOx, uint16_t GPIO_Pin, GPIO_PinState PinState)

which accepts the GPIO descriptor, the pin number and the desired state. If we want to simply invert the I/O state, then we can use this convenient routine:

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GPIO Management void HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIO_TypeDef* GPIOx, uint16_t GPIO_Pin).

Finally, one feature of the GPIO peripheral is that we can lock the configuration of an I/O. Any subsequent attempt to change its configuration will fail, until a reset occurs. To lock a pin configuration we can use this routine: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_GPIO_LockPin(GPIO_TypeDef* GPIOx, uint16_t GPIO_Pin).

6.4 De-initialize a GPIO It is possible to set a GPIO pin to its default reset status (that is in Input Floating Mode). The function: void HAL_GPIO_DeInit(GPIO_TypeDef

*GPIOx, uint32_t GPIO_Pin).

does this job automatically for us. This function comes in really handy if we no longer need a given peripheral, or to avoid waste of power when the CPU goes in sleep mode.

GPIO Management

Eclipse Intermezzo It is possible to heavily customize the Eclipse interface by installing custom themes. A theme essentially allows to change the appearance of the Eclipse user interface. This may seem a non essential feature, but nowadays a lot of programmers prefer to customize colors, fonts type and size and so on of their favorite development environment. That is one of the success reasons of some minimal yet highly customizable source code editors, like TextMate and Sublime Text. There are several theme packs available for Eclipse, but it is strongly suggested to install a plug-in which automatically installs several other plug-ins useful for this scope: its name is Color IDE Pack and it is available through the Eclipse Marketplace. The most relevant plug-ins installed are: • Eclipse Color Theme, which is a “marketplace” of hundreds of Eclipse themes. • Eclipse Moonrise UI Theme, which is considered the best full-black color theme by Andrea Guarinoni. • Jeeeyul’s Eclipse Themes, which contains color themes and color customization tools by Jeeeyul Lee. This author prefers a mixed approach between a full-dark theme and a full-light one: he prefers a dark theme for the source editor, and a white background for other parts of IDE, as shown below.

http://marketplace.eclipse.org/content/color-ide-pack

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7. Interrupts Management Hardware management is all about dealing with asynchronous events. The most of these come from hardware peripherals. For example, a timer reaching a configured period value, or a UART that warns about the arrival of data. Others are originated by the “world outside” our board. For example, the user presses that damned switch that causes your board to hang, and you will spend a whole day understanding what’s wrong. All microcontrollers provide a feature called interrupts. An interrupt is an asynchronous event that causes stopping the execution of the current code on a priority basis (the more important the interrupt is, the higher its priority; this will cause that a lower-priority interrupt is suspended). The code that services the interrupt is called Interrupt Service Routine (ISR). Interrupts are a source of multiprogramming: the hardware knows about them and it is responsible of saving the current execution context (that is, the stack frame, the current Program Counter and few other things) before switching to the ISR. They are exploited by Real Time Operating Systems to introduce the notion of tasks. Without help by the hardware it is impossible to have a true preemptive system, which allows switching between several execution contexts without irreparably losing the current execution flow. Interrupts can originate both by the hardware and the software itself. ARM architecture distinguishes between the two types: interrupts originate by the hardware, exceptions by the software (e.g., an access to invalid memory location). In ARM terminology, an interrupt is a type of exception. Cortex-M processors provide a unit dedicated to exceptions management. This is called Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller (NVIC) and this chapter is about programming this really fundamental hardware component. However, here we deal only with interrupts management. Exceptions handling will be treated in a following chapter about advanced debugging.

7.1 NVIC Controller NVIC is a dedicated hardware unit inside the Cortex-M based microcontrollers that is responsible of the exceptions handling. Figure 1 shows the relation between the NVIC unit, the Processor Core and peripherals. Here we have to distinguish two types of peripherals: those external to the Cortex-M core, but internal to the STM32 MCU (e.g. timers, UARTS, and so on), and those peripherals external to the MCU at all. The source of the interrupts coming from the last kind of peripherals are the MCU I/O, which can be both configured as general purpose I/O (e.g. a tactile switch connected to a pin configured as input) or to drive an external advanced peripheral (e.g. I/Os configured to exchange data with an ethernet phyther through the RMII interface). A dedicated programmable controller, named External Interrupt/Event Controller (EXTI), is responsible of the interconnection between the external I/O signals and the NVIC controller, as we will see next.

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Figure 1: the relation between the NVIC controller, the Cortex-M core and the STM32 peripherals

As stated before, ARM distinguishes between system exceptions, which originate inside the CPU core, and hardware exceptions coming from external peripherals, also called Interrupt Requests (IRQ). Programmers manage exceptions through the use of specific ISRs, which are coded at higher level (most often using C language). The processor knows where to locate these routines thanks to an indirect table containing the addresses in memory of Interrupt Service Routines. This table is commonly called vector table, and every STM32 microcontrollers defines its own. Let us analyze this in depth.

7.1.1 Vector Table in STM32 All Cortex-M processors define a fixed set of exceptions (fifteen for the Cortex-M3/4/7 cores and thirteen for Cortex-M0/0+ cores) common to all Cortex-M families and hence common to all STM32series. We already encountered them in Chapter 1. Here, you can find the same table (Table 1) for your convenience. It is a good idea to take a quick look to these exceptions (we will study fault exceptions better in a following chapter dedicated to advanced debugging). • Reset: this exception is raised just after the CPU resets. Its handler is the real entry point of the running firmware. In an STM32 application all starts from this exception. The handler contains some assembly-coded functions designed to initialize the execution environment, such as the main stack, the .bss area, etc. A following chapter dedicated to the booting process will explain this deeply. • NMI: this is a special exception, which has the highest priority after the Reset one. Like the Reset exception, it cannot be masked (that is disabled), and it can be associated to critical and non-deferrable activities. In STM32 microcontrollers it is linked to the Clock Security System (CSS). CSS is a self-diagnostic peripheral that detects the failure of the HSE. If this happens, HSE is automatically disabled (this means that the internal HSI is automatically enabled) and a NMI interrupt is raised to inform the software that something is wrong with the HSE. More about this feature in Chapter 10.

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• Hard Fault: is the generic fault exception, and hence related to software interrupts. When the other fault exceptions are disabled, it acts as a collector for all types of exceptions (e.g., a memory access to an invalid location raised the Hard Fault exceptions if the Bus Fault one is not enabled). • Memory Management Fault¹: it occurs when executing code attempts to access an illegal location or violates a rule of the Memory Protection Unit (MPU). More about this in a following chapter. • Bus Fault¹: it occurs when AHB interface receives an error response from a bus slave (also called prefetch abort if it is an instruction fetch, or data abort if it is a data access). Can also be caused by other illegal accesses (e.g. an access to a non existent SRAM memory location). • Usage Fault¹: it occurs when there is a program error such as an illegal instruction, alignment problem, or attempt to access a non-existent co-processor. • SVCCall: this is not a fault condition, and it is raised when the Supervisor Call (SVC) instructions is called. This is used by Real Time Operating Systems to execute instructions in privileged state (a task needing to execute privileged operations executes the SVC instruction, and the OS performs the requested operations - this is the same behavior of a system call in other OS). • Debug Monitor¹: this exception is raised when a software debug event occurs while the processor core is in Monitor Debug-Mode. It is also used as exception for debug events like breakpoints and watchpoints when software based debug solution is used. • PendSV: this is another exception related to RTOS. Unlike the SVCall exception, which is executed immediately after a SVC instruction is executed, the PendSV can be delayed. This allows the RTOS to complete tasks with higher priorities. • SysTick: this exception is also usually related to RTOS activities. Every RTOS needs a timer to periodically interrupt the execution of current code and to switch to another task. All STM32 microcontrollers provide a SysTick timer, internal to the Cortex-M core. Even if every other timer may be used to schedule system activities, the presence of a dedicated timer ensures portability among all STM32 families (due to optimization reasons related to the internal die of the MCU, not all timers could be available as external peripheral). Moreover, even if we aren’t using an RTOS in our firmware, it is important to keep in mind that the ST CubeHAL uses the SysTick timer to perform internal time-related activities (and it also assumes that the SysTick timer is configured to generate an interrupt every 1ms). The remaining exceptions that can be defined for a given MCU are related to IRQ handling. Cortex-M0/0+ cores allows up to 32 external interrupts, while Cortex-M3/4/7 cores allows silicon manufacturers to define up to 240 interrupts. Where can we find the list of usable interrupts for a given STM32 microcontrollers? The datasheet of that MCU is certainly the main source about available interrupts. However, we can simply refer to the vector table provided by ST in its HAL. This table is defined inside the startup file for our MCU, the assembly file ending with .S we have learned to import in our Eclipse project in Chapter ¹This exception is not available in Cortex-M0/0+ based microcontrollers.

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4 (for example, for an STM32F030R8 MCU the file name is startup_stm32f030x8.S). Opening that file we can find the whole vector table for that MCU, starting about at line 140.

Table 1: Cortex-M exception types

Even if the vector table contains the addresses of the handler routines, the Cortex-M core needs a way to find the vector table inside memory. By convention, the vector table starts at the hardware address 0x0000 0000 in all Cortex-M based processors. If the vector table resides in the internal flash memory (this is what usually happens), and since the flash in all STM32 MCUs is mapped from 0x0800 0000 address, it is placed starting from the 0x0800 0000 address, which is aliased to 0x0000 0000 when the CPU boots up². up from different memories than the internal flash one. These are advanced topics that will be covered in a following chapter about memory layout and another one dedicated to booting process. To avoid confusion in unexperienced readers it is best to consider the vector table position fixed and bound to the 0x0000 0000 address. ²Apart from the Cortex-M0, the rest of Cortex-M cores allow to relocate the position in memory of the vector table. Moreover, it is possible to force the MCU to boot

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Figure 2 shows how the vector table is organized in memory. Entry zero of this array is the address of the Main Stack Pointer (MSP) inside the SRAM. Usually, this address corresponds to the end of the SRAM, that is its base address + its size (more about memory layout of an STM32 application in a following chapter). Starting from the second entry of this table, we can find all exceptions and interrupts handler. This means that the vector table has a length equal to 48 for Cortex-M0/0+ based microcontrollers and a length equal to 256 for Cortex-M3/4/7.

Figure 2: The minimal layout of the vector table in an STM32 MCU based on a Cortex-M3/4/7 core

It is important to clarify some things about the vector table. 1. The name of the exception handlers is just a convention, and you are totally free to rename them if you like a different one. They are just symbols (as are variables and functions inside a program). However, keep in mind that the CubeMX software is designed to generate ISR with those names, which are an ST convention. So, you have to rename the ISR name too. 2. As said before, the vector table must be placed at the beginning of the flash memory, where the processor expects to find it. This is a Link Editor job that places the vector table at the beginning of the flash data during the generation of the absolute file, which is the binary file we upload to the flash. In a following chapter we will study the content of ldscripts/sections.ld file, which contains the directives to instruct GNU LD about this.

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7.2 Enabling Interrupts When an STM32 MCU boots up, only Reset, NMI and Hard Fault exceptions are enabled by default. The rest of exceptions and peripheral interrupts are disabled, and they have to be enabled on request. To enable an IRQ, the CubeHAL provides the following function: void HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn);

where the IRQn_Type is an enumeration of all exceptions and interrupts defined for that specific MCU. The IRQn_Type enum is part of the ST Device HAL, and it is defined inside a header file specific for the given STM32 MCU in the Eclipse folder system/include/cmsis/. These files are named stm32fxxxx.h. For example, for an STM32F030R8 MCU the right filename is stm32f030x8.h (the pattern name of these files is the same of start-up files). The corresponding function to disable an IRQ is the: void HAL_NVIC_DisableIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn);

It is important to remark that the previous two function enable/disable an interrupt at the NVIC controller level. Looking a Figure 1, you can see that an interrupt line is asserted by the peripheral connected to that line. For example, the USART2 peripheral asserts the interrupt line that corresponds to the USART2_IRQn interrupt line inside the NVIC controller. This means that the single peripheral must be properly configured to work in interrupt mode. As we will see in the remain of this book, the majority of STM32 peripherals are designed to work, among the others, in interrupt mode. By using specific HAL routines we can enable the interrupt at peripheral level. For example, using the HAL_USART_Transmit_IT() we implicitly configure the USART peripheral in interrupt mode. Clearly, it is also required to enable the corresponding interrupt at NVIC level by calling the HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(). Now it is a good time to start playing with interrupts.

7.2.1 External Lines and NVIC As we have seen in Figure 1, STM32 microcontrollers provide a variable number of external interrupt sources connected to the NVIC through the EXTI controller, which in turn is capable to manage several EXTI lines. The number of interrupt sources and lines depends on the specific STM32 family. GPIO are connected to the EXTI lines, and it is possible to enable interrupts for every MCU GPIO, even if the most of them share the same interrupt line. For example, for an STM32F4 MCU, up to 114 GPIOs are connected to 16 EXTI lines. However, only 7 of these lines have an independent interrupt associated with them.

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Figure 3 shows EXTI lines 0, 10 and 15 in an STM32F4 MCU. All Px0 pins are connected to EXTI0, all Px10 pins are connected to EXTI10 and all Px15 pins are connected to EXTI15. However, EXTI lines 10 and 15 share the same IRQ inside the NVIC (and hence are serviced by the same ISR)³. This means that: • Only one PxY pin can be a source of interrupt. For example, we cannot define both PA0 and PB0 as input interrupt pins. • For EXTI lines sharing the same IRQ inside the NVIC controller, we have to code the corresponding ISR so that we must be able to discriminate which lines generated the interrupt.

Figure 3: The relation between GPIO, EXTI lines and corresponding ISR in an STM32F4 MCU ³Sometimes, it also happens that different peripherals share the same request line, even in Cortex-M3/4/7 based MCUs where up to 240 configurable request lines are available. For example, in an STM32F446RE MCU, timer TIM6 shares its global IRQ with DAC1 and DAC2 under-run error interrupts.

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The following example⁴ shows how to use interrupts to toggle the LD2 LED every time we press the user-programmable button, which is connected to the PC13 pin. First, we configure in the GPIO PC13 to fire an interrupt every time it goes from the low level to the high one (lines 49:52). This is accomplished setting GPIO .Mode to be equal to GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING (for the complete list of available interrupt related modes, refer to Table 2 in Chapter 6). Next, we enable the interrupt of the EXTI line associated with the Px13 pins, that is EXTI15_10_IRQn. Filename: src/main-ex1.c 39 40

int main(void) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

41

HAL_Init();

42 43

/* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */ __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

44 45 46 47

/*Configure GPIO pin : PC13 - USER BUTTON */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_13; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct);

48 49 50 51 52 53

/*Configure GPIO pin : PA5 - LD2 LED */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

54 55 56 57 58 59 60

HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI15_10_IRQn);

61 62

while(1);

63 64

}

65 66 67 68 69

void EXTI15_10_IRQHandler(void) { __HAL_GPIO_EXTI_CLEAR_IT(GPIO_PIN_13); HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); }

⁴The example is designed to work with a Nucleo-F401RE board. Please, refer to other book examples if you have a different Nucleo board.

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Finally, we need to define the function void EXTI15_10_IRQHandler()⁵, which is the ISR routine associated to the IRQ for the EXTI15_10 line inside the vector table (lines 66:69). The content of the ISR is really simple. We toggle the PA5 I/O every time the ISR fires. We also need to clear the pending bit associated to the EXTI line (more about this next). Fortunately, the ST HAL provides an abstraction mechanism that avoids us to deal with these details, unless we really need to take care of them. The previous example can be rewritten in the following way: Filename: src/main-ex2.c /*Configure GPIO pin : PC12 and PC13 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_13 | GPIO_PIN_12; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct);

48 49 50 51 52 53

/*Configure GPIO pin : PA5 - LD2 LED */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

54 55 56 57 58 59 60

HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI15_10_IRQn);

61 62

while(1);

63 64

}

65 66 67 68 69

void EXTI15_10_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_12); HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_13); }

70 71 72 73 74 75 76

void HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback(uint16_t GPIO_Pin) { if(GPIO_Pin == GPIO_PIN_13) HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); else if(GPIO_Pin == GPIO_PIN_12) HAL_GPIO_WritePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5, RESET); }

⁵Another feature of the ARM architectures is the ability to use conventional C functions as ISRs. When an interrupt fires, the CPU switches from the Threaded mode (that is, the main execution flow) to the Handler mode. During this switching process, the current execution context is saved thanks to a procedure named stacking. The CPU itself is responsible of storing the previous saved context when the ISR terminates the execution (unstacking). The explanation of this procedure is outside from the scope of this book. For more information about these aspects, refer to the Joseph Yiu book.

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This time we have configured as interrupt source both pin PC13 and PC12. When the EXTI15_10_IRQHandler() ISR is called, we transfer the control to the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler() function inside the HAL. This will perform for us all the interrupt related activities, and it will call the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback() routine passing the GPIO that has generated the IRQ. Figure 4 clearly shows the call sequence that generates from the IRQ⁶.

Figure 4: How an IRQ is processed by the HAL

This mechanism is used by almost all IRQ routines inside the HAL. Please, take note that, since EXTI12 and EXTI13 lines are connected to the same IRQ, we need to discriminate in our code which of the two pins generated the interrupt. This work is done for us by the HAL, passing the GPIO_Pin parameter when the callback function is called.

7.2.2 Enabling Interrupts With CubeMX CubeMX can be used to easily enable IRQs and to automatically generate the ISR code. The first step is to enable the corresponding EXTI line using the Chip view, as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5: How a GPIO can be bound to EXTI line using CubeMX ⁶Don’t consider those time intervals related to the CPU cycles, they are just used to indicate “subsequent” events.

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Once we have enabled an IRQ, we need to instruct CubeMX to generate the corresponding ISR. This configuration is done through the Configuration view, clicking on the NVIC button. A list of ISRs that can be enabled appears, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: The NVIC configuration view allows to enable the corresponding ISR

CubeMX will automatically add the enabled ISRs inside the src/stm32fxxx_it.c file, and it will take care of enabling the IRQs. Moreover, it adds for us the corresponding HAL handler routine to call, as shown below: /** * @brief This function handles EXTI line[15:10] interrupts. */ void EXTI15_10_IRQHandler(void) { /* USER CODE BEGIN EXTI15_10_IRQn 0 */ /* USER CODE END EXTI15_10_IRQn 0 */ HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_13); /* USER CODE BEGIN EXTI15_10_IRQn 1 */ /* USER CODE END EXTI15_10_IRQn 1 */ }

We only need to add the corresponding callback function (for example the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback() routine) inside our application code. What Belongs to What When starting to deal with the ST HAL, a lot of confusion arises from its relationship with the ARM CMSIS package. The stm32XX_hal_cortex.c module clearly shows the interaction between the ST HAL and the CMSIS package, since it completely relies on the official ARM package to deal with the underlying Cortex-M core functionalities. Every HAL_NVIC_xxx() function is a wrap of the corresponding CMSIS NVIC_xxx() function. This means that we may use the CMSIS API to program the NVIC controller. However, since this book is about the CubeHAL, we will use the ST API to manage interrupts.

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7.3 Interrupt Lifecycle One dealing with interrupts, it is really important to understand their lifecycle. Although the CortexM core automatically performs the most of the work for us, we have to pay attention to some aspects that could be a source of confusion during the interrupt management. However, this paragraph gives a look to the interrupts lifecycle from the “HAL point of view”. If you are interested in looking deeper into this matter, the book series from Joseph Yiu⁷ it is again the best source. An interrupt can: 1. either be disabled (default behavior) or enabled; • we enable/disable it calling the HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ()/HAL_NVIC_DisableIRQ() function; 2. either be pending (a request is waiting to be served) or not pending; 3. either be in an active (being served) or inactive state. We have already seen the first case in the previous paragraph. Now it is important to study what happens when an interrupt occurs. When an interrupt fires, it is marked as pending until the processor can serve it. If no other interrupts are currently being processed, its pending state is automatically cleared by the processor, which almost immediately starts serving it.

Figure 7: The relation between the pending bit and the interrupt active status

Figure 7 shows how this works. Interrupt A fires at the time t0 and, since the CPU is not servicing another interrupt, its pending bit is cleared and its execution starts immediately⁸ (the interrupt becomes active). At the time t1 the B interrupt fires, but here we suppose that it has a lower priority than A. So it is leaved in pending state until the A ISR concludes its operations. When this happens, the pending bit is automatically cleared and the ISR become active. ⁷http://amzn.to/1P5sZwq ⁸Here, it is important to understand the with the word “immediately” we are not saying that the interrupt execution starts without delay. If no other interrupts are running, Cortex-M3/4/7 cores serve an interrupt in 12 CPU cycles, while Cortex-M0 does it in 15 cycles and Cortex-M0+ in 16 cycles.

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Figure 8: The relation between the active status and interrupts priority

Figure 8 shows another important case. Here we have that the A interrupt fires, and the CPU can immediately serve it. The interrupt B fires while A is serviced, so it remains in pending state until A finishes. When this happens, the pending bit of B interrupt is cleared, and it becomes active. However, after a while, A interrupt fires again, and since it has a higher priority, B interrupt is suspended (becomes inactive) and the execution of A starts immediately. When this finishes, the B interrupt becomes active again, and it completes its job.

Figure 9: How an interrupt can be forced to fire again setting its pending bit

NVIC provides a high degree of flexibility for programmers. An interrupt can be forced to fire again during its execution, simply setting its pending bit again, as shown in Figure 9⁹. In the same way, the execution of an interrupt can be canceled clearing its pending bit while it is in pending state, as shown in Figure 10. ⁹For the sake of completeness, it is important to specify that Cortex-M architecture is designed so that if an interrupt fires while the processor is already servicing another interrupt, this will be serviced without restoring the previous application doing the unstacking (refer to note 3 in this chapter for the definition of stacking/unstacking). This technique is called tail chaining and it allows to speed up interrupt management and reduce power consumption.

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Figure 10: IRQ servicing can be canceled clearing its pending bit before it is executed

Here it is important to clarify an important aspect related to how peripherals warn the NVIC controller about the interrupt request. When an interrupt takes place, the most of STM32 peripherals assert a specific signal connected to the NVIC, which is mapped in the peripheral memory through a dedicated bit. This peripheral Interrupt Request bit will be held high until it is manually cleared by the application code. For example, in the Example 1 we had to expressly clear the EXTI line IRQ pending bit using the macro __HAL_GPIO_EXTI_CLEAR_IT(). If we do not de-assert that bit, a new interrupt will be fired until it is cleared.

Figure 11: The relation between the peripheral IRQ and the corresponding interrupt

The Figure 11 clearly shows the relation between the peripheral IRQ pending state and the ISR pending state. Signal I/O is the external peripheral driving the I/O (e.g. a tactile switch connected to a pin). When the signal level changes, the EXTI line connected to that I/O generates an IRQ and the corresponding pending bit is asserted. As consequence, the NVIC generates the interrupt. When the processor starts servicing the ISR, the ISR pending bit is cleared automatically, but the peripheral IRQ pending bit will be held high until it is cleared by the application code.

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Figure 12: When an interrupt is forced setting its pending bit, the corresponding peripheral IRQ remains unset

The Figure 12 shows another case. Here we force the execution of the ISR setting its pending bit. Since this time the external peripheral is not involved, there is no need to clear the corresponding IRQ pending bit. Since the presence of the IRQ pending bit is peripheral dependent, it is always opportune to use the ST HAL functions to manage interrupts, leaving all the underlying details to the HAL implementation (unless we want to have full control, but this is not case of this book). However, take in mind that to avoid losing important interrupts, it is a good design practice to clear peripherals IRQ pending status bit as their ISR start to be serviced. The processor core does not keep track of multiple interrupts (it does not queue interrupts), so if we clear the peripheral pending bit at the end of an ISR, we may lose important IRQs that fire in the middle. To see if an interrupt is pending (that is, fired but not running), we can use the HAL function: uint32_t HAL_NVIC_GetPendingIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn);

which returns 0 if the IRQ is not pending, 1 otherwise. To programmatically set the pending bit of an IRQ we can use the HAL function: void HAL_NVIC_SetPendingIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn);

This will cause the interrupt to fire, as it would be generated by the hardware. A distinctive feature of Cortex-M processors it that it is possible to programmatically fire an interrupt inside the ISR routine of another interrupt. Instead, to programmatically clear the pending bit of an IRQ, we can use the function:

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void HAL_NVIC_ClearPendingIRQ(IRQn_Type IRQn);

Once again, it is also possible to clear the execution of a pending interrupt inside the ISR servicing another IRQ. To check if an ISR is active (IRQ being serviced), we can use the function: uint32_t HAL_NVIC_GetActive(IRQn_Type IRQn);

which returns 1 if the IRQ is active, 0 otherwise.

7.4 Interrupt Priority Levels A distinctive features of the ARM Cortex-M architecture is the ability to prioritize interrupts (except for the first three software exceptions that have a fixed priority, as shown in Table 1). Interrupt priority allows to define two things: • the ISRs that will be executed first in case of concurrent interrupts; • those routines that can be optionally preempted to start executing an ISR with a higher priority. NVIC priority mechanism is substantially different between Cortex-M0/0+ and Cortex-M3/4/7 cores. For this reason we are going to explain them in two separated subparagraphs.

7.4.1 Cortex-M0/0+ Cortex-M0/0+ based microcontrollers have a simpler interrupt priority mechanism. This means that STM32F0 and STM32L0 MCUs have a different behavior from the rest of STM32 microcontrollers. And you have to pay special attention if you are porting your code between the STM32 series. In Cortex-M0/0+ cores the priority of each interrupt is defined through an 8-bit register, called IPR. In the ARMv6-M core architecture only 4 bits of this register are used, allowing up to 16 different priority levels. However, in practice, STM32 MCUs implementing these cores use only the two upper bits of this register, seeing all other bits equal to zero.

Figure 13: The content of IPR register on an STM32 MCU based on Cortex-M0

Figure 13 shows how the content of IPR is interpreted. This means that we have only four maximum priority levels: 0x00, 0x40, 0x80, 0xC0. The lower this number is, the higher the priority is. That is, an IRQ having a priority equal to 0x40 has a higher priority than an IRQ with a priority level equal

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to 0xC0. If two interrupts fire at the same time, the one with the higher priority will be served first. If the processor is already servicing an interrupt and a higher priority interrupt fires, then the current interrupt is suspended and the control passes to the higher priority interrupt. When this is completed, the execution goes back to the previous interrupt, if no other interrupt with higher priority occurs in the meantime. This mechanism is called interrupt preemption.

Figure 14: Preemption of interrupts in case of concurrent execution

Figure 14 shows an example of interrupt preemption. A is an IRQ with lower priority that fires at time t0 . The ISR starts the execution but the IRQ B, which has a higher priority (lower priority level), fires at time t1 and the execution of A ISR is stopped. When B finishes its job, the execution of A ISR is resumed until it finishes. This “nested” mechanism induced by interrupt priorities leads to the name of the NVIC controller, which is Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller. Cortex-M0/0+ has an important difference compared to Cortex-3/4/7 cores. The interrupt priority is static. This means that once an interrupt is enabled its priority can no longer be changed, until we disable the IRQ again. The CubeHAL provides the following function to assign a priority to an IRQ: void HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(IRQn_Type IRQn, uint32_t PreemptPriority, uint32_t SubPriority);

The HAL_NVIC_SetPriority() function accepts the IRQ we are going to configure and the PreemptPriority, which is the preemption priority we are going to assign to the IRQ. The CMSIS API, and hence the CubeHAL library, is designed so that PreemptPriority is specified with a priority level number ranging from 0 to 4. The value is internally shifted to the most significant bits automatically. This simplifies the porting of code to other MCU with a different number of priority bits (this is the reason why only the left part of IPR register is used by silicon vendors).

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As you can see, the function accepts also the additional parameter SubPriority, which is simply ignored in CubeF0 and CubeL0 HALs since the underlying Cortex-M processor does not support interrupt sub-priority. Here ST engineers have decided to use the same API available in the other HALs for Cortex-M3/4/7 based processors. Probably they decided to do so to simplify porting code between the different STM32 MCUs. Curiously, they have decided to define the corresponding function to retrieve the priority of an IRQ in the following way: uint32_t HAL_NVIC_GetPriority(IRQn_Type IRQn);

which is completely different from the one defined in the HALs for Cortex-M3/4/7 based processors¹⁰.

The following example¹¹ shows how the interrupt priority mechanism works. Filename: src/main-ex3.c 39

uint8_t blink = 0;

40 41 42

int main(void) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

43 44

HAL_Init();

45 46 47 48 49

/* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */ __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOB_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

50 51 52 53 54 55

/*Configure GPIO pin : PC13 - USER BUTTON */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_13 ; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct);

56 57 58 59 60 61

/*Configure GPIO pin : PB2 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_2 ; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_FALLING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLUP; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStruct);

62

¹⁰I have opened a dedicated thread on the official ST Forum, but there is still no answer from ST at the time of writing this chapter. ¹¹The example is designed to work with a Nucleo-F030R8 board. Please, refer to other book examples if you have a different Nucleo board.

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/*Configure GPIO pin : PA5 - LD2 LED */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

63 64 65 66 67 68 69

HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(EXTI4_15_IRQn, 0x1, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI4_15_IRQn);

70 71 72

HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(EXTI2_3_IRQn, 0x0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI2_3_IRQn);

73 74 75

while(1);

76 77

}

78 79 80 81

void EXTI4_15_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_13); }

82 83 84 85

void EXTI2_3_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_2); }

86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

void HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback(uint16_t GPIO_Pin) { if(GPIO_Pin == GPIO_PIN_13) { blink = 1; while(blink) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); for(volatile int i = 0; i < 100000; i++) { /* Busy wait */ } } } else { blink = 0;

The code should be really easy to understand if the previous explanation is clear for you. Here we have two IRQs associated to EXTI lines 2 and 13. The corresponding ISRs call the HAL HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler() which in turn calls the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback() callback passing the GPIO involved in the interrupt. When the user button connected to PC13 signal is pushed, the ISR starts an infinite loop until the blink global variables is >0. This loop makes the LD2 LED blinking quickly. When the PB2 pin is asserted low (use the pinout diagram for your Nucleo from

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Appendix C to identify PB2 pin position), the EXTI2_3_IRQHandler()¹² fires and this causes the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler() to set the blink variable to 0. The EXTI4_15_IRQHandler() can now end. The priority of each interrupt is configured at lines 70 and 73: as you can see, since the interrupt priority is static in Cortex-M0/0+ based MCUs, we have to set it before we enable the corresponding interrupt. Please, take note that this is a really bad way to deal with interrupts. Locking the MCU inside an interrupt is a poor programming style, and it is the root of all evil in embedded programming. Unfortunately, this is the only example that came up to the author’s mind, considering that at this point the book still covers few topics. Every ISR must be designed to last as little as possible, otherwise other fundamental ISRs could be masked for a long time loosing important information coming from other peripherals.

As exercise, try to play with interrupt priorities, and see what happens if both interrupts have the same priority.

You may notice that often the interrupt fires by simply touching the wire, even if it is not tied to the ground. Why does this happen? There are essentially two reasons that cause the interrupt to “accidentally” trigger. First of all, modern microcontrollers try to minimize the power leakages connected with the usage of internal pull-up/down resistors. So, the value of these resistors is chosen really high (something around 50kΩ). If you play with the voltage divider equation, you can figure out that it is really easy to pull an I/O low or high when a pull-up/down resistor has a high resistance value. Secondly, here we are not doing adequate debouncing of the input pin. Debouncing is the process of minimizing the effect of bounces produced by “unstable” sources (e.g. a mechanical switch). Usually debouncing is performed in hardware¹³ or in software, by counting how much time is elapsed from the first variation of the input state: in our case, if the input remains low for more than a given period (usually something between 100ms and 200ms is sufficient), then we can says that the input has been effectively tied to the ground). As we will see in Chapter 11, we can also use one channel of a timer configured to work in input capture mode to detect when a GPIO changes state. This gives us the ability to automatically count how much time is elapsed from the first event. Moreover, timer channels support integrated and programmable hardware filters, which allow us to reduce the number of external components to debounce the I/Os.

¹²Please, take note that for STM32F302 MCUs the default name of the IRQ associated to EXTI line 2 is EXTI2_TSC_IRQHandler. Refer to book examples if you are working with this MCU. ¹³Usually, a capacitor and a resistor in parallel with the switch contacts are sufficient in most cases. For example, you can take a look to schematics of the Nucleo board to see how ST engineers have debounced the USER button connected to PC13 GPIO.

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7.4.2 Cortex-M3/4/7 Interrupt priority mechanism in Cortex-M3/4/7 is more advanced than the one available in CortexM0/0+ based microcontrollers. Developers have a higher degree of flexibility, and this is often source of several headaches for novices. Moreover, the way interrupt priority is presented both in the ARM and ST documentation is a little bit counterintuitive. In Cortex-M3/4/7 cores the priority of each interrupt is defined through the IPR register. This is a 8bit register in the ARMv7-M core architecture that allows up to 255 different priority levels. However, in practice, STM32 MCUs implementing these cores use only the four upper bits of this register, seeing all other bits equal to zero.

Figure 15: The content of IPR register on an STM32 MCU based on Cortex-M3/4/7 core

Figure 15 clearly shows how the content of IPR is interpreted. This means that we have the only sixteen maximum priority levels: 0x00, 0x10, 0x20, 0x30, 0x40, 0x50, 0x60, 0x70, 0x80, 0x90, 0xA0, 0xB0, 0xC0, 0xD0, 0xE0, 0xF0. The lower this number is, the higher the priority is. That is, an IRQ having a priority equal to 0x10 has a higher priority than an IRQ with a priority level equal to 0xA0. If two interrupts fire at the same time, the one with the higher priority will be served first. If the processor is already servicing an interrupt and a higher priority interrupts fires, then the current interrupt is suspended and the control passes to the higher priority interrupt. When this is completed, the execution goes back to the previous interrupt, if no other interrupts with higher priority occurs in the meantime. So far, the mechanism is substantially the same of Cortex-M0/0+. The complication arises from the fact that the IPR register can be logically subdivided in two parts: a series of bits defining the preemption priority¹⁴ and a series of bits defining the sub-priority. The first priority level rules the preemption priorities between ISRs. If an ISR has a priority higher than another one, it will preempt the execution of the lower priority ISR in case it fires. The sub-priority determines what ISR will be executed first, in case of multiple pending ISR, but it will not act on ISR preemption. ¹⁴What complicates the understanding of interrupt priorities is the fact that in the official documentation sometimes the preemption priority is also called group priority. This leads to a lot of confusion, since novices tends to imagine that this bits define a sort of Access Control List (ACL) privileges. Here, to simplify the understanding of this matter, we will only speak about preemption priority level.

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Figure 16: Preemption of interrupts in case of concurrent execution

Figure 16 shows an example of interrupt preemption. A is an IRQ with the lowest priority that fires at time t0 . The ISR starts the execution but the IRQ B, which has a higher priority (lower priority level), fires at time t1 and the execution of A ISR is stopped. After a while, C IRQ fires at time t2 and the B ISR is stopped and the C ISR starts execution. When this finishes, the execution of B ISR is resumed until it finishes. When this happens, the execution of A ISR is resumed. This “nested” mechanism induced by interrupt priorities leads to the name of the NVIC controller, which is Nested Vectored Interrupt Controller.

Figure 17: If two interrupts with the same priority are pending, the one with the higher sub-priority is executed first

Figure 17 shows how the sub-priority affects the execution of multiple pending ISRs. Here we have three interrupts, all with the same maximum priority. At time t0 the IRQ A fires and it is serviced immediately. At the time t1 B IRQ fires, but since it has the same priority level of other IRQs, it is leaved in pending state. At time t2 also C IRQ fires, but for the same reason as before it is leaved in pending state by the processor. When The A ISR finishes, the C IRQ is served first, since it has a higher sub-priority than B. Only when the C ISR finishes the B IRQ can be served. The way how IPR bits are logically subdivided is defined by the SCB->AIRCR register (a sub-group of bits of the System Control Block (SCB) register), and it is important to stress right from the start that this way to interpret the content of the IPR register is global to all ISRs. Once we have defined a priority scheme (also called priority grouping in the HAL), this is common to all interrupts used in the system.

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Figure 18: The subdivision of IPR bits between preemption priority and sub-priority

Figure 18 shows all five possible subdivisions of IPR register, while Table 2 shows the maximum number of preemption priority levels and sub-priority levels that each subdivision scheme allows. Table 2: The number of preemption priority level available based on the current priority grouping schema

NVIC Priority Group

Number of preemption priority levels

Number of sub-priority levels

NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_0 NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_1 NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_2 NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_3 NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_4

0 2 4 8 16

16 8 4 2 0

The CubeHAL provides the following function to assign a priority to an IRQ: void HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(IRQn_Type IRQn, uint32_t PreemptPriority, uint32_t SubPriority);

The HAL library is designed so that the PreemptPriority and SubPriority can be configured with a priority level number ranging from 0 to 16. The value is internally shifted to the most significant bits automatically. This simplifies the porting of code to other MCU with a different number of priority bits (this is the reason why only the left part of IPR register is used by silicon vendors). Instead, to define the priority grouping, that is how to subdivide the IPR register between the preemption priority and sub-priority, the following function can be used:

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void HAL_NVIC_SetPriorityGrouping(uint32_t PriorityGroup);

where the PriorityGroup parameter is one of the macros from the column NVIC Priority Group in Table 2. The following example¹⁵ shows how the interrupt priority mechanism works. Filename: src/main-ex3.c 59

uint8_t blink = 0;

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int main(void) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

63 64

HAL_Init();

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/* GPIO Ports Clock Enable */ __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOB_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

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/*Configure GPIO pin : PC13 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_13 ; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct);

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/*Configure GPIO pin : PB2 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_2 ; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_FALLING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLUP; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStruct);

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/*Configure GPIO pin : PA5 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

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HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(EXTI15_10_IRQn, 0x1, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI15_10_IRQn);

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HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(EXTI2_IRQn, 0x0, 0);

¹⁵The example is designed to work with a Nucleo-F401RE board. Please, refer to other book examples if you have a different Nucleo board.

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HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI2_IRQn);

94 95

while(1);

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}

98 99 100 101

void EXTI15_10_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_13); }

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void EXTI2_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_2); }

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void HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback(uint16_t GPIO_Pin) { if(GPIO_Pin == GPIO_PIN_13) { blink = 1; while(blink) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); for(int i = 0; i < 1000000; i++); } } else { blink = 0; } }

The code should be really easy to understand if the previous explanation is clear for you. Here we have two IRQs associated to EXTI lines 2 and 13. The corresponding ISRs call the HAL HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler() which in turn calls the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback() callback passing the GPIO involved in the interrupt. When the user button connected to PC13 signal is pushed, the ISR starts an infinite loop until the blink global variables is >0. This loop makes the LD2 LED blinking quickly. When the PB2 pin is asserted low (use the pinout diagram for your Nucleo from Appendix C to identify its position), the EXTI2_IRQHandler() fires and this causes the HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler() to set the blink variable to 0. The EXTI15_10_IRQHandler() can now end. Please, take note that this is a really bad way to deal with interrupts. Locking the MCU inside an interrupt is a poor programming style, and it is the root of all evil in embedded programming. Unfortunately, this is the only example that came up to the author’s mind, considering that at this point the book still covers few topics. As we will see soon, every ISR must be designed to last as little as possible, otherwise other fundamental ISRs could be masked for a long time loosing important information coming from other peripherals.

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As exercise, try to play with interrupt priorities, and see what happens if both interrupts have the same priority.

You may notice that often the interrupt fires by simply touching the wire, even if it is not tied to the ground. Why does this happen? There are essentially two reasons that cause the interrupt to “accidentally” trigger. First of all, modern microcontrollers try to minimize the power leakages connected with the usage of internal pull-up/down resistors. So, the value of these resistors is chosen really high (something around 50kΩ). If you play with the voltage divider equation, you can figure out that it is really easy to pull an I/O low or high when a pull-up/down resistor has a high resistance value. Secondly, here we are not doing adequate debouncing of the input pin. Debouncing is the process of minimizing the effect of bounces produced by “unstable” sources (e.g. a mechanical switch). Usually debouncing is performed in hardware¹⁶ or in software, by counting how much time is elapsed from the first variation of the input state: in our case, if the input remains low for more than a given period (usually something between 100ms and 200ms is sufficient), then we can says that the input has been effectively tied to the ground). As we will see in Chapter 11, we can also use one channel of a timer configured to work in input capture mode to detect when a GPIO changes state. This gives us the ability to automatically count how much time is elapsed from the first event. Moreover, timer channels support integrated and programmable hardware filters, which allow us to reduce the number of external components to debounce the I/Os.

It is important to remark some fundamental things. First of all, different from Cortex-M0/0+ based microcontrollers, Cortex-M3/4/7 cores allow to dynamically change the priority of an interrupt, even if this is already enabled. Secondly, care must be taken when the priority grouping is lowered dynamically. Let us consider the following example. Suppose that we have three ISRs with three decreasing priorities (the priority is specified inside the parenthesis): A(0x0), B(0x10), C(0x20). Suppose that we have defined these priorities when the priority grouping was equal to NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_4. If we lower it to the NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_1 level, the current preemption levels will be interpreted as sub-priorities. This will cause that interrupt service routines A, B and C have the same preemption level (that is, 0x0), and it will not be possible to preempt them. For example, looking at Figure 20 we can see what happens to the priority of the ISR C when the priority grouping is lowered from 4 to 1. When the priority grouping is set to 4, the priority of C ISR is just two levels under the maximum priority level, which is 0 (the next highest level is 0x10, which is the B’s priority). This means that C can be preempted both by A and B. However, if we lower the priority grouping to 1, then the priority of C becomes 0x0 (only bit 7 acts as priority) and the remaining bits are interpreted by the NVIC controller as sub-priority. This can lead to the following scenario: 1. all interrupts will not be able to preempt each other; ¹⁶Usually, a capacitor and a resistor in parallel with the switch contacts are sufficient in most cases. For example, you can take a look to schematics of the Nucleo board to see how ST engineers have debounced the USER button connected to PC13 GPIO.

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2. if C interrupt is triggered, and the CPU is not servicing another interrupt, C is serviced immediately; 3. if CPU is servicing C ISR and then after a short while A and B are triggered, CPU will service A and then B after it completes to service C; 4. if CPU is servicing another ISR, if C triggers and then after a short while A and B are triggered, A will be serviced firstly, followed by B then C.

Figure 20: What happens to the C ISR priority when the priority gruping is lowered from 4 to 1

Before that the interrupt priority mechanism becomes clear, you will have to do several experiments by yourself. So, try to modify the Example 3 so that changing the priority grouping causes that the preemption priority is the same for both the IRQs.

To obtain the priority of an interrupt, the HAL defines the following function: void HAL_NVIC_GetPriority(IRQn_Type IRQn, uint32_t PriorityGroup, uint32_t* pPreemptPriori\ ty, uint32_t* pSubPriority);

I have to admit that the signature of this function is a little bit fuzzy, since it differs from the HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(): here we have to specify also the PriorityGroup, while the HAL_NVIC_SetPriority() function computes it internally. I do not know why ST has decided to use this signature, and I cannot see the reason to make it different from the HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(). The current priority grouping can be obtained using the following function: uint32_t HAL_NVIC_GetPriorityGrouping(void);

7.4.3 Setting Interrupt Priority in CubeMX CubeMX can be also used to set the IRQ priority and the priority grouping schema. This configuration is done through the Configuration view, clicking on the NVIC button. The list of enableable ISRs appears, as shown in Figure 21.

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Figure 21: The NVIC configuration view allows to set the ISR priority

Using the Priority Group combo box we can set the priority grouping schema, and then assign the individual priority and sub-priority to each interrupt. CubeMX will automatically generate the corresponding C code to setup the IRQ priority inside the MX_GPIO_Init() function. Instead, the global priority grouping schema is configured inside the HAL_MspInit() function.

7.5 Interrupt Re-Entrancy Let us suppose to rearrange the Example 3 so that it uses pin PC12 instead of PB2. In this case, since EXTI12 and EXTI13 share the same IRQ, our Nucleo would never stop blinking. Due to the way the priority mechanism is implemented in Cortex-M processors (that is, an exception with a given priority cannot be preempted by another one with same priority), exceptions and interrupts are not re-entrant. So they cannot be called recursively¹⁷. However, in most of cases our code can be rearranged to address this limitation. In the following example¹⁸ the blinking code is executed inside the main() function, leaving to the ISR only the responsibility to setup the global blink variable.

¹⁷Joseph Yiu shows a way to bypass this limitation in his books. However, I strongly discourage from using these tricky techniques unless you really need interrupt re-entrancy in your application. ¹⁸The example is designed to work with a Nucleo-F401RE board. Please, refer to other book examples if you have a different Nucleo board.

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Filename: src/main-ex4.c /*Configure GPIO pin : PC12 & PC13 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_12 | GPIO_PIN_13; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOC, &GPIO_InitStruct);

50 51 52 53 54 55

/*Configure GPIO pin : PA5 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_OUTPUT_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

56 57 58 59 60 61 62

HAL_NVIC_SetPriorityGrouping(NVIC_PRIORITYGROUP_1); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(EXTI15_10_IRQn); HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(EXTI15_10_IRQn, 0x0, 0);

63 64 65 66

while(1) { if(blink) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); for(int i = 0; i < 100000; i++); } }

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}

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void EXTI15_10_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_12); HAL_GPIO_EXTI_IRQHandler(GPIO_PIN_13); }

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void HAL_GPIO_EXTI_Callback(uint16_t GPIO_Pin) { if(GPIO_Pin == GPIO_PIN_13) blink = 1; else blink = 0; }

7.6 Mask All Interrupts at Once or an a Priority Basis Sometimes we want to be sure that our code is not preempted to allow the execution of interrupts or more privileged code. That is, we want to ensure that our code is thread-safe. Cortex-M based processors allow to temporarily mask the execution of all interrupts and exceptions, without

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disabling one by one. Two special registers, named PRIMASK and FAULTMASK allow to disable all interrupts and exceptions respectively.

Figure 22: PRIMASK, FAULTMASK and BASEPRI registers

Even if these registers are 32-bit wide, just the first bit is used to enable/disable interrupts and exceptions. The ARM assembly instruction CPSID i disables all interrupt by setting the PRIMASK bit to 1, while the CPSIE i instructions enables them by setting PRIMASK to zero. Instead, the instruction CPSID f disables all exceptions (except for the NMI one) by setting the FAULTMASK bit to 1, while the CPSIE f instructions enables them. The CMSIS-Core package provides several macros that we can use to perform these operation: __disable_irq() and __enable_irq() automatically set and clear the PRIMASK. Any critical task can be placed between these two macros, as shown below: ... __disable_irq(); /* All exceptions with configurable priority are temporarily disabled. You can place critical code here */ ... __enable_irq();

However, take in mind that, as general rule, interrupt must be masked only for really short time, otherwise you could lose important interrupts. Remember that interrupts are not queued. Another macro we can use is the __set_PRIMASK(x) one, where x is the content of the PRIMASK register (0 or 1). The macro __get_PRIMARK() returns the content of the PRIMASK register. Instead, the macros __set_FAULTMASK(x) and __get_FAULTMASK() allow to manipulate the FAULTMASK register. It is important to remark that, once the PRIMASK register is again set to zero, all pending interrupts are serviced according their priority: PRIMASK causes that the the interrupt pending bit is set but the ISR is not serviced. This is the reason why we say that interrupt are masked and not disabled. Interrupts start to be serviced as soon as the PRIMASK is cleared. Cortex-M3/4/7 cores allow to selectively mask interrupts on a priority basis. The BASEPRI register masks exceptions or interrupts on a priority level. The width of the BASEPRI register is the same of the IPR one, which lasts for the upper 4 bits in STM32 MCUs based on these cores. When BASEPRI is set to 0, it is disabled. When it is set to a non-zero value, it blocks exceptions (including interrupts) that have the same or lower priority level, while still allowing exceptions with a higher priority level

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to be accepted by the processor. For example, if the BASEPRI register is set to 0x60, then all interrupts with a priority between 0x60-0xFF are disabled. Remember that in Cortex-M cores the higher is the priority number the lower is the interrupt priority level. The __set_BASEPRI(x) macro allows to set the content of the BASEPRI register: remember, again, that the HAL automatically shifts the priority levels to the MSB bits. So, if we want to disable all interrupts with a priority higher than 2, then we have to pass to the __set_BASEPRI() macro the value 0x20. Alternatively, we can use the following code: __set_BASEPRI(2 Editor->Templates. Here you can find all pre-defined code snippets and you can eventually add your owns.

For example, we can add a new code template that insert a software breakpoint instruction (asm("BKPT #0");) when we write the keyword bkpt, as shown in the previous picture. Code templates are highly customizable, thanks to the usage of variables and other pattern constructs. For more information, refer to the Eclipse documentation. http://bit.ly/2c3Vm1K

225

8. Universal Asynchronous Serial Communications Nowadays there is a really high number of serial communication protocols and hardware interfaces available in the electronics industry. The most of them are focused on high transmission bandwidths, like the more recent USB 2.0 and 3.0 standards, the Firewire (IEEE 1394) and so on. Some of these standards come from the past, but are still widespread especially as communication interface between modules on the same board. One of this is the Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter interface, also simply known as USART. Almost every microcontroller provides at least one UART peripheral. Almost all STM32 MCUs provide at least two UART/USART interfaces, but the most of them provide more than two interfaces (some up to eight interfaces) according the number of I/O supported by the MCU package. In this Chapter we will see how to program this really useful peripheral using the CubeHAL. Moreover, we will study how to develop applications using the UART both in polling and interrupt modes, leaving the third operative mode, the DMA, to the next chapter.

8.1 Introduction to UARTs and USARTs Before we start diving into the analysis of the functions provided by the HAL to manipulate universal serial devices, it is best to take a brief look to the UART/USART interface and its communication protocol. When we want two exchange data between two (or even more) devices, we have two alternatives: we can transmit it in parallel, that is using a given number of communication lines equal to the size of the each data word (e.g., eight independent lines for a word made of eight bits), or we can transmit each bit constituting our word one by one. A UART/USART is a device that translates a parallel sequence of bits (usually grouped in a byte) in a continuous stream of signals flowing on a single wire. When the information flows between two devices inside a common channel, both devices (here, for simplicity, we will refer to them as the sender and the receiver) have to agree on the timing, that this how long it takes to transmit each individual bit of the information. In a synchronous transmission, the sender and the receiver share a common clock generated by one of the two devices (usually the device that acts as the master of this interconnection system).

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Figure 1: A serial communication between two devices using a shared clock source

In Figure 1 we have a typical timing diagram¹ showing the Device A sending one byte (0b01101001) serially to the Device B using a common reference clock. The common clock is also used to agree on when to start sampling the sequence of bits: when the master device starts clocking the dedicated line, it means that it is going to send a sequence of bits. In a synchronous transmission the transmission speed and duration are defined by the clock: its frequency determines how fast we can transmit a single byte on the communication channel². But if both devices involved in data transmission agree on how long it takes to transmit a single bit and when to start and finish to sample transmitted bits, than we can avoid to use a dedicated clock line. In this case we have an asynchronous transmission.

Figure 2: The timing diagram of a serial communication without a dedicated clock line

Figure 2 shows the timing diagram of an asynchronous transmission. The idle state (that is, no transmission occurring) is represented by the high signal. Transmission begins with a START bit, which is represented by the low level. The negative edge is detected by the receiver and 1.5 bit periods after this (indicated in Figure 1s T1.5bit ), the sampling of bits begins. Eight data bits are sampled. The least significant bit (LSB) is typically transmitted first. An optional parity bit is then transmitted (for error checking of the data bits). Often this bit is omitted if the transmission channel is assumed to be noise free or if there are error checking higher up in the protocol layers. The transmission is ended by a STOP bit, which last 1.5 bits. ¹A Timing Diagram is a representation of a set of signals in the time domain. ²However, keep in mind that the maximum transmission speed is determined by a lot of other things, like the characteristics of the electrical channel, the ability of each device involved in transmission to sample fast signals, and so on.

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Figure 3: The signaling difference between a USART and a UART

A Universal Synchronous Receiver/Transmitter interface is a device able to transmit data word serially using two I/Os, one acting as transmitter (TX) and one as receiver (RX), plus one additional I/O as one clock line, while a Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter uses only two RX/TX I/Os (see Figure 3). Traditional we refer to the first interface with the term USART and to the second one with the term UART. A UART/USART defines the signaling method, but it say nothing about the voltage levels. This means that an STM32 UART/USART will use the voltage levels of the MCU I/Os, which is almost equal to VDD (it is also common to refer to these voltage levels as TTL voltage levels). The way these voltage levels are translated to allow serial communication outside the board is demanded to other communication standards. For example, the EIA-RS232 or EIA-RS484 are two really popular standards that define signaling voltages, in addition to their timing and meaning, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. Moreover, UART/USART interfaces can be used to exchange data using other physical and logical serial interfaces. For example, the FT232RL is a really popular IC that allows to map a UART to a USB interface, as shown in Figure 4. The presence of a dedicated clock line, or a common agreement about transmission frequency, does not guarantee that the receiver of a byte stream is able to process them at the same transmission rate of the master. For this reason, some communication standards, like the RS232 and the RS485, provide the possibility to use a dedicated Hardware Flow Control line. For example, two devices communicating using the RS232 interface can share two additional lines, named Request To Send(RTS) and Clear To Send(CTS): the sender sets its RTS, which signals the receiver to begin monitoring its data input line. When ready for data, the receiver will raise its complementary line, CTS, which signals the sender to start sending data, and for the sender to begin monitoring the

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slave’s data output line.

Figure 4: A typical circuit based on FT232RL used to convert a 3.3V TTL UART interface to USB

STM32 microcontrollers provide a variable number of USARTs, which can be configured to work both in synchronous and asynchronous mode. Some STM32 MCUs also provide interfaces only able to act as UART. Table 1 lists the UART/USARTs provided by STM32 MCUs equipping all Nucleo boards. The most of USARTs are also able to automatically implement Hardware Flow Control, both for the RS232 and the RS485 standards. All Nucleo-64 boards are designed so that the USART2 of the target MCU is linked to the STLINK interface³. When we install the ST-LINK drivers, an additional driver for the Virtual COM Port(VCP) is also installed: this allows us to access to the target MCU USART2 using the USB interface, without using a dedicated TTL/USB converter. Using a terminal emulation program we can exchange messages and data with our Nucleo. The CubeHAL separates the API for the management of UART and USART interfaces. All functions and C type handlers used for the handling of USARTs start with the HAL_USART prefix and are contained inside the files stm32xxx_hal_usart.{c,h}, while those related to UARTs management start with the HAL_UART prefix and are contained inside the files stm32xxx_hal_uart.{c,h}. Since both the modules are conceptually identical, and since the UART is the most common form of serial interconnection between different modules, this book will only cover the features of the HAL_UART module. ³Please take note that this statement may not be true if you are using a Nucleo-32 or Nucleo-144 board. Check the ST documentation for more about this.

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Table 1: The list of available USARTs and UARTs on all Nucleo boards

8.2 UART Initialization Like all STM32 peripherals, even the USARTs⁴ are mapped in the memory mapped peripheral region, which starts from 0x4000 0000. The CubeHAL abstracts the effective location of each USART for a given STM32 MCU thanks to the USART_TypeDef⁵ descriptor. For example, we can simply use the USART2 macro to refer to the second USART peripheral provided by all STM32 microcontrollers with LQFP64 package. ⁴Starting from this paragraph, the terms USART and UART are used interchangeably, unless different noticed. ⁵The analysis of the fields of this C struct is outside of the scope of this book.

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However, all the HAL functions related to UART management are designed so that they accept as first parameter an instance of the C struct UART_HandleTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { USART_TypeDef UART_InitTypeDef UART_AdvFeatureInitTypeDef uint8_t uint16_t uint16_t uint8_t uint16_t uint16_t DMA_HandleTypeDef DMA_HandleTypeDef HAL_LockTypeDef __IO HAL_UART_StateTypeDef __IO HAL_UART_ErrorTypeDef } UART_HandleTypeDef;

*Instance; Init; AdvancedInit; *pTxBuffPtr; TxXferSize; TxXferCount; *pRxBuffPtr; RxXferSize; RxXferCount; *hdmatx; *hdmarx; Lock; State; ErrorCode;

/* UART registers base address */ /* UART communication parameters */ /* UART Advanced Features initialization parameters */ /* Pointer to UART Tx transfer Buffer */ /* UART Tx Transfer size */ /* UART Tx Transfer Counter */ /* Pointer to UART Rx transfer Buffer */ /* UART Rx Transfer size */ /* UART Rx Transfer Counter */ /* UART Tx DMA Handle parameters */ /* UART Rx DMA Handle parameters */ /* Locking object */ /* UART communication state */ /* UART Error code */

Let us see more in depth the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the USART descriptor we are going to use. For example, USART2 is the descriptor of the UART associated to the ST-LINK interface of every Nucleo board. • Init: is an instance of the C struct UART_InitTypeDef, which is used to configure the UART interface. We will study it more in depth in a while. • AdvancedInit: this field is used to configure more advanced UART features like the automatic BaudRate detection and the TX/RX pin swapping. Some HALs do not provide this additional field. This happens because USART interfaces are not equal for all STM32 MCUs. This is an important aspect to keep in mind while choosing the right MCU for your application. The analysis of this field is outside the scope of this book. • pTxBuffPtr and pRxBuffPtr: these fields point to the transmit and receive buffer respectively. They are used as source to transmit TxXferSize bytes over the UART and to receive RxXferSize when the UART is configured in Full Duplex Mode. The TxXferCount and RxXferCount fields are used internally by the HAL to take count of transmitted and received bytes. • Lock: this field is used internally by the HAL to lock concurrent accesses to UART interfaces.

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As said above, the Lock field is used to rule concurrent accesses in almost all HAL routines. If you take a look to the HAL code, you can see several uses of the __HAL_LOCK() macro, which is expanded in this way: #define __HAL_LOCK(__HANDLE__) do{ if((__HANDLE__)->Lock == HAL_LOCKED) { return HAL_BUSY; } else { (__HANDLE__)->Lock = HAL_LOCKED; } }while (0)

\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \

It is not clear why ST engineers decided to take care of concurrent accesses to the HAL routines. Probably they decided to have a thread safe approach, freeing the application developer from the responsibility of managing multiple accesses to the same hardware interface in case of multiple threads running in the same application. However, this has an annoying side effect for all HAL users: even if my application does not perform concurrent accesses to the same peripheral, my code will be poor optimized by a lot of checks about the state of the Lock field. Moreover, that way to lock is intrinsically thread unsafe, because there is no critical section used to prevent race conditions in case a more privileged ISR preempts the running code. Finally, if my application uses an RTOS, it is much better to use native OS locking primitives (like semaphores and mutexes which are not only atomic, but also correctly manages the task scheduling avoiding the busy waiting) to handle concurrent accesses, without the need to check for a particular return value (HAL_BUSY) of the HAL functions. A lot of developers have disapproved this way to lock peripherals since the first release of the HAL. ST engineers have recently announced that they are actively working on a better solution.

All the UART configuration activities are performed by using an instance of the C struct UART_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way:

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typedef struct { uint32_t BaudRate; uint32_t WordLength; uint32_t StopBits; uint32_t Parity; uint32_t Mode; uint32_t HwFlowCtl; uint32_t OverSampling; } UART_InitTypeDef;

• BaudRate: this parameter refers to the connection speed, expressed in bits per seconds. Even if the parameter can assume an arbitrary value, usually the BaudRate comes from a list of well-known and standard values. This because it is a function of the peripheral clock associated to the USART (that is derived from the main HSI or HSE clock by a complex chain of PLLs and multipliers in some STM32 MCU), and not all BaudRates can be easily achieved without introducing sampling errors, and hence communication errors. Table 2 shows the list of common BaudRates, and the related error calculation, for an STM32F030 MCU. Always consult the reference manual for your MCU to see which peripheral clock frequency best fits the needed BaudRate on the given STM32 microcontroller.

Table 2: Error calculation for programmed baud rates at 48 MHz in both cases of oversampling by 16 or by 8

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• WordLength: it specifies the number of data bits transmitted or received in a frame. This field can assume the value UART_WORDLENGTH_8B or UART_WORDLENGTH_9B, which means that we can transmit over a UART packets containing 8 or 9 data bits. This number does not include the overhead bits transmitted, such as the start and stop bits. • StopBits: this field specifies the number of stop bits transmitted. It can assume the value UART_STOPBITS_1 or UART_STOPBITS_2, which means that we can use one or two stop bits to signal the end of the frame. • Parity: it indicates the parity mode. This field can assume the values from Table 3. Take note that, when parity is enabled, the computed parity is inserted at the MSB position of the transmitted data (9th bit when the word length is set to 9 data bits; 8th bit when the word length is set to 8 data bits). Parity is a very simple form of error checking. It comes in two flavors: odd or even. To produce the parity bit, all data bits are added up, and the evenness of the sum decides whether the bit is set or not. For example, assuming parity is set to even and was being added to a data byte like 0b01011101, which has an odd number of 1’s (5), the parity bit would be set to 1. Conversely, if the parity mode was set to odd, the parity bit would be 0. Parity is optional, and not very widely used. It can be helpful for transmitting across noisy mediums, but it will also slow down data transfer a bit and requires both sender and receiver to implement error-handling (usually, received data that fails must be re-sent). When a parity error occurs, all STM32 MCUs generate a specific interrupt, as we will see next. • Mode: it specifies whether the RX or TX mode is enabled or disabled. This field can assume one of the values from Table 4. • HwFlowCtl: it specifies whether the RS232⁶ Hardware Flow Control mode is enabled or disabled. This parameter can assume one of the values from Table 5.

Table 3: Available parity modes for a UART connection

Parity Mode

Description

UART_PARITY_NONE UART_PARITY_EVEN UART_PARITY_ODD

No parity check enabled The parity bit is set to 1 if the count of bits equal to 1 is odd The parity bit is set to 1 if the count of bits equal to 1 is even Table 4: Available UART modes

UART Mode

Description

UART_MODE_RX UART_MODE_TX UART_MODE_TX_RX

The UART is configured only in receive mode The UART is configured only in transmit mode The UART is configured to work bot in receive an transmit mode

⁶this field is only used to enable the RS232 flow control. To enable the RS485 flow control, the HAL provides a specific function, HAL_RS485Ex_Init(), defined inside the stm32xxxx_hal_uart_ex.c file.

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Table 5: Available flow control mode for a UART connection

Flow Control Mode

Description

UART_HWCONTROL_NONE UART_HWCONTROL_RTS UART_HWCONTROL_CTS UART_HWCONTROL_RTS_CTS

The Hardware Flow Control is disabled The Request To Send(RTS) line is enabled The Clear To Send(CTS) line is enabled Both RTS and CTS lines enabled

• OverSampling: when the UART receives a frame from the remote peer, it samples the signals in order to compute the number of 1 and 0 constituting the message. Oversampling is the technique of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate. The receiver implements different user-configurable oversampling techniques (except in synchronous mode) for data recovery by discriminating between valid incoming data and noise. This allows a trade-off between the maximum communication speed and noise/clock inaccuracy immunity. The OverSampling field can assume the value UART_OVERSAMPLING_16 to perform 16 samples for each frame bit or UART_OVERSAMPLING_8 to perform 8 samples. Table 2 shows the error calculation for programmed baud rates at 48 MHz in an STM32F030 MCU in both cases of oversampling by 16 or by 8. Now it is a good time to start writing down a bit of code. Let us see how to configure the USART2 of the MCU equipping our Nucleo to exchange messages through the ST-LINK interface. int main(void) { UART_HandleTypeDef huart2; /* Initialize the HAL */ HAL_Init(); /* Configure the system clock */ SystemClock_Config(); /* Configure the USART2 */ huart2.Instance = USART2; huart2.Init.BaudRate = 38400; huart2.Init.WordLength = UART_WORDLENGTH_8B; huart2.Init.StopBits = UART_STOPBITS_1; huart2.Init.Parity = UART_PARITY_NONE; huart2.Init.Mode = UART_MODE_TX_RX; huart2.Init.HwFlowCtl = UART_HWCONTROL_NONE; huart2.Init.OverSampling = UART_OVERSAMPLING_16; HAL_UART_Init(&huart2); ... }

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The first step is to configure the USART2 peripheral. Here we are using this configuration: 38400, N, 1. That is, a BaudRate equal to 38400 Bps, no parity check and just one stop bit. Next, we disable any form of Hardware Flow Control and we choose the highest oversampling rate, that is 16 clock ticks for each transmitted bit. The call to the HAL_UART_Init() function ensures that the HAL initializes the USART2 according the given options. However, the above code is still not sufficient to exchange messages through the Nucleo Virtual COM Port. Don’t forget that every peripheral designed to exchange data with the outside world must be properly bound to corresponding GPIOs, that is we have to configure the USART2 TX and RX pins. Looking to the Nucleo schematics, we can see that USART2 TX and RX pins are PA2 and PA3 respectively. Moreover, we have already seen in Chapter 4 that the HAL is designed so that HAL_UART_Init() function automatically calls the HAL_UART_MspInit() (see Figure 19 in Chapter 4) to properly initialize the I/Os: it is our responsibility to write this function in our application code, which we will be automatically called by the HAL.

Is It Mandatory to Define This Function? The answer is simply no. This is just a practice enforced by the HAL and by the code automatically generated by CubeMX. The HAL_UART_MspInit(), and the corresponding function HAL_UART_MspDeInit() which is called by the HAL_UART_DeInit() function, are declared inside the HAL in this way: __weak void HAL_UART_MspInit(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart);

The function attribute __weak is a GCC way to declare a symbol (here, a function name) with a weak scope visibility, which we will be overwritten if another symbol with the same name with a global scope (that is, without the __weak attribute) is defined elsewhere in the application (that is, in another relocatable file). The linker will automatically substitute the call to the function HAL_UART_MspInit() defined inside the HAL if we implement it in our application code.

The code below shows how to correctly code the HAL_UART_MspInit() function. void HAL_UART_MspInit(UART_HandleTypeDef* huart) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct; if(huart->Instance==USART2) { /* Peripheral clock enable */ __HAL_RCC_USART2_CLK_ENABLE(); /**USART2 GPIO Configuration PA2 ------> USART2_TX PA3 ------> USART2_RX */

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GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = USART_TX_Pin|USART_RX_Pin; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; GPIO_InitStruct.Alternate = GPIO_AF1_USART2; /* WARNING: this depends on the specific STM32 MCU */ HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct); } }

As you can see, the function is designed so that it is common for every USART used inside the application. The if statement disciplines the initialization code for the given USART (in our case, USART2). The remaining of code configures the PA2 and PA3 pins. Please, take note that the alternate function may change for the MCU equipping your Nucleo. Consult the book examples to see the right initialization code for your Nucleo. Once we have configured the USART2 interface, we can start exchanging messages with our PC.

Please, take note that the code presented before could not be sufficient to correctly initialize the USART peripheral for some STM32 MCUs. Some STM32 microcontrollers, like the STM32F334R8, allow the developer to choose the clock source for a given peripheral (for example, the USART2 in an STM32F334R8 MCU can be optionally clocked from SYSCLK, HSI, LSE or PCLK1). It is strongly suggested to use CubeMX the first time you configure the peripherals for your MCU and to check carefully the generated code looking for this kind of exceptions. Otherwise, the datasheet is the only source for this information.

8.2.1 UART Configuration Using CubeMX As said before, the first time we configure the USART2 for our Nucleo it is best to use CubeMX. The first step is enabling the USART2 peripheral inside the Pinout view, selecting the Asynchronous entry from the Mode combo box, as shown in Figure 5. Both PA2 and PA3 pins will be automatically highlighted in green. Then, go inside the Configuration section and click on the USART2 button. The configuration dialog will appear, as shown in Figure 5 on the right⁷. This allows us to configure the USART configuration settings, such as the BaudRate, word length and so on⁸. ⁷Please, take note that the Figure 5 is obtained combining two captures in one figure. It is not possible to show the USART configuration dialog from the Pinout view. ⁸Some of you, especially those having a Nucleo-F3, will notice that the configuration dialog is different from the one shown in Figure 5. Please, refer to the reference manual for your target MCU for more information.

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Once we have configured the USART interface, we can generate the C code. You will notice that CubeMX places all the USART2 initialization code inside the MX_USART2_UART_Init() (which is contained in the main.c file). Instead, all the code related to GPIO configuration is placed into the HAL_UART_MspInit() function, which is contained inside the stm32xxxx_hal_msp.c file.

Figure 5: CubeMX can be used to configure the UART2 interface easily

8.3 UART Communication in Polling Mode STM32 microcontrollers, and hence the CubeHAL, offer three ways to exchange data between peers over a UART communication: polling, interrupt and DMA mode. It is important to stress right from now that these modes are not only three different flavors to handle UART communications. They are three different programming approach to the same task, which introduce several benefits both from the design and performance point of view. Let us introduce them briefly. • In polling mode, also called blocking mode, the main application, or one of its threads, synchronously waits for the data transmission and reception. This is the most simple form of data communication using this peripheral, and it can be used when the transmit rate is not too much low and when the UART is not used as critical peripheral in our application (the classical example is the usage of the UART as output console for debug activities).

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• In interrupt mode, also called non-blocking mode, the main application is freed from waiting for the completion of data transmission and reception. The data transfer routines terminate as soon as they complete to configure the peripheral. When the data transmission ends, a subsequent interrupt will signal the main code about this. This mode is more suitable when communication speed is low (below 38400 Bps) or when it happens “rarely”, compared to other activities performed by the MCU, and we do not want to stuck it waiting for data transmission. • DMA mode offers the best data transmission throughput, thanks to the direct access of the UART peripheral to MCU internal RAM. This mode is best for high-speed communications and when we totally want to free the MCU from the overhead of data transmission. Without the DMA mode, it is almost impossible to reach the fastest transfer rates that the USART peripheral is capable to handle. In this chapter we will not see this USART communication mode, leaving it to the next chapter dedicated to DMA management. To transmit a sequence of bytes over the USART in polling mode the HAL provides the function HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_UART_Transmit(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

where: • huart: it is the pointer to an instance of the struct UART_HandleTypeDef seen before, which identifies and configures the UART peripheral; • pData: is the pointer to an array, with a length equal to the Size parameter, containing the sequence of bytes we are going to transmit; • Timeout: is the maximum time, expressed in milliseconds, we are going to wait for the transmit completion. If the transmission does not complete in the specified timeout time, the function aborts and returns the HAL_TIMEOUT value; otherwise it returns the HAL_OK value if no other errors occur. Moreover, we can pass a timeout equal to HAL_MAX_DELAY (0xFFFF FFFF) to wait indefinitely for the transmit completion. Conversely, to receive a sequence of bytes over the USART in polling mode the HAL provides the function HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_UART_Receive(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

where: • huart: it is the pointer to an instance of the struct UART_HandleTypeDef seen before, which identifies and configures the UART peripheral;

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• pData: is the pointer to an array, with a length at lest equal to the Size parameter, containing the sequence of bytes we are going to receive. The function will block until all bytes specified by the Size parameter are received. • Timeout: is the maximum time, expressed in milliseconds, we are going to wait for the receive completion. If the transmission does not complete in the specified timeout time, the function aborts and returns the HAL_TIMEOUT value; otherwise it returns the HAL_OK value if no other errors occur. Moreover, we can pass a timeout equal to HAL_MAX_DELAY (0xFFFF FFFF) to wait indefinitely for the receive completion.

Read Carefully It is important to remark that the timeout mechanism offered by the two functions works only if the HAL_IncTick() routine is called every 1ms, as done by the code generated by CubeMX (the function that increments the HAL tick counter is called inside the SysTick timer ISR).

Ok. Now it is the right time to see an example. Filename: src/main-ex1.c 21 22

int main(void) { uint8_t opt = 0;

23

/* Reset of all peripherals, Initializes the Flash interface and the SysTick. */ HAL_Init();

24 25 26

/* Configure the system clock */ SystemClock_Config();

27 28 29

/* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_GPIO_Init(); MX_USART2_UART_Init();

30 31 32 33 34

printMessage:

35

printWelcomeMessage();

36 37

while (1) { opt = readUserInput(); processUserInput(opt); if(opt == 3) goto printMessage; }

38 39 40 41 42 43 44

}

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45 46 47 48 49 50 51

void printWelcomeMessage(void) { HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)"\033[0;0H", strlen("\033[0;0H"), HAL_MAX_DELAY); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)"\033[2J", strlen("\033[2J"), HAL_MAX_DELAY); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)WELCOME_MSG, strlen(WELCOME_MSG), HAL_MAX_DELAY); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)MAIN_MENU, strlen(MAIN_MENU), HAL_MAX_DELAY); }

52 53 54

uint8_t readUserInput(void) { char readBuf[1];

55

HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)PROMPT, strlen(PROMPT), HAL_MAX_DELAY); HAL_UART_Receive(&huart2, (uint8_t*)readBuf, 1, HAL_MAX_DELAY); return atoi(readBuf);

56 57 58 59

}

60 61 62

uint8_t processUserInput(uint8_t opt) { char msg[30];

63

if(!opt || opt > 3) return 0;

64 65 66

sprintf(msg, "%d", opt); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

switch(opt) { case 1: HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(GPIOA, GPIO_PIN_5); break; case 2: sprintf(msg, "\r\nUSER BUTTON status: %s", HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_13) == GPIO_PIN_RESET ? "PRESSED" : "RELEASED\ "); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY); break; case 3: return 2; };

83

return 1;

84 85

}

The example is a sort of bare-bone management console. The application starts printing a welcome message (lines 36) and then entering in a loop waiting for the user choice. The first option allows

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to toggle the LD2 LED, while the second to read the status of the USER button. Finally, the option 3 causes that the welcome screen is printed again. The two strings "\033[0;0H" and "\033[2J" are escape sequences. They are standard sequences of chars used to manipulate the terminal console. The first one places the cursor in the top-left part of the available console screen, and the second one clears the screen.

To interact with this simple management console, we need a serial communication program. There are several options available. The easy one is to use a standalone program like putty⁹ for the Windows platform (if you have an old Windows version, you can also consider to use the classical HyperTerminal tool), or kermit¹⁰ for Linux and MacOS. However, we will now introduce a solution to have an integrated serial communication tool inside the Eclipse IDE. As usual, the instructions differ between Windows, Linux and MacOS.

8.3.1 Installing a Serial Console in Windows For the Windows OS we have a simple and reliable solution. This is based on two plug-ins. The first one is a wrapper plug-in around the RXTX¹¹ Java library. To install it, go to Help->Install software… menu, then click on the Add… button, and fill the fields in the following way: (see Figure 6). Name: RXTX Location: http://rxtx.qbang.org/eclipse/

Figure 6: The dialog to add a new plug-in repository

Click on OK and install the release RXTX 2.1-7r4 following the instructions. Once, the installation has been completed, go to Help->Eclipse Marketplace…. In the Find text box write “tcf”. After a while, the TM Terminal plug-in should appear, as shown in Figure 7. Click on the Install button and follow the instructions. Restart Eclipse when requested. ⁹http://bit.ly/1jsQjnt ¹⁰http://www.columbia.edu/kermit/ ¹¹http://rxtx.qbang.org/

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Figure 7: The Eclipse Marketplace

To open the Terminal panel you can simply press Ctrl+Alt+T, or you can go to Window->Show View->Other… menu and search for Terminal view.

Figure 8: How to start a new terminal

By default, the Terminal pane opens a new command line prompt. Click on the Open a Terminal

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icon (the one circled in red in Figure 8). In the Launch Terminal dialog (see Figure 9) select Serial Terminal as terminal type, and then select the COM Port corresponding to the Nucleo VCP, and 38400Bps as Baud Rate. Click on the OK button.

Figure 9: Terminal type selection dialog

Now you can reset the Nucleo. The management console we have programmed using the HAL_UART library should appear in the serial console window, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10: The Nucleo management console shown in the terminal view

8.3.2 Installing a Serial Console in Linux and MacOS X Unfortunately, installing the RXTX plug-in on Linux and MacOS X is not a trivial task. For this reason we will go another way. The first step is installing the kermit tool. To install it in Linux, type at command line:

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$ sudo apt-get install ckermit

while to install it in MacOS X type: $ sudo port install kermit

Once, the installation has been completed, switch to Eclipse and go to Help->Eclipse Marketplace…. In the Find text box write “tcf”. After a while, the TM Terminal plug-in should appear, as shown in Figure 7. Click on the Install button and follow the instructions. Restart Eclipse when requested. To open the Terminal panel you can simply press Ctrl+Alt+T, or you can go to Window->Show View->Other… menu and search for Terminal view. The command line prompt appears. Before we can connect to the Nucleo VCP, we have to identify the corresponding device under the /dev path. Usually, on UNIX like systems the USB serial devices are mapped with a device name similar to /dev/tty.usbmodem1a1213. Take a look to your /dev folder. Once you grab the device filename, you can launch the kermit tool and execute the commands shown below at the kermit console: $ kermit C-Kermit 9.0.302 OPEN SOURCE:, 20 Aug 2011, for Mac OS X 10.9 (64-bit) Copyright (C) 1985, 2011, Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York. Type ? or HELP for help. (/Users/cnoviello/) C-Kermit>set line /dev/tty.usbmodem1a1213 (/Users/cnoviello/) C-Kermit>set speed 38400 /dev/tty.usbmodem1a1213, 38400 bps (/Users/cnoviello/) C-Kermit>set carrier-watch off (/Users/cnoviello/) C-Kermit>c Connecting to /dev/tty.usbmodem1a1213, speed 38400 Escape character: Ctrl-\ (ASCII 28, FS): enabled Type the escape character followed by C to get back, or followed by ? to see other options. ----------------------------------------------------

To avoid retyping the above commands every time you launch kermit, you can create a file named ∼/.kermrc inside your home directory, and put inside it the above commands. kermit will load those commands automatically when it is executed.

Now you can reset the Nucleo. The management console we have programmed using the HAL_UART library should appear in the serial console window, as shown in Figure 10.

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8.4 UART Communication in Interrupt Mode Let us consider again the first example of this chapter. What’s wrong with it? Since our firmware is all committed to this simple task, there is nothing wrong by using the UART in polling mode. The MCU is essentially blocked waiting for the user input (the HAL_MAX_DELAY timeout value blocks the HAL_UART_Receive() until one char is sent over the UART). But what if our firmware has to accomplish other cpu-intensive activities in real-time? Suppose to rearrange the main() from the first example in the following way: 38 39 40 41 42

while (1) { opt = readUserInput(); processUserInput(opt); if(opt == 3) goto printMessage;

43

performCriticalTasks();

44 45

}

In this case we cannot block the execution of function processUserInput() waiting for the user choice, but we have to specify a much more short timeout value to the HAL_UART_Receive() function, otherwise performCriticalTasks() is never executed. However, this could cause the loss of important data coming from the UART peripheral (remember that the UART interface has a one byte wide buffer). To address this issue the HAL offers another way to exchange data over a UART peripheral: the interrupt mode. To use this mode, we have to accomplish the following tasks: • To enable the USARTx_IRQn interrupt and to implement the corresponding USARTx_IRQHandler() ISR. • To call HAL_UART_IRQHandler() inside the USARTx_IRQHandler(): this will perform all activities related to management of interrupts generated by the UART peripheral¹². • To use the functions HAL_UART_Transmit_IT() and HAL_UART_Receive_IT() to exchange data over the UART. These functions also enables the interrupt mode of the UART peripheral: in this way the peripheral will assert the corresponding line in the NVIC controller so that the ISR is raised when an event occurs. • To rearrange our application code to deal with asynchronous events. Before we rearrange the code from the first example, it is best to take a look to the available UART interrupts and to the way HAL routines are designed. ¹²If we use CubeMX to enable the USARTx_IRQn from the NVIC configuration section (as shown in Chapter 7), it will automatically place the call to the HAL_UART_IRQHandler() from the ISR.

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8.4.1 UART Related Interrupts Every STM32 USART peripheral provides the interrupts listed in Table 6. These interrupts include both IRQs related to data transmission and to communication errors. They can be divided in two groups: • IRQs generated during transmission: Transmission Complete, Clear to Send or Transmit Data Register empty interrupt. • IRQs generated while receiving: Idle Line detection, Overrun error, Receive Data register not empty, Parity error, LIN break detection, Noise Flag (only in multi buffer communication) and Framing Error (only in multi buffer communication).

Table 6: The list of USART related interrupts

Interrupt Event

Event Flag

Enable Control Bit

Transmit Data Register Empty Clear To Send (CTS) flag Transmission Complete Received Data Ready to be Read Overrun Error Detected Idle Line Detected Parity Error Break Flag Noise Flag, Overrun error and Framing Error in multi buffer communication

TXE CTS TC RXNE ORE IDLE PE LBD NF or ORE or FE

TXEIE CTSIE TCIE RXNEIE RXNEIE IDLEIE PEIE LBDIE EIE

These events generate an interrupt if the corresponding Enable Control Bit is set (third column of Table 6). However, STM32 MCUs are designed so that all these IRQs are bound to just one ISR for every USART peripheral (see Figure 11¹³). For example, the USART2 defines only the USART2_IRQn as IRQ for all interrupts generated by this peripheral. It is up to the user code to analyze the corresponding Event Flag to infer which interrupt has generated the request. ¹³The Figure 9s taken from the STM32F030 Reference Manual (RM0390).

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Figure 11: How the USART interrupt events are connected to the same interrupt vector

The CubeHAL is designed to automatically do this job for us. The user is warned about the interrupt generation thanks to a series of callback functions invoked by the HAL_UART_IRQHandler(), which must be called inside the ISR. From a technical point of view, there is not so much difference between UART transmission in polling and in interrupt mode. Both the methods transfer an array of bytes using the UART Data Register (DR) with the following algorithm: • For data transmission, place a byte inside the USART->DR register and wait until the Transmit Data Register Empty(TXE) flag is asserted true. • For data reception, wait until the Received Data Ready to be Read(RXNE) is not asserted true, and then store the content of the USART->DR register inside the application memory. The difference between the two methods consists in how they wait for the completion of data transmission. In polling mode, the HAL_UART_Receive()/HAL_UART_Transmit() functions are designed so that it waits for the corresponding event flag to be set, for every byte we want to transmit. In interrupt mode, the function HAL_UART_Receive_IT()/HAL_UART_Transmit_IT() are designed so that they do not wait for data transmission completion, but the dirty job to place a new byte inside the DR register, or to load its content inside the application memory, is accomplished by the ISR routine when the RXNEIE/TXEIE interrupt is generated¹⁴. To transmit a sequence of bytes in interrupt mode, the HAL defines the function: ¹⁴This is the reason why transferring a sequence of bytes in interrupt mode is not a smart thing when the communication speed is too high, or when we have to transfer a great amount of data very often. Since the transmission of each byte happens quickly, the CPU will be congested by the interrupts generated by the UART for every byte transmitted. For continuous transmission of great sequences of bytes at high speed is best to use the DMA mode, as we will see in the next chapter.

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_UART_Transmit_IT(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size);

where: • huart: it is the pointer to an instance of the struct UART_HandleTypeDef seen before, which identifies and configures the UART peripheral; • pData: it is the pointer to an array, with a length equal to the Size parameter, containing the sequence of bytes we are going to transmit; the function will not block waiting for the data transmission, and it will pass the control to the main flow as soon as it completes to configure the UART. Conversely, to receive a sequence of bytes over the USART in interrupt mode the HAL provides the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_UART_Receive_IT(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size);

where: • huart: it is the pointer to an instance of the struct UART_HandleTypeDef seen before, which identifies and configures the UART peripheral; • pData: it is the pointer to an array, with a length at lest equal to the Size parameter, containing the sequence of bytes we are going to receive. The function will not block waiting for the data reception, and it will pass the control to the main flow as soon as it completes to configure the UART. Now we can proceed rearranging the first example. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 37 38 39

/* Enable USART2 interrupt */ HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(USART2_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(USART2_IRQn);

40 41 42

printMessage: printWelcomeMessage();

43 44 45 46 47

while (1) { opt = readUserInput(); if(opt > 0) { processUserInput(opt);

Universal Asynchronous Serial Communications if(opt == 3) goto printMessage;

48 49

} performCriticalTasks();

50 51

}

52 53

}

54 55 56

int8_t readUserInput(void) { int8_t retVal = -1;

57

if(UartReady == SET) { UartReady = RESET; HAL_UART_Receive_IT(&huart2, (uint8_t*)readBuf, 1); retVal = atoi(readBuf); } return retVal;

58 59 60 61 62 63 64

}

65 66 67 68

uint8_t processUserInput(int8_t opt) { char msg[30];

69

if(!(opt >=1 && opt 0) { RingBuffer_Read(&txBuf, &txData, 1); HAL_UART_Transmit_IT(huart, &txData, 1); } }

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The RingBuffer_Read() it is not really fast as it could be with a more performant implementation. For some real world situations, the whole overhead of the HAL_UART_TxCpltCallback() routine (that is called from the ISR routine) could be too high. If this is your case, you can consider to create a function like the following one: void processPendingTXTransfers(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart) { if(RingBuffer_GetDataLength(&txBuf) > 0) { RingBuffer_Read(&txBuf, &txData, 1); HAL_UART_Transmit_IT(huart, &txData, 1); } }

Then, you could call this function from the main application code or in a lower privileged task if you are using an RTOS.

8.5 Error Management When dealing with external communications, the error management is an aspect that we must strongly take in consideration. An STM32 UART peripheral offers some error flags related to communication errors. Moreover, it is possible to enable a corresponding interrupt to be noticed when the error occurs. The CubeHAL is designed to automatically detect error conditions, and to warn us about them. We only need to implement the HAL_UART_ErrorCallback() function inside our application code. The HAL_UART_IRQHandler() will automatically invoke it in case an error occurs. To understand which error has been occurred, we can check the value of the UART_HandleTypeDef->ErrorCode field. The list of error codes is reported in Table 7. Table 7: List of UART_HandleTypeDef->ErrorCode possible values

UART Error Code

Description

HAL_UART_ERROR_NONE HAL_UART_ERROR_PE HAL_UART_ERROR_NE HAL_UART_ERROR_FE HAL_UART_ERROR_ORE HAL_UART_ERROR_DMA

No error occurred Parity check error Noise error Framing error Overrun error DMA Transfer error

The HAL_UART_IRQHandler() is designed so that we should not care with the implementation details of UART error management. The HAL code will automatically perform all needed steps to handle the error (like clearing event flags, pending bit and so on), leaving to us the responsibility to handle the error at application level (for example, we may ask to the other peer to resend a corrupted frame).

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Read Carefully At the time of writing this chapter, December 2nd 2015, a subtle bug prevents the right management of the Overrun error. You can read more about it on the official ST forum¹⁶. You can reproduce this bug even with the second example of this chapter. Run the example on your Nucleo, and hit the key ‘3’ on your keyboard leaving it pressed. After a while, the firmware will hang. This happens because, after the Overrun error occurs, the HAL does not restart the receiving process again. You can address this bug implementing the HAL_UART_ErrorCallback() function in the following way: void HAL_UART_ErrorCallback(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart) { if(huart->ErrorCode == HAL_UART_ERROR_ORE) HAL_UART_Receive_IT(huart, readBuf, 1); } }

8.6 I/O Retargeting In Chapter 5 we have learned how to use the semihosting feature to send debug messages to the OpenOCD console using the C printf() function. If you have already used this feature, you know that there are two strong limitations: • semihosting really slows down the firmware execution; • it also prevents your firmware from working if it is executed without a debug session (due to the fact that semihosting is implemented using software breakpoints). Now that we are familiar with the UART management, we can redefine the needed system calls (_write(), _read() and so on) to retarget the STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR standard streams to the Nucleo USART2. This can be easily done in the following way:

¹⁶http://bit.ly/1Pvim7X

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Filename: system/src/retarget/retarget.c 14

#if !defined(OS_USE_SEMIHOSTING)

15 16 17 18

#define STDIN_FILENO 0 #define STDOUT_FILENO 1 #define STDERR_FILENO 2

19 20

UART_HandleTypeDef *gHuart;

21 22 23

void RetargetInit(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart) { gHuart = huart;

24

/* Disable I/O buffering for STDOUT stream, so that * chars are sent out as soon as they are printed. */ setvbuf(stdout, NULL, _IONBF, 0);

25 26 27 28

}

29 30 31 32

int _isatty(int fd) { if (fd >= STDIN_FILENO && fd = STDIN_FILENO && fd = STDIN_FILENO && fd st_mode = S_IFCHR; return 0; }

88

errno = EBADF; return 0;

89 90 91

}

92 93

#endif //#if !defined(OS_USE_SEMIHOSTING)

To retarget the standard streams in your firmware, you have to remove the macro OS_USE_SEMIHOSTING at project level, and to initialize the library calling the RetargetInit() passing the pointer to the UART_HandleTypeDef instance of the UART2. For example, the following code shows how to use printf()/scanf() functions in your firmware:

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int main(void) { char buf[20]; HAL_Init(); SystemClock_Config(); MX_GPIO_Init(); MX_USART2_UART_Init(); RetargetInit(&huart2); printf("Write your name: "); scanf("%s", buf); printf("\r\nHello %s!\r\n", buf); while(1); }

If you are going to use printf()/scanf() functions to print/read float datatypes on the serial console (but also if you are going to use sprintf() and similar routines), you need to explicitly enable float support in newlib-nano, which is the more compact version of the C runtime library for embedded systems. To do this, go to Project->Properties… menu, then go to C/C++ Build>Settings->Cross ARM C++ Linker->Miscellaneous and check Use float with nano printf/scanf according the feature you need, as shown in Figure 13. This will increase the firmware binary size.

Figure 13: How to enable float support in printf() and scanf()

9. DMA Management Every embedded application needs to exchange data with the outside world or to drive external peripherals. For example, our microcontroller may exchange messages with other modules on the PCB using an UART, or it may store data in an external flash using one of the available SPI interfaces. This involves the transfer of a given amount of data between the internal SRAM or flash memory and the peripheral registers, and it requires a certain number of CPU cycles to accomplish the transfer. This leads to a loss of computing power (the CPU is occupied in the transfer process), to a reduction of the overall performances and eventually to a loss of important asynchronous events. The Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller is a dedicated and programmable hardware unit that allows MCU peripherals to access to internal memories without the intervention of the Cortex-M core. The CPU is completely freed from the overhead generated by the data transfer (except for the overhead related to the DMA configuration), and it can perform other activities in parallel¹. The DMA is designed to work in both the ways (that is, it allows data transfer from memory to peripheral and vice versa), and all STM32 microcontrollers provide at least one DMA controller, but the most of them implement two independent DMAs. The DMA is an “advanced” feature of modern MCUs, and novice users tend to consider it too complicated to use. Instead, the concepts underlying the DMA are really simple, and once you understand them it will be really easy to use it. Moreover, the good news is that the CubeHAL is designed to abstract the most of DMA configuration steps for a given peripheral, leaving to the user the responsibility to provide just few basic configurations. This chapter will guide you to the fundamental concepts related to the DMA usage, and it will offer an overview of the DMA characteristics in all STM32 families. As usual, this chapter does not aim to be exhaustive and to substitute the official ST documentation², which is a good thing to have as reference during the reading of this chapter. However, once you master the fundamental concepts related to the DMA, you will be able to dive inside your MCU datasheets easily.

9.1 Introduction to DMA Before we can analyze the features offered by the HAL_DMA module, it is important to understand some fundamental concepts behind the DMA controller. The next paragraphs try to summarize the ¹This is not exactly true, as we will see next. But it is ok to consider that sentence true here. ²ST provides a dedicated application note about the DMA for every STM32 family. For example, the AN4104 (http://bit.ly/1VMugtO) talks about the DMA in STM32F0 MCUs. Curiously, the most of them are too much “cryptic” and lack of examples and images to better explain how the DMA works. Instead, the AN4031 (http://bit.ly/1n66sW7) related to the DMA in STM32F2/F4 MCUs is the most complete, clear and well organized document about the DMA from ST, even if the DMA in these families differs from the other STM32 families (except the latest STM32F7 which faces the same DMA controller available in F2/F4 microcontrollers), and it is strongly suggested to have a look to that document even if you are not working with those STM32 families.

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most important aspects to keep in mind during the study of this peripheral. Moreover, they try to address the implementation differences between STM32F2/4/7 and other STM32 families.

9.1.1 The Need of a DMA and the Role of the Internal Buses Why the DMA is a so important feature? Every peripheral in an STM32 microcontroller needs to exchange data with the internal Cortex-M core. Some of them translate this data in electrical I/O signals to exchange it to the outside world according a given communication protocol (this is the case, for example, of UART or SPI interfaces). Others are just designed so that the access to their registers inside the peripheral memory mapped region (from 0x4000 0000 to 0x5FFF FFFF) causes a changing to their state (for example, the GPIOx->ODR register drives the state of all I/Os connected to that port). However, keep in mind that from the CPU point of view this also implies a memory transfer between the core and the peripheral. The MCU core, in theory, could be designed so that every peripheral would have its own storage area, and it in turn could be tightly coupled with the CPU core to minimize the costs related to memory transfers³. This, however, complicates the MCU architecture, requiring a lot of more silicon and more “active components” that consume power. So, the approach used in all embedded microcontrollers is to use some portions of the internal memory (SRAM as well flash) as temporary area storage for different peripherals. It is up to the user to decide how much room to dedicate to these areas. For example, let us consider this code fragment: uint8_t buf[20]; ... HAL_UART_Receive(&huart2, buf, 20, HAL_MAX_DELAY);

Here we are going to read twenty bytes from the UART2 interface, and hence we allocate an array (the temporary storage) of the same size inside the SRAM. The HAL_UART_Receive() function will access twenty times to the huart2.Instance->DR data register to transfer bytes from the peripheral to the internal memory, plus it will poll the UART RXNE flag to detect when the new data is ready to be transferred. The CPU will be involved during these operations (see Figure 1), even if its role is “limited” to move data from the peripheral to the SRAM⁴. ³This is what happens in some vector processors equipping really expensive supercomputers, but this is not the case of 32 cents CPUs like the STM32. ⁴Keep in mind that using the UART in interrupt mode does not change the story. Once the UART generates the interrupt to signal the core that new data is arriving, it is always up to the CPU to “move” this data byte-by-byte from UART data register to the SRAM. That’s the reason why from the performance point of view there is no difference between UART management in polling and interrupt mode.

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Figure 1: the flow of data during a transfer from peripheral to SRAM

While this approach simplifies the design of the hardware on the one hand, it introduces performance penalties on the other. The Cortex-M core is “responsible” to load data from peripheral memory to the SRAM, and this is a blocking operation, which not only prevents the CPU from doing other activities but it also requires the CPU to wait for “slower” units completing their job (some STM32 peripherals are connected to the core by slower buses, as we will see in a subsequent chapter). This is the reason why high performance microcontrollers provide hardware units dedicated to the transfer of data between peripherals and centralized buffer storage, that is the SRAM. Before we go more in depth inside the DMA details, it is better to take an overview of all components involved in the transfer process of data from a peripheral to the SRAM memory and vice versa. We have already seen in Chapter 6 the bus architecture of the STM32F030 MCU, one of the simplest STM32 microcontrollers. The bus architecture is shown again in Figure 2⁵ for convenience. It differs a lot from other more performant STM32 families. We will analyze them later in this chapter, since it is best to keep it simple in this phase. The figure says to us some important things: • Both the Cortex-M core and the DMA1 controller interact with the other MCU peripherals through a series of buses. If it is still unclear, it is important to remark that also the flash and SRAM memories are components outside the MCU core, and so they need to interact each other through a bus interconnection. • Both the Cortex-M core and the DMA1 controller are masters. This means they are the only units that can start a transaction on a bus. However, the access to the bus must be regulated so that they cannot access to the same slave peripheral at the same time. • The BusMatrix manages the access arbitration between the Cortex-M core the DMA1 controller. The arbitration uses a Round Robin algorithm to rule the access to the bus. The BusMatrix is composed of two masters (CPU, DMA) and four slaves (flash interface, SRAM, AHB1 with AHB to Advanced Peripheral Bus (APB) bridge and AHB2). The BusMatrix also allows to automatically interconnect several peripherals between them. This topic will be analyzed in a subsequent chapter. ⁵Figure 1 is taken from the ST STM32F030 Reference Manual (http://bit.ly/1GfS3iC).

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• The System bus connects the Cortex-M core to the BusMatrix. • The DMA bus connects the Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB) master interface of the DMA to the BusMatrix. • The AHB to APB bridge provides full synchronous connections between the AHB and the APB bus, where the most of peripherals are connected.

Figure 2: bus architecture of an STM32F030 microcontroller

The acronyms AHB, AHB1, AHB2, APB and so on are always confusing terms in the STM32 world. They represent two things at the same time: • They are hardware components used to connect different units inside the MCU to allow them exchanging data. They can be clocked by different clock sources, with different speeds (more about this in a subsequent chapter). This means that the access to slower buses can introduce bottlenecks in your application. • They are part of a more general specification, the ARM Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) that defines the way different functional blocks interact each other inside an MCU. The AMBA is an open-standard, and it is implemented in different releases (and flavors) in all ARM Cortex processors (Cortex-A and Cortex-R included). We left off one other thing in Figure 2: the DMA requests arrow that goes from the peripherals block (white rectangle) to the DMA1 controller. What does it accomplish? In Chapter 7 we have

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seen that the NVIC controller notifies the Cortex-M core about asynchronous interrupt requests (IRQs) coming from peripherals. When a peripheral is ready to do something (e.g., the UART is ready to receive data or a timer overflows), it asserts a dedicated IRQ line. The core executes in a given number of cycles the corresponding ISR, which contains the code necessary to handle the IRQ. Don’t forget that the peripherals are slave units: they cannot access the bus independently. A master is always needed to start a transaction. But, since peripherals are slave units, if we use the DMA to transfer data from peripherals to memory we have a way to notify it that the peripherals are ready to exchange data. That is the reason why a dedicated number of requests lines are available from peripherals to the DMA controller. We will see in the next paragraph how they are organized and how we can program them.

9.1.2 The DMA Controller In every STM32 MCU, the DMA controller is a hardware unit that: • has two master ports, named peripheral and memory port respectively, connected to the Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB), one able to interface a slave peripheral and the other one a memory controller (SRAM, flash, FSMC, etc.); in some DMA controllers a peripheral port is also able to interface a memory controller, allowing memory-to-memory transfers; • has one slave port, connected to the AHB bus, used to program the DMA controller from the other master, that is the CPU; • has a number of independent and programmable channels (request sources), each one connectable to a given peripheral request line (UART_TX, TIM_UP etc. - the number and type of requests for a channel is established during the MCU design); • allows to assign different priorities to channels, in order to arbitrate the access to the memory giving higher priority to faster and important peripherals; • allows the data to flow in both directions, that is from memory-to-peripheral and from peripheral-to-memory. Each STM32 MCU provides a variable number of DMAs and Channels according its family and sales type. The Table 1 reports their exact number for the STM32 MCUs equipping all Nucleo boards. These characteristics are broadly common to all STM32 microcontrollers. However, STM32F2/F4/F7 families provide a more advanced DMA controller in conjunction with a multilayer BusMatrix that allows boosting and parallelizing DMA transfers. This is the reason why we are going to treat them separately⁶. ⁶However, keep in mind that this book does not aim to be an exhaustive source of hardware details of each STM32 family. Always keep in your hands the reference manual for the MCU you are considering, and look carefully to the chapter related to the DMA.

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Table 1: The number of DMAs/Channels available in every Nucleo board

9.1.2.1 The DMA Implementation in F0/F1/F3/L1 MCUs The Figure 3 shows a representation of the DMA in F0/F1/F3/L1 MCUs. Here, for simplicity, only one request line is shown, but each DMA implements a request line for each channel. Each request line has a variable number of peripheral request sources connected to it. A channel is bound during the chip design to a fixed set of peripherals. However, only one peripheral at once can be active in the same channel. For example, Table 2⁷ shows how channels are bound to peripherals in an STM32F030 MCU. Every request line can be also triggered by “software”. This ability is used to perform memory-to-memory transfers. Each channel has a configurable priority that allows to rule the access to the AHB bus. An internal arbiter rules the requests coming from the channels according a user configurable priority. If two request lines activate a request and their channels have the same priority, the channel with the lower number wins the contention. ⁷The table is extracted from the ST RM0360 reference manual (http://bit.ly/1GfS3iC)

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Figure 3: A representation of the DMA structure (other request lines omitted)

Depending on the sales type used one ore two DMA controllers are available, for a total of 12 independent channels (5 for DMA1 and 7 for DMA2). For example, as shown in Table 2, the STM32F030 provides only DMA1, with 5 channels.

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Table 2: How channels are bound to peripheral in an STM32F030 MCU

We have already seen in Figure 2 the bus architecture of an STM32F030. For the sake of completeness, Figure 4⁸ shows the bus architecture of more performant MCUs with the same DMA implementation (e.g., the STM32F1). As you can see, the two families have a quite different internal bus organization. You can see two additional buses named ICode and DCode. Why this difference? The most of STM32 MCUs share the same computer architecture except for STM32F0 and STM32L0 that are based on the Cortex-M0/0+ cores. They, in fact, are the only Cortex-M cores based on the von Neumann architecture, compared to the other Cortex-M cores that are based on the Harvard architecture⁹. The fundamental distinction between the two architectures is that Cortex-M0/0+ cores access to flash memory, SRAM and peripherals using one common bus, while the other Cortex-M cores have two separated bus lines for the access to the flash (one for the fetch of instructions called instruction bus, or simply I-Bus or even I-Code, and one for the access to const data called data bus, or simply D-Bus or even D-Code) and one dedicated line for the access to SRAM and peripherals (also called system bus, or simply S-Bus). What advantages gives this to our applications? ⁸The figure is taken from the RM0008 reference manual from ST (http://bit.ly/1TNekGo) ⁹For the sake of completeness, we have to say that they are based on a modified Harvard architecture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modified_Harvard_architecture), but let us leave the distinction to historians of computer science.

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Figure 4: The bus architecture in an STM32F1 MCU from the Connectivity Line

In Cortex-M0/0+ cores the DMA and the Cortex core contend the access to memories and peripherals using the BusMatrix. Suppose that the CPU is performing math operations on data contained in its internal registers (R0-R14). If the DMA is transferring data to the SRAM, the BusMatrix arbitrates the access from the Cortex core to the flash memory to load the next instruction to execute. So the core is stalled waiting for its turn (more about this in a while). In the other Cortex-M cores, the CPU can access to the flash memory independently, boosting the overall performances. This is a fundamental difference that justifies the price of STM32F0 MCUs: they not only can have less SRAM and flash and run at lower frequencies, but they face a simpler and intrinsically less performant architecture. However, it is important to remark that the BusMatrix implements scheduling policies to avoid that a given master (CPU and DMA in Value Lines MCUs, or CPU, DMA, Ethernet and USB in Connectivity Lines MCUs) stalls for too much time. Each DMA transfer is made up of four phases: a sample and arbitration phase, an address computation phase, bus access phase and a final acknowledgement phase (which is used to signal that the transfer has been completed). Each phase takes a single cycle, with the exception of the bus access phase, which can last for a higher number of cycles. However, its maximum duration is fixed, and the BusMatrix guarantees that at the end of the acknowledgement phase another master will be scheduled for the access to the bus. As we will see in the next paragraph,

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the STM32F2/F4/F7 families allow a more advanced parallelism while accessing to slave devices. The details of these aspects, however, are outside of the scope of this book. It is strongly suggested to have a look to the AN4031 (http://bit.ly/1n66sW7¹⁰) from ST to better understand them. Finally, the DMA can also perform peripheral-to-peripheral transfers under particular conditions, as we will see next. 9.1.2.2 The DMA Implementation in F2/F4/F7 MCUs STMF2/F4/F7 MCUs implement a more advanced DMA controller, as shown in Figure 5. It offers a higher degree of flexibility compared to the DMA found in other STM32 MCUs. Every DMA implements 8 different streams. Each stream is dedicated to managing memory access requests from one or more peripherals. Each stream can have up to 8 channels (requests) in total (but keep in mind that only one channel/request can be active at the same time in a stream), and it has an arbiter for handling the priority between DMA requests. Moreover, every stream can optionally provide (is a configuration option) a four-word depth 32-bit first-in/first-out (FIFO) memory buffer. The FIFO is used to temporarily store data coming from the source before transmitting it to the destination. Every stream can be also triggered by “software”. This ability is used to perform memory-to-memory transfers, but it is limited only to DMA2 as highlighted in Table 1. Every STM32F2/F4/F7 MCU provides two DMA controllers, for a total of 16 independent streams. Like in the other STM32 microcontrollers, a channel is bound to a fixed set of peripherals during the chip design. Table 3 shows the DMA1 stream/channel request mapping in an STM32F401RE MCU. STM32F2/F4/F7 MCUs embed a multi-masters/multi-slaves architecture made of: • Eight masters: – Cortex core I-bus – Cortex core D-bus – Cortex core S-bus – DMA1 memory bus – DMA2 memory bus – DMA2 peripheral bus – Ethernet DMA bus (if available) – USB high-speed DMA bus (if available) ¹⁰http://bit.ly/1n66sW7

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Figure 5: The DMA architecture in an STM32F2/F4/F7 MCU

Table 3: The DMA1 stream/channel request mapping in an STM32F401RE MCU

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• Eight slaves: – Internal flash memory I-Code bus – Internal flash memory D-Code bus – Main internal SRAM1 – Auxiliary internal SRAM2 (if available) – Auxiliary internal SRAM3 (if available) – AHB1 peripherals including AHB-to-APB bridges and APB peripherals – AHB2 peripherals – AHB3 peripheral (FMC) (if available) Masters and slaves are connected via a multi-layer BusMatrix ensuring concurrent access from separated masters and efficient operations, even when several high-speed peripherals work simultaneously. This architecture is shown in Figure 6¹¹ for the case of STM32F405/415 and STM32F407/417 lines. The multi-layer Bus Matrix allows different masters to perform data transfers concurrently as long as they are addressing different slave modules (but for a given DMA, only “one stream” at time can access to the bus). On top of the Cortex-M Harvard architecture and dual AHB port DMAs, this structure enhances data transfer parallelism, thus contributing to reduce the execution time, and optimizing the DMA efficiency and power consumption.

Figure 6: The multi-layer BusMatrix in an STM32F405 MCU ¹¹The figure is taken from the AN4031 application note from ST (http://bit.ly/1n66sW7)

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9.1.2.3 The DMA Implementation in L0/L4 MCUs The DMA implementation in STM32L0/L4 MCUs has a hybrid approach between the DMA implementation found in F0/F1/F3/L1 and F2/F4/F7 MCUs. In fact, it provides a multi-stream/channel approach but without the support to internal FIFOs for each stream. ST has adopted a different nomenclature to indicate streams and channels in these DMA controllers. Here streams are called channels and channels are called requests (probably this nomenclature is clearer than the stream/channel one used in F2/F4/F7 MCUs). The Table 4¹² shows the channels/requests map in an STM32L053 MCU. This nomenclature impacts also on the HAL, as we will see next.

Table 4: The DMA channels/requests map in an STM32L053 MCU ¹²The table is taken from the RM0367 reference manual by ST (http://bit.ly/1Q3yKtW)

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9.2 HAL_DMA Module After a lot of talking, it is now the time to start writing code. Strictly speaking, programming the DMA is fairly simple, especially if it is clear how the DMA works from a theoretical point of view. Moreover, the CubeHAL is designed to abstract the most of underlying hardware details. All the HAL functions related to DMA manipulation are designed so that they accept as first parameter an instance of the C struct DMA_HandleTypeDef. This structure is slightly different from CubeF2/F4/F7 HALs and the other CubeHALs, due to the different DMA implementation as shown in the previous paragraphs. For this reason, we will show them separately.

9.2.1 DMA_HandleTypeDef in F0/F1/F3/L0/L1/L4 HALs The struct DMA_HandleTypeDef is defined in the following way in CubeF0/F1/F3/L1 HALs: typedef struct { DMA_Channel_TypeDef DMA_InitTypeDef HAL_LockTypeDef __IO HAL_DMA_StateTypeDef void void void void __IO uint32_t } DMA_HandleTypeDef;

*Instance; /* Register base address */ Init; /* DMA communication parameters */ Lock; /* DMA locking object */ State; /* DMA transfer state */ *Parent; /* Parent object state */ (* XferCpltCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); (* XferHalfCpltCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); (* XferErrorCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); ErrorCode; /* DMA Error code */

Let us see more in depth the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the DMA/Channel pair descriptor we are going to use. For example, DMA1_Channel5 indicates the fifth channel of DMA1. Remember that channels are bound to peripherals during the MCU design, so consult the datasheet for your MCU to see the channel bound to the peripheral you want to use in DMA mode. • Init: is an instance of the C struct DMA_InitTypeDef, which is used to configure the DMA/Channel pair. We will study it more in depth in a while. • Parent: this pointer is used by the HAL to keep track of the peripheral handlers associated to the current DMA/Channel. For example, if we are using an UART in DMA mode, this field will point to an instance of UART_HandleTypeDef. We will see soon how peripheral handlers are “linked” to this field.

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• XferCpltCallback, XferHalfCpltCallback, XferErrorCallback: these are pointers to functions used as callbacks to signal the user code that a DMA transfer is completed, half-completed or an error occurred. They are automatically called by the HAL when a DMA interrupt is faired, by the function HAL_DMA_IRQHandler(), as we will see next. All the DMA/Channel configuration activities are performed by using an instance of the C struct DMA_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t Direction; uint32_t PeriphInc; uint32_t MemInc; uint32_t PeriphDataAlignment; uint32_t MemDataAlignment; uint32_t Mode; uint32_t Priority; } DMA_InitTypeDef;

• Direction: it defines the DMA transfer direction and it can assume one of the values reported in Table 5. • PeriphInc: as said in previous paragraphs, a DMA controller has one peripheral port used to specify the address of the peripheral register involved in the memory transfer (for example, for a UART interface the address of its Data Register (DR)). Since a DMA memory transfer usually involves several bytes, the DMA can be programmed to automatically increment the peripheral register for every byte transmitted. This is true both when a memory-to-memory transfer is performed and when the peripheral is byte, half-word and word addressable (like an external SRAM memory). In this case the field assume the value DMA_PINC_ENABLE, otherwise DMA_PINC_DISABLE. • MemInc: this field has the same meaning of the PeriphInc field, but it involves the memory port. It can assume the value DMA_MINC_ENABLE to signal that the specified memory address has to be incremented after each byte transmitted, or the value DMA_MINC_DISABLE to leave it unchanged after each transfer. • PeriphDataAlignment: transfer data sizes of the peripheral and memory are fully programmable through this field and the next one. It can assume a value from Table 6. The DMA controller is designed to automatically perform data alignment (packing/unpacking) when source and destination data sizes differ. This topic is outside the scope of this book. Please, refer to the Reference Manual of your MCU. • MemDataAlignment: it specifies memory transfer data size and it can assume a value from Table 7. • Mode: the DMA controller in STM32 MCUs has two working modes: DMA_NORMAL and DMA_CIRCULAR. In normal mode the DMA sends the specified amount of data from source to destination port and stops the activities. It must be re-armed again to do another transfer.

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In circular mode, at the end of transmission, it automatically resets the transfer counter and starts transmitting again from the first byte of source buffer (that is, it treats the source buffer as a ring buffer). This mode is also called continuous mode, and it is the only way to achieve really high transmission speed in some peripheral (e.g. high speed SPI devices). • Priority: one important feature of the DMA controller is the ability to assign priorities to each channel, in order to rule concurrent requests. This field can assume a value from Table 8. In case of concurrent requests from peripherals connected to channels with the same priority, the channel with lower number fires first. Table 5: Available DMA transfer directions

DMA transfer direction

Description

DMA_PERIPH_TO_MEMORY DMA_MEMORY_TO_PERIPH DMA_MEMORY_TO_MEMORY

Peripheral to memory direction Memory to peripheral direction Memory to memory direction Table 6: DMA Peripheral data size

Peripheral data size

Description

DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE DMA_PDATAALIGN_HALFWORD DMA_PDATAALIGN_WORD

Peripheral data alignment : Byte Peripheral data alignment : HalfWord Peripheral data alignment : Word Table 7: DMA Memory data size

Peripheral data size

Description

DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE DMA_MDATAALIGN_HALFWORD DMA_MDATAALIGN_WORD

Memory data alignment : Byte Memory data alignment : HalfWord Memory data alignment : Word Table 8: Available DMA channel priorities

DMA channel priority

Description

DMA_PRIORITY_LOW DMA_PRIORITY_MEDIUM DMA_PRIORITY_HIGH DMA_PRIORITY_VERY_HIGH

Priority level : Low Priority level : Medium Priority level : High Priority level : Very_High

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9.2.2 DMA_HandleTypeDef in F2/F4/F7 HALs The struct DMA_HandleTypeDef is defined in the following way in CubeF2/F4/F7 HALs: typedef struct { DMA_Stream_TypeDef DMA_InitTypeDef HAL_LockTypeDef __IO HAL_DMA_StateTypeDef void void void void void __IO uint32_t uint32_t uint32_t } DMA_HandleTypeDef;

*Instance; /* Register base address */ Init; /* DMA communication parameters */ Lock; /* DMA locking object */ State; /* DMA transfer state */ *Parent; /* Parent object state */ (* XferCpltCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); (* XferHalfCpltCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); (* XferM1CpltCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); (* XferErrorCallback)( struct __DMA_HandleTypeDef * hdma); ErrorCode; /* DMA Error code */ StreamBaseAddress; /* DMA Stream Base Address */ StreamIndex; /*!< DMA Stream Index */

Let us see more in depth the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the stream descriptor we are going to use. For example, DMA1_Stream6 indicates the seventh¹³ stream of DMA1. Remember that a stream must be bound to a channel before it can be used. This is achieved through the Init field, as we will see in a while. Remember also that channels are bound to peripherals during the MCU design, so consult the datasheet for your MCU to see the channel bound to the peripheral you want to use in DMA mode. • Init: is an instance of the C struct DMA_InitTypeDef, which is used to configure the DMA/Channel/Stream triple. We will study it more in depth in a while. • Parent: this pointer is used by the HAL to keep track of the peripheral handlers associated to the current DMA/Channel. For example, if we are using an UART in DMA mode, this field will point to an instance of UART_HandleTypeDef. We will see soon how peripheral handlers are “linked” to this field. • XferCpltCallback, XferHalfCpltCallback, XferM1CpltCallback, XferErrorCallback: these are pointers to functions used as callbacks to signal the user code that a DMA transfer is completed, half-completed, the transmission of first buffer in a multi-buffer transfer is completed or an error occurred. They are automatically called by the HAL when a DMA interrupt is faired, by the function HAL_DMA_IRQHandler(), as we will see next. All the DMA/Channel configuration activities are performed by using an instance of the C struct DMA_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: ¹³Stream count starts from zero.

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typedef struct { uint32_t Channel; uint32_t Direction; uint32_t PeriphInc; uint32_t MemInc; uint32_t PeriphDataAlignment; uint32_t MemDataAlignment; uint32_t Mode; uint32_t Priority; uint32_t FIFOMode; uint32_t FIFOThreshold; uint32_t MemBurst; uint32_t PeriphBurst; } DMA_InitTypeDef;

• Channel: it specifies the DMA channel used for the given stream. It can assume the values DMA_CHANNEL_0, DMA_CHANNEL_1 up to DMA_CHANNEL_7. Remember that peripherals are bound to streams and channels during the MCU design, so consult the datasheet for your MCU to see the stream bound to the peripheral you want to use in DMA mode. • Direction: it defines the DMA transfer direction and it can assume one of the values reported in Table 5. • PeriphInc: as said in previous paragraphs, a DMA controller has one peripheral port used to specify the address of the peripheral register involved in the memory transfer (for example, for a UART interface the address of its Data Register (DR)). Since a DMA memory transfer usually involves several bytes, the DMA can be programmed to automatically increment the peripheral register for every byte transmitted. This is true both when a memory-to-memory transfer is performed and when the peripheral is byte, half-word and word addressable (like an external SRAM memory is). In this case the field assumes the value DMA_PINC_ENABLE, otherwise DMA_PINC_DISABLE. • MemInc: this field has the same meaning of the PeriphInc field, but it involves the memory port. It can assume the value DMA_MINC_ENABLE to signal that the specified memory address has to be incremented after each byte transmitted, or the value DMA_MINC_DISABLE to leave it unchanged after each transfer. • PeriphDataAlignment: transfer data sizes of the peripheral and memory are fully programmable through this field and the next one. It can assume a value from Table 6. The DMA controller is designed to automatically perform data alignment (packing/unpacking) when source and destination data sizes differ. This topic is outside the scope of this book. Please, refer to the Reference Manual of your MCU. • MemDataAlignment: it specifies memory transfer data size and it can assume a value from Table 7. • Mode: the DMA controller in STM32 MCUs has two working modes: DMA_NORMAL and DMA_CIRCULAR. In normal mode the DMA sends the specified amount of data from source to destination port and stops the activities. It must be re-armed again to do another transfer.

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• •



In circular mode, at the end of transmission, it automatically resets the transfer counter and starts transmitting again from the first byte of the source buffer (that is, it treats the source buffer as a ring buffer). This mode is also called continuous mode, and it is the only way to achieve really high transmission speeds in some peripheral (e.g. really fast SPI devices). Priority: one important feature of the DMA controller is the ability to assign priorities to each stream, in order to rule concurrent requests. This field can assume a value from Table 8. In case of concurrent requests from peripherals connected to streams with the same priority, the stream with lower number fires first. FIFOMode: it is used to enable/disable the DMA FIFO mode using DMA_FIFOMODE_ENABLE/DMA_FIFOMODE_DISABLE macros. In STM32F2/F4/F7 MCUs, each stream has an independent 4-word (4 * 32 bits) FIFO. The FIFO is used to temporarily store data coming from the source before transmitting it to the destination. When disabled, the Direct mode is used (this is the “normal” mode available in other STM32 MCUs). The FIFO mode introduces several advantages: it reduces SRAM access and so give more time for the other masters to access the Bus Matrix without additional concurrency; it allows software to do burst transactions which optimize the transfer bandwidth (more about this in a while); it allows packing/unpacking data to adapt source and destination data width with no extra DMA access. If DMA FIFO is enabled, data packing/unpacking and/or Burst mode can be used. The FIFO is automatically emptied according a threshold level. This level is software-configurable between 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 or full size. FIFOThreshold: it specifies the FIFO threshold level and it can assume a value from Table 9. MemBurst: a round robin scheduling policy rules the access of a DMA stream before it can transfer a sequence of bytes through the AHB bus. This “slows” down the transfer operations, and for some high-speed peripherals it can be a bottleneck. A burst transfer allows a DMA stream to transmit data repeatedly without going through all the steps required to transmit each piece of data in a separate transaction. The burst mode works in conjunction with FIFOs and it says nothing about the amount of bytes transferred. This is based on the settings of MemDataAlignment field (when we are doing a memory-to-peripheral transfer). MemBurst indicates the number of “shoots” performed by the stream, and it is made of bytes, half-word and word depending the source configuration. The MemBurst field can assume one value from Table 10. PeriphBurst: This field has the same meaning of the previous one, but it is related to peripheral-to-memory transfers. It cam assume a value from Table 11.

Table 9: Available FIFO threshold levels

DMA channel priority

Description

DMA_FIFO_THRESHOLD_1QUARTERFULL DMA_FIFO_THRESHOLD_HALFFULL DMA_FIFO_THRESHOLD_3QUARTERSFULL DMA_FIFO_THRESHOLD_FULL

FIFO threshold 1 quart full configuration FIFO threshold half full configuration FIFO threshold 3 quarts full configuration FIFO threshold full configuration

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Table 10: Available DMA memory burst modes

DMA channel priority

Description

DMA_MBURST_SINGLE DMA_MBURST_INC4 DMA_MBURST_INC8 DMA_MBURST_INC16

Single burst Burst of 4 beats Burst of 8 beats Burst of 16 beats Table 11: Available DMA peripheral burst modes

DMA channel priority

Description

DMA_PBURST_SINGLE DMA_PBURST_INC4 DMA_PBURST_INC8 DMA_PBURST_INC16

Single burst Burst of 4 beats Burst of 8 beats Burst of 16 beats

9.2.3 DMA_HandleTypeDef in L0/L4 HALs Since STM32L0/L4 MCUs adopt a different nomenclature to indicate the stream/channel pair (they adopt the channel/request one), the DMA_HandleTypeDef reflects this difference in their HALs. However, we will avoid repeating the complete story here. The only two things to keep in mind are: • the DMA_HandleTypeDef.Instance is the channel number, and it can assume the values DMA1_Channel1..DMA1_Channel7; • the DMA_HandleTypeDef.Init.Request is the request line, and it can assume the values DMA_REQUEST_0..DMA_REQUEST_11; • this DMA implementation does not support FIFO and burst mode.

9.2.4 How to Perform Transfers in Polling Mode Once we have configured the DMA channel/stream we need, we have to do few other things: • • • •

to setup the addresses on the memory and peripheral port; to specify the amount of data we are going to transfer; to arm the DMA; to enable the DMA mode on the corresponding peripheral.

The HAL abstracts the first three points by using the

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DMA_Start(DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdma, uint32_t SrcAddress, uint32_t Dst\ Address, uint32_t DataLength);

while the fourth point is peripheral dependent, and we have to consult our specific MCU datasheet. However, as we will see later, the HAL also abstracts this point (for example, if we use the corresponding HAL_UART_Transmit_DMA() function when configuring an UART in DMA mode). Now we should have all the elements to see a fully working application. What we are going to do in the next example is just sending a string over the UART2 peripheral using DMA mode. The involved steps are: • The UART2 is configured using the HAL_UART module, as we have seen in the previous chapter. • The DMA1 channel (or the DMA1 channel/stream couple for STM32F4 based Nucleo boards) is configured to do a memory-to-peripheral transfer (see Table 12) • The corresponding channel is armed to execute the transfer and UART is enabled in DMA mode.

Table 12: How USART_TX/USART_RX DMA channels are mapped in the MCUs equipping Nucleo boards

The following example, which is designed to work on a Nucleo-F030 (refer to book samples for the other Nucleo boards), shows how to do this easily.

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Filename: src/main-ex1.c 43 44

MX_DMA_Init(); MX_USART2_UART_Init();

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

hdma_usart2_tx.Instance = DMA1_Channel4; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.Direction = DMA_MEMORY_TO_PERIPH; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.Mode = DMA_NORMAL; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_usart2_tx);

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

HAL_DMA_Start(&hdma_usart2_tx, (uint32_t)msg, (uint32_t)&huart2.Instance->TDR, strlen(\ msg)); //Enable UART in DMA mode huart2.Instance->CR3 |= USART_CR3_DMAT; //Wait for transfer complete HAL_DMA_PollForTransfer(&hdma_usart2_tx, HAL_DMA_FULL_TRANSFER, HAL_MAX_DELAY); //Disable UART DMA mode huart2.Instance->CR3 &= ~USART_CR3_DMAT; //Turn LD2 ON HAL_GPIO_WritePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin, GPIO_PIN_SET);

The hdma_usart2_tx variable is an instance of the DMA_HandleTypeDef struct seen before. Here we configure DMA1_Channel4 to do a memory-to-peripheral transfer. Since the USART peripheral has a Transmit Data Register (TDR) one byte wide, we configure the DMA so that the peripheral address is not automatically incremented (DMA_PINC_DISABLE), while we want that the source memory address is automatically incremented at every byte sent (DMA_MINC_ENABLE). Once the configuration is completed, we call the HAL_DMA_Init() which performs the DMA interface configuration according the information provided inside the hdma_usart2_tx.Init structure. Next, at line 56, we invoke the HAL_DMA_Start() routine, which configures the source memory address (that is the address of the msg array), the destination peripheral address (that is the address of USART2>TDR register) and the amount of data we are going to transmit. The DMA is now ready to shoot, and we start the transmission setting the corresponding bit of USART2 peripheral, as shown in line 62. Finally, take note that the function MX_DMA_Init() (invoked at line 43) uses the macro __HAL_RCC_DMA1_CLK_ENABLE() to enable the DMA1 controller (remember that almost every STM32 internal module must be enabled by using the __HAL_RCC__CLK_ENABLE() macro). Since we do not know how long it takes to complete the transfer procedure, we use the function:

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DMA_PollForTransfer(DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdma, uint32_t CompleteLevel,\ uint32_t Timeout);

which automatically waits for full transfer completion. This way to send data in DMA mode is called “polling mode” in the official ST documentation. Once the transfer is completed, we disable the UART2 DMA mode and turn on the LD2 LED.

9.2.5 How to Perform Transfers in Interrupt Mode From the performance point of view, the DMA transfer in polling mode is meaningless, unless our code does not need to wait for transfer completion. If our goal is to improve the overall performances, there are no reasons to use the DMA controller and then to consume a lot of CPU cycles waiting for transfer completion. So the best option is to arm the DMA and let it notify us when the transfer is completed. The DMA is able to generate interrupts related to channel activities (for example, the DMA1 in an STM32F030 MCU has one IRQ for channel 1, one for channels 2 and 3, one for channels 4 and 5). Moreover, three independent enable bits are available to enable IRQ on half transfer, full transfer and transfer error. The DMA can be enabled in interrupt mode following these steps: • define three functions acting as callback routines and pass them to function pointers XferCpltCallback, XferHalfCpltCallback and XferErrorCallback in a DMA_HandleTypeDef handler (it is ok to define only the functions we are interested in, but set the corresponding pointer to NULL, otherwise strange faults may occur); • write down the ISR for the IRQ associated to the channel you are using and do a call to the HAL_DMA_IRQHandler() passing the reference to the DMA_HandleTypeDef handler; • enable the corresponding IRQ in the NVIC controller; • use the function HAL_DMA_Start_IT(), which automatically performs all the necessary setup steps for you, passing to it the same arguments of the HAL_DMA_Start().

Purists of performances will be disappointed by the way the HAL manages DMA interrupts. In fact, it enables by default all the available IRQs for a given channel, even if we are not interested to some of them (for example, we might not interested in capturing the half transfer interrupt). If performances are fundamental for you, then take a look to the HAL_DMA_Start_IT() code and rearrange it at your needs. Unfortunately, ST has decided to design the HAL in a way that it abstracts a lot of detail to the user, at the expense of speed.

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It is important to remark a thing about the XferCpltCallback, XferHalfCpltCallback and XferErrorCallback callbacks: we need to set them when we are using DMA without the mediation of the CubeHAL. Let us clarify this concept. Suppose that we are using the UART2 in DMA mode. If we are doing the DMA management ourselves, then it is ok to define those callback routines and to manage the necessary UART interrupt related configurations each time a transfer takes place. However, if we are using the HAL_UART_Trasmit_DMA()/HAL_UART_Receive_DMA() routines, then the HAL already correctly defines those callbacks and we do not have to change them. Instead, for example, to capture the DMA completion event for the UART, we need to define the function HAL_UART_RxCpltCallback(). Always consult the HAL documentation for the peripheral you are going to use in DMA mode.

The following example shows how to a DMA memory-to-peripheral transfer in interrupt mode. Filename: src/main-ex2.c hdma_usart2_tx.Instance = DMA1_Channel4; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.Direction = DMA_MEMORY_TO_PERIPH; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.Mode = DMA_NORMAL; hdma_usart2_tx.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; hdma_usart2_tx.XferCpltCallback = &DMATransferComplete; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_usart2_tx);

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

/* DMA interrupt init */ HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(DMA1_Channel4_5_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(DMA1_Channel4_5_IRQn);

58 59 60 61

HAL_DMA_Start_IT(&hdma_usart2_tx, (uint32_t)msg, \ (uint32_t)&huart2.Instance->TDR, strlen(msg)); //Enable UART in DMA mode huart2.Instance->CR3 |= USART_CR3_DMAT;

62 63 64 65 66

/* Infinite loop */ while (1);

67 68 69

}

70 71 72 73 74 75

void DMATransferComplete(DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdma) { if(hdma->Instance == DMA1_Channel4) { //Disable UART DMA mode huart2.Instance->CR3 &= ~USART_CR3_DMAT; //Turn LD2 ON

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76 77

}

9.2.6 How to Perform Peripheral-To-Peripheral Transfers The official documentation from ST speaks broadly about peripheral-to-peripheral transfers using DMA in F0/F1/F3/L0/L1/L4 MCUs. But looking at reference manuals, and demonstration projects provided in CubeHAL, it is impossible to find any reasonably example on how to use this feature. Even on the web (and on the official ST forum) there are no hints about how to use it. In a first instance, I thought that this was an obviously consequence of the fact that peripherals are memory mapped in the 4GB address space. Hence, a peripheral-to-peripheral transfer would be simply a special case of peripheral-to-memory transfer. Instead, doing some tests, I have reached to the conclusion that this feature requires that the DMA is expressly designed to allow trigger transfers between different peripherals. Doing some experiments, I have found that in F2/F4/F7/L1/L4 MCUs only the DMA2 controller has a complete access to the Bus Matrix and it is the only one (together with the Cortex core) that can perform peripheral-to-peripheral transfers. This feature can be useful when we want to exchange data between two peripherals without the intervention of Cortex core. The following example shows how to toggle the Nucleo LD2 LED sending a sequence of messages from the UART2 peripheral¹⁴. Filename: src/main-ex3.c 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

hdma_usart2_rx.Instance = DMA1_Channel5; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.Direction = DMA_PERIPH_TO_MEMORY; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_DISABLE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.Mode = DMA_CIRCULAR; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_usart2_rx);

54 55

__HAL_RCC_DMA1_CLK_ENABLE();

56 57 58 59 60

HAL_DMA_Start(&hdma_usart2_rx, (uint32_t)&huart2.Instance->RDR, 1); //Enable UART in DMA mode huart2.Instance->CR3 |= USART_CR3_DMAR;

(uint32_t)&GPIOA->ODR,\

This time we configure the channel to do a transfer from peripheral-to-memory, without incrementing neither the source peripheral register (UART data register) nor the target memory location, ¹⁴The example is designed to run on a Nucleo-F030. For Nucleo boards based on F2/F4/L1/L4 MCUs, the example is designed to work with the UART1, whose DMA requests are bound to the DMA2.

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which in our case is the address of the GPIOA->ODR register. Finally, the channel is configured to work in circular mode: this will cause that all bytes transmitted over the UART will be stored inside the GPIOA->ODR register continuously. To test the example, we can simply use the following Python script: Filename: src/uartsend.py 1 2

#!/usr/bin/env python import serial, time

3 4 5

SERIAL_PORT = "/dev/tty.usbmodem1a1213" #Windows users, replace with "COMx" ser = serial.Serial(SERIAL_PORT, 38400)

6 7 8 9 10 11

while True: ser.write((0xff,)) time.sleep(0.05) ser.write((0,)) time.sleep(0.05)

12 13

ser.close()

The code is really self-explaining. We use the pyserial module to open a new serial connection on the Nucleo VCP. Then we start an infinite-loop that sends the 0xFF and 0x0 bytes alternatively. This will cause that the GPIOA->ODR assumes the same value (that is, the first eight I/Os goes HIGH and LOW alternatively) and the Nucleo LD2 LED blinks. As you can see, the Cortex-M core knows nothing about what’s happening between the UART2 and the GPIOA peripheral.

9.2.7 Using the HAL_UART Module With DMA Mode Transfers In Chapter 8 we left out how to use the UART in DMA mode. We have already seen in the previous paragraphs how to do it. However, we had to play with some USART registers to enable the peripheral in DMA mode. The HAL_UART module is designed to abstract from all underlying hardware details. The steps required to use it are the following: • configure the DMA channel/stream hardwired to the UART you are going to use, as seen in this chapter; • link the UART_HandleTypeDef to the DMA_HandleTypeDef using the __HAL_LINKDMA(); • enable the DMA interrupt related to the channel/stream you are using and call the HAL_DMA_IRQHandler() routine from its ISR; • enable the UART related interrupt and call the HAL_UART_IRQHandler() routine from its ISR (this is really important, do not skip this step);

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• Use the HAL_UART_Transmit_DMA() and HAL_UART_Receive_DMA() function to exchange data over the UART and be prepared to be notified of transfer completion implementing the HAL_UART_RxCpltCallback(). The following code shows how to receive three bytes from UART2 in DMA mode in an STM32F030 MCU¹⁵: uint8_t dataArrived = 0; int main(void) { HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init(); //Configure the UART2 //Configure the DMA1 Channel 5, which is wired to the UART2_RX request line hdma_usart2_rx.Instance = DMA1_Channel5; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.Direction = DMA_PERIPH_TO_MEMORY; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.Mode = DMA_NORMAL; hdma_usart2_rx.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_usart2_rx); //Link the DMA descriptor to the UART2 one __HAL_LINKDMA(&huart, hdmarx, hdma_usart2_rx); /* DMA interrupt init */ HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(DMA1_Channel4_5_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(DMA1_Channel4_5_IRQn); /* Peripheral interrupt init */ HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(USART2_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(USART2_IRQn); //Receive three bytes from UART2 in DMA mode uint8_t data[3]; HAL_UART_Receive_DMA(&huart2, &data, 3); while(!dataArrived); //Wait for the arrival of data from UART /* Infinite loop */ while (1);

¹⁵Arranging the DMA initialization code for other STM32 MCUs is left as exercise to the reader.

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DMA Management } //This callback is automatically called by the HAL when the DMA transfer is completed void HAL_UART_RxCpltCallback(UART_HandleTypeDef *huart) { dataArrived = 1; }

void DMA1_Channel4_5_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_DMA_IRQHandler(&hdma_usart2_rx); //This will automatically call the HAL_UART_RxCpltC\ allback() }

Where the HAL_UART_RxCpltCallback() is exactly called? In the previous paragraphs we have seen that the DMA_HandleTypeDef contains a pointer (named XferCpltCallback) to a function that is invoked by the HAL_DMA_IRQHandler() routine when the DMA transfer has been completed. However, when we use the HAL module for a given peripheral (HAL_UART in this case), we do not need to provide our own callbacks: they are defined internally by the HAL, which uses them to carry out its activities. The HAL offers us the ability to define our corresponding callback functions (HAL_UART_RxCpltCallback() for UART_RX transfers in DMA mode), which will be invoked automatically by the HAL, as shown in Figure 7. This rule applies to all HAL modules.

Figure 7: The call sequence generated by the HAL_DMA_IRQHandler()

As you can seen, once mastered how the DMA controller works, is really simple to use a peripheral using this transfer mode.

9.2.8 Miscellaneous Functions From HAL_DMA and HAL_DMA_Ex Modules The HAL_DMA module provides other functions that help using the DMA controller. Let us see them briefly.

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DMA_Abort(DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdma);

This function disables the DMA stream/channel. If a stream is disabled while a data transfer is ongoing, the current data will be transferred and the stream will be effectively disabled only after the transfer of this single data is finished. Some STM32 MCUs can perform multi-buffer DMA transfers, which allow to use two separated buffers during the transfer process: the DMA will automatically “jump” from the first buffer (named memory0) to the second one (named memory1) when the end of the first one is reached. This especially useful when DMA works in circular mode. The function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DMAEx_MultiBufferStart(DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdma, uint32_t SrcAddress,\ uint32_t DstAddress, uint32_t SecondMemAddress, uint32_t DataLength);

is used to setup multi-buffer DMA transfers. It is available only in F2/F4/F7 HALs. A corresponding HAL_DMAEx_MultiBufferStart_IT() is also available, which also takes care of enabling DMA interrupts. The function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DMAEx_ChangeMemory(DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdma, uint32_t Address, HAL_DM\ A_MemoryTypeDef memory);

changes the memory0 or memory1 address on the fly in a multi-buffer DMA transaction. Differences Between HAL_PPP and HAL_PPP_Ex Modules We have encountered several HAL modules until here, each one covering one specific peripheral or core feature. Every HAL module is contained in a file named stm32XXxx_hal_ppp.{c,h}, where the “XX” represents the STM32 family, and “ppp” the peripheral type. For example, the stm32f4xx_hal_dma.c file contains all the generic function definitions for the HAL_DMA module, which is dedicated to timers. However, some peripheral functions are specific of a given family, and cannot be abstracted in a general way common to all STM32 portfolio. In this cases, the HAL provide an extension module named HAL_PPP_EX and implemented in a file named stm32XXxx_hal_ppp_ex.{c,h}. For example, the previous HAL_DMAEx_MultiBufferStart() function is defined in the HAL_DMA_Ex module, implemented in stm32f4xx_hal_dma_ex.c file. The implementation of the APIs in an extension module is specific of the corresponding STM32 series, or even of a given part number in that series, and the usage of those APIs leads to a less portable code between the several STM32 microcontrollers.

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9.3 Using CubeMX to Configure DMA Requests CubeMX can reduce to the minimum the effort required to setting up channel/stream requests. Once you have enabled a peripheral in the Pinout section, go inside the Configuration section and click on the DMA button. The DMA Configuration dialog appears, as shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: The DMA Configuration dialog in CubeMX

The dialog contains two or three tabs (according the number of DMA controllers provided by your MCU). The first two are related to peripheral requests. For example, if you want to enable a DMA request for USART2 in transmit mode (to do a memory-to-peripheral transfer), click on the Add button, and select the USART2_TX entry. CubeMX will automatically fill the remaining fields for you, selecting the right channel. You can then assign a priority to the request, and to set other things like the DMA mode, peripheral/memory increment, and so on. Once completed, click on the OK button. In the same way, it is possible to configure DMA channels/streams to do memory-to-memory transfers. CubeMX will automatically generate the right initialization code for the used channels inside the stm32xxxx_hal_msp.c file.

9.4 Correct Memory Allocation of DMA Buffers If you take a look to the source code of all examples presented in this chapter, you can see that DMA buffers (that is, both source and destination arrays used to perform memory-to-peripheral and peripheral-to-memory transfers) are always allocated at the global scope. Why we are doing that? This is a common mistake that all novices sooner or later will do. When we declare a variable at the local scope (that is, on the stack frame of the called routine), that variable will “live” as long

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as that stack frame is active. When the called function exits, the stack area where the variable has been allocated is reassigned to other uses (to store the arguments or other local variables of the next called function). If we use a local variable as buffer for DMA transfers (that is, we pass to the DMA memory port the address of a memory location in the stack), then it will be very likely that DMA will access to a memory region containing other data, corrupting that memory area if we are doing a peripheral-to-memory transfer, unless we are sure that the function is never popped from the stack (this could be the case of a variable declared inside the main() function).

Figure 9: The difference between a variable allocated locally and globally

The Figure 9 clearly shows the difference between a variable allocated locally (lbuf) and one allocated at the global scope (gbuf). lbuf will be active as long the func1() is on the stack. If you want to avoid global variables in your application, another solution is represented by declaring it as static. As we will discover in a following chapter, static variables are automatically allocated inside the .data region (Global Data region in Figure 9), even if their “visibility” is limited at the local scope.

9.5 A Case Study: The DMA Memory-To-Memory Transfer Performance Analysis The DMA controller can be also used to do memory-to-memory transfers¹⁶. For example, it can be used to move a large array of data from flash memory to the SRAM, or to copy arrays in SRAM, or to zero a memory area. The C library usually provides a set of functions to accomplish this task. memcpy() and memset() are the most common ones. Surfing around in the web, you can find several tests that do a performance comparison between memcpy()/memset() routines and DMA transfers. ¹⁶Remember that in STM32F2/F4/F7 MCUs only the DMA2 can be used for this kind of transfers.

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The majority of these tests claim that usually the DMA is much more slower than the Cortex-M core. Is this true? The answer is: it depends. So, why would you use the DMA when you actually have already those routines? The story behind these tests is much more complicated, and it involves several factors like the memory align, the C library used and the right DMA settings. Let us consider the following test application (the code is designed to run on an STM32F4 MCU) divided in several stages: Filename: src/mem2mem.c 12

DMA_HandleTypeDef hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0;

13 14 15

const uint8_t flashData[] = {0xe7, 0x49, 0x9b, 0xdb, 0x30, 0x5a, ...}; uint8_t sramData[1000];

16 17 18 19

int main(void) { HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Instance = DMA2_Stream0; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.Channel = DMA_CHANNEL_0; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.Direction = DMA_MEMORY_TO_MEMORY; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_ENABLE; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.Mode = DMA_NORMAL; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.FIFOMode = DMA_FIFOMODE_ENABLE; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.FIFOThreshold = DMA_FIFO_THRESHOLD_FULL; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.MemBurst = DMA_MBURST_SINGLE; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.PeriphBurst = DMA_MBURST_SINGLE; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0);

35 36 37 38 39 40 41

GPIOC->ODR = 0x100; HAL_DMA_Start(&hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0, (uint32_t)&flashData, (uint32_t)sramData, 1\ 000); HAL_DMA_PollForTransfer(&hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0, HAL_DMA_FULL_TRANSFER, HAL_MAX_DELA\ Y); GPIOC->ODR = 0x0;

42 43

while(HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(B1_GPIO_Port, B1_Pin));

44 45 46 47

hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_WORD; hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_WORD;

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HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0);

49 50 51 52 53 54 55

GPIOC->ODR = 0x100; HAL_DMA_Start(&hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0, (uint32_t)&flashData, (uint32_t)sramData, 2\ 50); HAL_DMA_PollForTransfer(&hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0, HAL_DMA_FULL_TRANSFER, HAL_MAX_DELA\ Y); GPIOC->ODR = 0x0;

56 57

HAL_Delay(1000); /* This is a really primitive form of debouncing */

58 59

while(HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(B1_GPIO_Port, B1_Pin));

60 61 62 63

GPIOC->ODR = 0x100; memcpy(sramData, flashData, 1000); GPIOC->ODR = 0x0;

Here we have two quite large arrays. One of these, flashData, is allocated inside the flash memory thanks to the const modifier¹⁷. We want to copy its content inside the sramData array, which is stored inside the SRAM as the name suggests, and we want to test how long it takes using DMA and memcpy() function. First we start testing the DMA. The hdma_memtomem_dma2_stream0 handle is used to configure the DMA2 stream0/channel0 to execute a memory-to-memory transfer. In the first stage we configure the DMA stream to perform a byte-aligned memory transfer. Once the DMA configuration is completed, we start the transfer. Using an oscilloscope attached to Nucleo PC8 pin, we can measure how long the transfer takes. Pressing the Nucleo USER button (connected to PC13) causes the start of another test stage. This time we configure the DMA so that a word-aligned transfer is executed. Finally, at line 58 we test how long it takes to copy the array using memcpy(). ¹⁷The reason why this happens will be explained in a following chapter.

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Table 13: M2M transfer test results

The Table 13 shows the results obtained for every Nucleo board. Let us focus on the the NucleoF401RE board. As you can see, the DMA M2M byte-aligned transfer takes ∼42μS, while the DMAM2M word-aligned transfer takes ∼14 μS. This is a great speed-up, which proves that using the right DMA configuration can give us the best transfer performance, since we are moving 4 bytes at once for each DMA shoot. What about the memcpy()? As you can see from Table 13, it depends on the C library used. The GCC tool-chain we are using provides two C run-time libraries: one is named newlib and one newlib-nano. The first one is the most complete and speed-optimized of the two, while the second one is a reduced-size version. The memcpy() in the newlib library is designed to provide the fastest copy speed, at the expense of code size. It automatically detects word-aligned transfers, and it equals the DMA when doing word-aligned M2M transfers. So, it is much faster than DMA when doing byte-aligned M2M transfers and that is the reason why someone claims that memcpy() is always faster then DMA. On the other hand, both Cortex-M core and the DMA need to access flash and SRAM memory using the same bus. So there are no reasons why the core should be faster than the DMA¹⁸. As you can see, the fastest transfer speed is achieved when the DMA stream/channel disables the internal FIFO buffer (∼12 μS). It is important to remark that for STM32 MCUs with smaller flash ¹⁸Here I am clearly excluding some “privileged paths” between the Cortex-M core and SRAM. This is the role of the Core-Coupled Memory (CCM), a feature available in some STM32 MCUs and that we will explore better in a following chapter.

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memories the newlib-nano it is almost an unavoidable choice, unless the code can fit the flash space. But again, using the right DMA settings we can achieve the same performances of the speedoptimized version available in newlib library. The last thing we have to analize is the last column in Table 13. It shows how long it takes to do a memory transfer using a simple loop like the following one: ... GPIOC->ODR = 0x100; for(int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) sramData[i] = flashData[i]; GPIOC->ODR = 0x0; ...

As you can see, with the maximum optimization level (-O3) it takes exactly the same time of memcpy(). Why does this happen? ... GPIOC->ODR = 0x100; 8001968: f44f 7380 mov.w 800196c: 6163 str 800196e: 4807 ldr 8001970: 4907 ldr 8001972: f44f 727a mov.w 8001976: f000 f92d bl for(int i = 0; i < 1000; i++) sramData[i] = flashData[i]; GPIOC->ODR = 0x0; 800197a: 6165 str ...

r3, #256 ; r3, [r4, #20] r0, [pc, #28] ; r1, [pc, #28] ; r2, #1000 ; 8001bd4

0x100 (800198c ) (8001990 ) 0x3e8

r5, [r4, #20]

Looking at generated assembly code above you can see that the compiler automatically transforms the loop in a call to the memcpy() function. This clearly explains why they have the same performances. Table 13 shows another interesting result. For an STM32F152RE MCU, the memcpy() in newlib is always twice faster than the DMA M2M. I do not know why this happens, but I have executed several tests and I can confirm the result. Finally, other tests not reported here show that it is convenient to use DMA to do M2M transfers when the array has more than 30-50 elements, otherwise the DMA setup costs outweigh the benefits related to its usage. However, it is important to remark that the other advantage in using the DMA M2M transfer is that the CPU is free to accomplish other tasks while the DMA performs the transfer, even if its access to the bus slows the overall DMA performances.

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How to switch to the newlib run-time library? This can be easily done in Eclipse, going in the project settings (Project->Properties menu), then going into C/C++ Build->Settings section and selecting the Miscellaneous entry inside the Cross ARM C++ Linker section. Unchecking the entry Use newlib-nano (see Figure 10) will automatically cause that the final binary is linked with the newlib library.

Figure 10: How to select newlib/newlib-nano run-time library

10. Clock Tree Almost every digital circuit needs a way to synchronize its internal circuitry or to synchronize itself with other circuits. A clock is a device that generates periodic signals, and it is the most widespread form of heart beat source in digital electronics. The same clock signal, however, cannot be used to feed all components and peripherals provided by a modern microcontroller like STM32 ones. Moreover, power consumption is a critical aspect directly connected with the clock speed of a given peripheral. Having the ability to selectively disable or reduce the clock speed of some MCU parts allows to optimize the overall device power consumption. This requires that the clock is organized in a hierarchical structure, giving to the developer the possibility to choose different speeds and clock sources. This chapter gives a brief introduction to the complex clock distribution network of an STM32 MCU. Its intent is to provide to the reader necessary tools to understand and manage the clock tree, showing the main functionalities of the HAL_RCC module. This chapter will be further completed with a following one dedicated to the power management.

10.1 Clock Distribution A clock is a device that usually generates a square wave signal, with a 50% duty cycle, as the one shown in Figure 1¹.

Figure 1: A typical clock signal with a 50% duty cycle

A clock signal oscillates between VL and VH voltage levels, which for STM32 microcontrollers are a fraction of the VDD supply voltage. The most fundamental parameter of a clock is the frequency, which indicates how many times it switches from VL to VH in a second. The frequency is expressed in Hertz. ¹It is important to remark that the square wave represented in Figure 1 is “ideal”. The real square wave of a clock source has a trapezoidal form.

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All STM32 MCUs can be clocked by two distinct clock sources alternatively: an internal RC oscillator² (named High Speed Internal (HSI)) or an external dedicated crystal oscillator³ (named High Speed External (HSE)). There are several reasons to prefer an external crystal to the internal RC oscillator: • An external crystal offers a higher precision compared to the internal RC network, which is rated of a 1% accuracy⁴, especially when PCB operative temperatures are far from the ambient temperature of 25°C. • Some peripherals, especially high speed ones, can be clocked only by a dedicated external crystal running at a given frequency. Together with the high-speed oscillator⁵, another clock source can be used to bias the low-speed oscillator, which in turn can be clocked by an external crystal (named Low Speed External (LSE)) or the internal dedicated RC oscillator (named Low Speed Internal (LSI)). The low-speed oscillator is used to drive the Real Time Clock (RTC) and the Independent Watchdog (IWDT) peripheral. The frequency of the high-speed oscillator does not establish the actual frequency neither of the Cortex-M core nor of the other peripherals. A complex distribution network, also called clock tree, is responsible for the propagation of the clock signal inside an STM32 MCU. Using several programmable Phase-Locked Loops (PLL) and prescalers, it is possible to increase/decrease the source frequency at needs (see Figure 2), depending on the performances we want to reach, the maximum speed for a given peripheral or bus and the overall global power consumption⁶.

Figure 2: How the source clock signal frequency is increased/decreased using PLLs and prescalers

10.1.1 Overview of the STM32 Clock Tree The clock tree of an STM32 MCU can have a really articulated structure. Even in “simpler” STM32F0 MCUs, the internal clock network can have up to four PLL/prescaler stages, and the System Clock ²http://bit.ly/1TkDnUd ³http://bit.ly/20ymjJx ⁴A 1% accuracy may seem a good compromise, especially if you consider that you can save PCB space and the cost of a dedicated crystal, which is a device that has a non-negligible price. However, for time-constraint applications, 1% may be a huge shift. For example, a day is made of 86,400 seconds. An error equal to 1% means that in the worst case we can lose (or earn) up to 864 seconds, which is equal to 14,4 minutes! And things may worsen if temperature increases. This is the reason why it is mandatory to use an external low-speed crystal if you are going to use the RTC. However, a solution to increase this accuracy exists. More about this later. ⁵In this book we will refer to the high-speed oscillator as an “abstract” clock source, which has two mutually exclusive “concrete” sources: the HSE or the HSI oscillator. The same applies to the low-speed oscillator ⁶Remember that the power consumption of an MCU is about linear with its frequency. The higher is the frequency, the more power it consumes.

Clock Tree

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Multiplexer (also known as System Clock Switch (SW)) can be fed by several alternate sources.

Table 1: The maximum clock speeds for AHB, APB1 and APB2 buses of the MCUs equipping all Nucleo boards

Moreover, explaining in depth the clock tree of every STM32 family is a complex task, which also requires we focus our attention on a specific part number. In fact, the clock tree structure is affected mainly by the following key aspects: • The STM32 main family of the microcontroller. For example, all STM32F0 MCUs provide just one peripheral bus (APB1), which can be clocked at the same Cortex-M core maximum frequency. Other STM32 microcontrollers usually provide two peripheral buses, and only one of these (APB2) can reach the maximum CPU clock speed. Instead, none of the peripheral buses available in an STM32F7 microcontroller can reach the maximum core frequency⁷. Table 1 reports the maximum clock speed for AHB, APB1 and APB2 buses (with related timers clock speed) of the MCUs equipping all Nucleo boards: you can note that, for some STM32 MCUs, it is possible to reach the maximum clock speed only by using an external HSE oscillator. • The type and number of peripherals provided by the MCU. The complexity of the clock tree increases with the number of available peripherals. Moreover, some peripherals require dedicated clock sources and speeds, which impact on the number of PLL stages. • The sales type and package of the MCU, which determines the effective type and number of provided peripherals. ⁷Except for timers on the APB2 bus (at least at the time of writing this chapter - February 2016).

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Even restricting our focus only on the sixteen MCUs equipping the Nucleo boards, this would require a long and tedious work, which involve a deep knowledge of all peripherals implemented by the given MCU. For these reasons, we will give a quick overview to the STM32 clock tree, leaving to the reader the responsibility to deepen the particular MCU he is considering. Moreover, as we will see in a while, thanks to CubeMX it is possible to abstract from the specific clock tree implementation, unless we need to deal with specific PLL configurations for performance and power management reasons.

Figure 3: The clock tree of an STM32F030R8 MCU

Figure 3 shows the clock tree of one of the simplest STM32 microcontrollers: the STM32F030R8. It

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is extracted from the related reference manual⁸ provided by ST. For a lot of novices of the STM32 platform that figure is completely meaningless and quite hard to decode, especially if they are also new to embedded microcontrollers. The most relevant path has been outlined in red: the one that goes from the HSI oscillator to the Cortex-M0 core, AHB bus and DMA. This is the path we have “used” since here silently, without dealing too much with its possible configurations. Let us introduce the most relevant parts of that path. The path starts from the internal 8MHz oscillator. As said before, it is an RC oscillator factorycalibrated by ST for 1% accuracy at a ambient temperature of 25 °C. The HSI clock can then be used to feed the System Clock Switch (SW) as is (path highlighted in blue in Figure 3) or it can be used to feed the PLL multiplier after it has been divided by two thanks to an intermediate prescaler⁹. The main PLL so can multiply the 4MHz clock up to 12 times to obtain the maximum System Clock Frequency (SYSCLK) of 48MHz. The SYSCLK source can be used to feed the I2C1 peripheral (in alternative to the HSI) and another intermediate prescaler, the AHB prescaler, which can be used to lower the High (speed) Clock (HCLK), which in turn biases the AHB bus, the core and the SysTimer.

Why So Many Intermediate PLL/Prescaler Stages? As said before, the clock speed determines the overall performances, but it also affects the total power consumption of the MCU. Having the capability to selectively turn ON/OFF or reduce the clock speed of some parts of the MCU gives the possibility to reduce the power consumption according the effective computing power needed. As we will see in a following chapter, L0/1/4 MCUs introduce even more PLL/prescaler stages to offer to developers more control on the overall MCU consumption. Together with a dedicated hardware design, this allows to create battery-powered devices that can be run even for years using the same battery.

The clock tree configuration is performed through a dedicated peripheral¹⁰ named Reset and Clock Control (RCC), and it is a process essentially composed by three steps: 1. The high-speed oscillator source is selected (HSI or HSE) and properly configured, if the HSE is used.¹¹ 2. If we want to feed the SYSCLK with a frequency higher than the one provided by the highspeed oscillator, then we need to configure the main PLL (which provides the PLLCLK signal). Otherwise we can skip this step. 3. The System Clock Switch (SW) is configured choosing the right clock source (HSI, HSE, or PLLCLK). Then we select the right AHB, APB1 and APB2 (if available) prescaler settings to ⁸http://bit.ly/1GfS3iC ⁹A prescaler is an “electronic counter” used to reduce high frequencies. In this case, the “/2” prescaler reduces the main 8MHz frequency to 4MHz. ¹⁰Sometimes, ST defines in its documents the RCC as “peripheral”. Sometimes no. I am not sure that if it is properly a peripheral, but I will define it in the same way ST does. Sometimes. ¹¹In STM32L0/1/4 MCUs, the SYSCLK can be also fed by another dedicated and low-power clock source, named MSI. We will talk about this clock source next.

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reach the wanted frequency of the High-speed clock (HCLK - that is the one that feeds the core, DMAs and AHB bus), and the frequencies of Advanced Peripheral Bus 1 (APB1) and APB2 (if available) buses. Knowing the admissible values for PLLs and prescalers can be a nightmare, especially for more complex STM32 MCUs. Only some combinations are valid for a given STM32 microcontroller, and their improper configuration could potentially damage the MCU or at least cause malfunctions (a wrong clock configuration could lead to abnormal behaviour, strange and unpredictable resets and so on). Luckily for us, the STM32 engineers have provided a great tool to simplify the clock configuration: CubeMX. 10.1.1.1 The Multispeed Internal RC Oscillator in STM32L Families The clock source and its distribution network have a non-negligible impact on the overall power consumption of the MCU. If we need a SYSCLK frequency higher or lower than the internal HSI clock source (which is 8MHz for the most of STM32 MCUs and 16MHz for some others), we have to increase/reduce it by using the PLL Source Mux and intermediate prescalers. Unfortunately, these components consume energy, and this can have a dramatic impact on battery-powered devices.

Table 2: A comparison between clock sources in an STM32L476 MCU

STM32L0/1/4 MCUs are explicitly designed for low-power applications, and they address this specific issue by supplying a dedicated internal clock source, named MultiSpeed Internal (MSI) RC oscillator. MSI is a low-power RC oscillator, with a ±1%@25°C factory pre-calibrated accuracy, which can increase up to ±3% in the 0-85°C range. The main characteristic of the MSI is that it supplies up to twelve different frequencies, without adding any external component. For example, the MSI in an STM32F476 provides an internal clock source ranging from 100kHz up to 48MHz. The MSI clock is used as SYSCLK after restart from Reset, wakeup from Standby and Shutdown low-power modes. After restart from Reset, the MSI frequency is set to its default (for example, the default MSI frequency in an STM32F476 is 4MHz). Table 2 summarizes the most relevant characteristics of

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all possible clock sources in an STM32L476 MCU. As you can see, the best power consumption is achieved while the MCU is clocked by the MSI (without using the PLL Multiplexer). Moreover, this clock source guarantees the shortest startup time, if compared with the HSI. It is interesting to see that up to two seconds are required to stabilize the LSE clock: if startup speed is really important for your application, then using a separated thread to start the LSE is an option to consider. In addition to the advantages related to low-power, when the MSI is used as source for the PLL Source Mux with the LSE, it provides a very accurate clock source which can be used by the USB OTG FS device without using an external dedicated crystal, while feeding the main PLL to run the system at the maximum speed of 80MHz.

10.1.2 Configuring Clock Tree Using CubeMX We have already encountered in Chapter 4 the CubeMX Clock Configuration view. Now it is the right time to see how it works. The Figure 4 shows the clock tree of the same F0 MCU seen so far. As you can see, thanks to the more room available on the screen, the distribution network looks less cumbersome.

Figure 4: How the clock tree of an STM32F030R8 MCU is represented in CubeMX

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Even in this case, the most relevant paths of the clock tree have been highlighted in red and blue. This should simplify the comparison with the Figure 3. When a new project is created, by default CubeMX chooses the HSI oscillator as default clock source. HSI is also chosen as default clock source for the System Clock Switch (path in blue), as shown in Figure 4. This means that, for the MCU we are considering here, the Cortex-M core frequency will be equal to 8MHz. CubeMX also advises us about two things: the maximum frequency for the High (speed) Clock (HCLK) and the APB1 bus is equal to 48MHz in this MCU (labels in blue). To increase the CPU core frequency we first need to select the PLLCLK as the source clock for the System Clock Switch and then choose the right PLL multiplier factor. However, CubeMX offers a quick way to do this: you can simply write “48” inside the HCLK field and hit the enter key. CubeMX will automatically arrange the settings, choosing the right clock tree path (the red one in Figure 4) If your board relies on an external HSE/LSE crystal, you have to enable it in the RCC peripheral before you can use it as main clock source for the corresponding oscillator (we will see in a while how to do this step-by-step). Once the external oscillator is enabled, it is possible to specify its frequency (inside the blue box labeled “input frequency”) and to configure the main PLL to achieve the desired SYSCLK speed (see Figure 5). Otherwise, the external oscillator input frequency can be used directly as source clock for the System Clock Switch.

Figure 5: CubeMX allow to select the HSE oscillator once it is enabled using the RCC peripheral

We need to configure the RCC peripheral accordingly to enable an external clock source. This can be done from the Pinout view in CubeMX, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: The configuration options provided by the RCC peripheral

For both HSE and LSE oscillators, CubeMX offers three configuration options: • Disable: the external oscillator is not available/used, and the corresponding internal oscillator

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is used. • Crystal/Ceramic Resonator: an external crystal/ceramic resonator is used and the corresponding main frequency is derived from it. This implies that RCC_OSC_IN and RCC_OSC_OUT pins are used to interface the HSE, and the corresponding signal I/Os are unavailable for other usages (if we are using an external low-speed crystal, then the corresponding RCC_OSC32_IN and RCC_OSC32_OUT I/Os are used too). • BYPASS Clock Source: an external clock source is used. The clock source is generated by another active device. This means that the RCC_OSC_OUT is leaved unused, and it is possible to use it as regular GPIO. In almost all development board from ST (included the Nucleo ones) the Master Clock Output (MCO) pin of the ST-LINK interface is used as external clock source for the target STM32 MCU. Enabling this option allows to use the ST-LINK MCO as HSE. The RCC peripheral also allows to enable the Master Clock Output (MCO), which is a pin that can be connected to a clock source. It can be used to clock another external device, allowing to save on the external crystal for this other IC. Once the MCO is enabled, it is possible to choose its clock source using the Clock Configuration view, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: How to select the clock source for the MCO pin

10.1.3 Clock Source Options in Nucleo Boards The Nucleo development boards offer several alternatives for the clock sources 10.1.3.1 OSC Clock Supply There are four ways to configure the pins corresponding to external high-speed clock external highspeed clock (HSE): • MCO from ST-LINK: MCO output of ST-LINK MCU is used as input clock. This frequency cannot be changed, it is fixed at 8 MHz and connected to PF0/PD0/PH0-OSC_IN of target STM32 MCU. The following configuration is needed:

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– SB55 OFF – SB16 and SB50 ON – R35 and R37 removed • HSE oscillator on-board from X3 crystal (not provided): for typical frequencies and its capacitors and resistors, refer to STM32 microcontroller datasheet. Please refer to the AN2867 for oscillator design guide for STM32 microcontrollers. The following configuration is needed: – SB54 and SB55 OFF – R35 and R37 soldered – C33 and C34 soldered – SB16 and SB50 OFF • Oscillator from external PF0/PD0/PH0: from an external oscillator through pin 29 of the CN7 connector. The following configuration is needed: – SB55 ON – SB50 OFF – R35 and R37 removed • HSE not used: PF0/PD0/PH1 and PF1/PD1/PH1 are used as GPIO instead of Clock The following configuration is needed: – SB54 and SB55 ON – SB16 and SB50 (MCO) OFF – R35 and R37 removed There are two possible default configurations of the HSE pins depending on the version of NUCLEO board hardware. The board version MB1136 C-01/02/03 is mentioned on sticker placed on bottom side of the PCB. • The board marking MB1136 C-01 corresponds to a board, configured for HSE not used. • The board marking MB1136 C-02 (or higher) corresponds to a board, configured to use STLINK MCO as clock input.

Read Carefully For Nucleo-L476RG the ST-LINK MCO output is not connected to OSCIN, to reduce power consumption in low power mode. Consequently, the HSE in a Nucleo-L476RG cannot be used unless an external crystal is mounted on X3 pad, as described before.

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10.1.3.2 OSC 32kHz Clock Supply There are three ways to configure the pins corresponding to low-speed clock (LSE): • On-board oscillator: X2 crystal. Please refer to the AN2867 for oscillator design guide for STM32 microcontrollers. The oscillator P/N is ABS25-32.768KHZ-6-T and it is manufactured by Abracon corporation. • Oscillator from external PC14: from external oscillator through the pin 25 of CN7 connector. The following configuration is needed: – SB48 and SB49 ON – R34 and R36 removed • LSE not used: PC14 and PC15 are used as GPIOs instead of low speed Clock. The following configuration is needed: – SB48 and SB49 ON – R34 and R36 removed There are two possible default configurations of the LSE depending on the version of NUCLEO board hardware. The board version MB1136 C-01/02/03 is mentioned on sticker placed on bottom side of the PCB. • The board marking MB1136 C-01 corresponds to a board configured as LSE not used. • The board marking MB1136 C-02 (or higher) corresponds to a board configured with onboard 32kHz oscillator. • The board marking MB1136 C-03 (or higher) corresponds to a board using new LSE crystal (ABS25) and C26, C31 & C32 value update.

Read Carefully All Nucleo boards with a release version equal to MB1136 C-02 have a severe issue with the values of the dumping resistor R34, R36 and with the capacitors C26, C31 & C32. This issue prevents the LSE to start correctly.

10.2 Overview of the HAL_RCC Module So far we have seen that the Reset and Clock Control (RCC) peripheral is responsible of the configuration for the whole clock tree of an STM32 MCU. The HAL_RCC module contains the corresponding descriptors and routines of the CubeHAL to abstract from the specific RCC implementation. However, the actual implementation of this module inevitably reflects the peculiarities of the clock tree in a given STM32-series and part number. Deepening this module, as we have done

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for other HAL modules, is outside the scope of this book. It would require we keep track of too many differences among the several STM32 microcontrollers. So, we will now give a brief overview to its main features and to the steps involved during the configuration of the clock tree. The most relevant C struct to configure the clock tree are RCC_OscInitTypeDef and RCC_ClkInitTypeDef. The first one is used to configure the RCC internal/external oscillator sources (HSE, HSI, LSE, LSI), plus some additional clock sources if provided by the MCU. For example, some STM32 MCUs from the F0 series (STM32F07x, STM32F0x2 and STM32F09x ones) provide USB 2.0 support, in addition to an internal dedicated and factory-calibrated high-speed oscillator running at 48MHz to bias the USB peripheral. If this is the case, the RCC_OscInitTypeDef struct is also used to configure those additional clock sources. The RCC_OscInitTypeDef struct also has a field that is instance of the RCC_PLLInitTypeDef struct, which configures the main PLL used to increase the speed of the source clock. It reflects the hardware structure of the main PLL, and can be composed by several fields depending on the STM32 series (in STM32F2/4/7 MCUs it can have a quite complex structure). The RCC_ClkInitTypeDef struct, instead, is used to configure the source clock for the System Clock Switch (SWCLK), for the AHB bus and the APB1/2 buses. CubeMX is designed to generate the right code initialization for the clock tree of our MCU. All the necessary code is packed inside the SystemClock_Config() routine, which we have encountered in the projects generated until now. For example, the following implementation of the SystemClock_Config() reflects the clock tree configuration for an STM32F030R8 MCU running at 48MHz: 1 2 3

void SystemClock_Config(void) { RCC_OscInitTypeDef RCC_OscInitStruct; RCC_ClkInitTypeDef RCC_ClkInitStruct;

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

RCC_OscInitStruct.OscillatorType = RCC_OSCILLATORTYPE_HSI; RCC_OscInitStruct.HSIState = RCC_HSI_ON; RCC_OscInitStruct.HSICalibrationValue = 16; RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLState = RCC_PLL_ON; RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLSource = RCC_PLLSOURCE_HSI; RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PLLMUL = RCC_PLL_MUL12; RCC_OscInitStruct.PLL.PREDIV = RCC_PREDIV_DIV1; HAL_RCC_OscConfig(&RCC_OscInitStruct);

13 14 15 16 17 18

RCC_ClkInitStruct.ClockType = RCC_CLOCKTYPE_SYSCLK; RCC_ClkInitStruct.SYSCLKSource = RCC_SYSCLKSOURCE_PLLCLK; RCC_ClkInitStruct.AHBCLKDivider = RCC_SYSCLK_DIV1; RCC_ClkInitStruct.APB1CLKDivider = RCC_HCLK_DIV1; HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(&RCC_ClkInitStruct, FLASH_LATENCY_1);

19 20

HAL_SYSTICK_Config(HAL_RCC_GetHCLKFreq()/1000);

21 22 23

HAL_SYSTICK_CLKSourceConfig(SYSTICK_CLKSOURCE_HCLK);

Clock Tree /* SysTick_IRQn interrupt configuration */ HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(SysTick_IRQn, 0, 0);

24 25 26

307

}

Lines [5:12] select the HSI as source oscillator and enable the main PLL, setting the HSI as its clock source through the PLL multiplexer. The clock frequency is then increased by twelve times (settings the PLLMUL field). Lines [14:18] set the SYSCLK frequency. The PLLCLK is selected as clock source (line 15). In the same way, the SYSCLK frequency is selected as source for the AHB bus, and the same HCLK frequency (RCC_HCLK_DIV1) as source for the APB1 bus. The other lines of code set the SysTick timer, a special timer available in the Cortex-M core used to synchronize some internal HAL activities (or to drive the scheduler of an RTOS, as we will see in a following chapter). The HAL is based on the convention that SysTick timer generates an interrupt ever 1ms. Since we are configuring the SysTick clock so that it runs at the maximum core frequency of 48MHz (which means that the SYSCLK performs 48.000.000 clock cycles every seconds), we can set the SysTick timer so that it generates an interrupt every 48.000.000 cycles/1000ms = 48.000 clock cycles ¹².

10.2.1 Compute the Clock Frequency at Run-Time Sometimes it is important to know how fast is running the CPU core. If our firmware is designed so that it always runs at an established frequency, we can easily hardcode that value in the firmware using a symbolic constant. However, this is always a poor programming style, and it is totally inapplicable if we manage the CPU frequency dynamically. The CubeHAL provides a function that can be used to compute the SYSCLK frequency: the HAL_RCC_GetSysClockFreq()¹³. However, this function must be handled with special care. Let us see why. The HAL_RCC_GetSysClockFreq() does not return the real SYSCLK frequency (it could never do this in a reliable way without having a known and precise external reference), but it bases the result on the following algorithm: • if SYSCLK source is the HSI oscillator, then returns the value based on the HSI_VALUE macro; • if SYSCLK source is the HSE oscillator, then returns the value based on the HSE_VALUE macro; • if SYSCLK source is the PLLCLK, then returns a value based on HSI_VALUE/HSE_VALUE multiplied by the PLL factor, according the specific STM32 MCU implementation. HSI_VALUE and HSE_VALUE macros are defined inside the stm32xxx_hal_conf.h file, and they are hardcoded values. The HSI_VALUE is defined by ST during chip design, and we can trust the value ¹²As we will see in the next chapter, a timer is free counter module, that is a device that counts from 0 to a given value at every clock cycle. Take note that, for the sake of completeness, the SysTick timer is a 24-bit downcounter timer, that is it counts from its maximum value (0xFFFFFF) down to zero, and then automatically restarts again. The source clock of a timer establishes how fast this timer counts. Since here we are specifying that the clock source for the SysTick timer is the HCLK (line 22), then the counter will reach zero every 1ms. ¹³Pay attention that the Cortex-M core is not clocked by the SYSCLK frequency, but by the HCLK frequency, which could be lowered by the AHB prescaler. So, to recap, the core frequency is equal to HAL_RCC_GetSysClockFreq()/AHB-prescaler.

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of the corresponding macro (except for that 1% of accuracy). Instead, if we are using an external oscillator as HSE source, we must provide the actual value for the HSE_VALUE macro, otherwise the value returned by the HAL_RCC_GetSysClockFreq() function is wrong¹⁴. And this also affects the tick frequency (that is, how long it takes to generate the timer interrupt) of the SysTick timer. We can also retrieve the core frequency by using the SystemCoreClock CMSIS global variable.

Read Carefully If we decide to manipulate the clock tree configuration by hand without using CubeHAL routines, we have to remember that every time we change the SYSCLK frequency, we need to call the CMSIS function SystemCoreClockUpdate(), otherwise some CMSIS routines may give wrong results. This function is automatically called for us by the HAL_RCC_ClockConfig() routine.

10.2.2 Enabling the Master Clock Output As said before, depending on the IC package used, STM32 MCUs allow to route the clock signal to one or two output I/Os, called Master Clock Output (MCO). This is performed by using the function: void HAL_RCC_MCOConfig(uint32_t RCC_MCOx, uint32_t RCC_MCOSource, uint32_t RCC_MCODiv);

For example, to route the PLLCLK to MCO1 pin in an STM32F401RE MCU (which corresponds to PA8 pin), we must invoke the above function in the following way: HAL_RCC_MCOConfig(RCC_MCO1, RCC_MCO1SOURCE_PLLCLK, RCC_MCODIV_1);

Read Carefully Please, take note that when configuring the MCO pin as output GPIO, its speed (that is, the slew rate) affects the quality of the output clock. Moreover, for higher clock frequencies the compensation cell must be enabled in the following way: HAL_EnableCompensationCell();

Refer to the datasheet of your MCU for more about this.

¹⁴The HAL_RCC_GetSysClockFreq() is defined to return an uint32_t. This means that it could return wrong results with fractional values for the HSE oscillator.

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10.2.3 Enabling the Clock Security System The Clock Security System (CSS) is a feature of the RCC peripheral used to detect malfunctions of the external HSE. The CSS is an important feature in some critical applications, where a malfunction of the HSE could cause injuries to the user. Its importance is proven by the fact that the detection of a failure is noticed through the NMI exception, a Cortex-M exception that cannot be disabled. When the failure of HSE is detected, the MCU automatically switch to the HSI clock, which is selected as source for the SYSCLK clock. So, if a higher core frequency is needed, we need to perform proper initializations inside the NMI exception handler. To enable the CSS we use the HAL_RCC_EnableCSS() routine, and we need to define the handler for the NMI exception in the following way¹⁵: void NMI_Handler(void) { HAL_RCC_NMI_IRQHandler(); }

The right way to catch the failure of the HSE clock is by defining the callback: void HAL_RCC_CSSCallback(void) { //Catch the HSE failure and take proper actions }

10.3 HSI Calibration We have left uncommented one line of code in the SystemClock_Config() routine seen before: the instruction at line 7. It used to perform a fine-tune calibration of the HSI oscillator. But what exactly it does? As said before, the frequency of the internal RC oscillators may vary from one chip to another due to manufacturing process variations. For this reason, HSI oscillators are factory-calibrated by ST to have a 1% accuracy at room temperature. After a reset, the factory calibration value is automatically loaded in the second byte (HSICAL) of the RCC configuration register (RCC_CR) (the Figure 8 shows the implementation of this register in an STM32F401RE¹⁶). ¹⁵There is no need to enable the NMI exception, because it is automatically enabled and it cannot be disabled. ¹⁶The figure is taken from the RM0368 application note from ST (http://bit.ly/1Kq3SoE).

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Figure 8: The RCC_CR register in an STM32F401RE MCU

The frequency of the internal RC oscillator can be fine-tuned to achieve better accuracy with wider temperature and supply voltage ranges. The trimming bits are used for this purpose. Five trimming bits RCC_CR->HSITRIM[4:0] are used for fine-tuning. The default trimming value is 16. An increase/decrease in this trimming value causes an increase/decrease in HSI frequency. The HSI oscillator is fine-tuned in steps of 0.5% of the HSI clock speed: • Writing a trimming value in the range of 17 to 31 increases the HSI frequency. • Writing a trimming value in the range of 0 to 15 decreases the HSI frequency. • Writing a trimming value equal to 16 causes the HSI frequency to keep its default value. The HSI can be calibrated using the following procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4.

set the internal high-speed RC oscillator system clock; measure the internal RC oscillator frequency for each trimming value; compute the frequency error for each trimming value (according a known reference); finally, set the trimming bits with the optimum value (corresponding to the lowest frequency error).

The internal oscillator frequency is not measured directly but it is computed from the number of clock pulses counted using a timer compared with the typical value. To do this, a very accurate reference frequency must be available such as the LSE frequency provided by the external 32.768 kHz crystal or the 50 Hz/60 Hz of the mains. ST provides several application notes describing better this procedure (for example, the AN4067¹⁷ is about the calibration procedure in the STM32F0 family). Please, refer to those documents for more information. ¹⁷http://bit.ly/1R8kEbf

11. Timers Embedded devices perform some activities on a time basis. For really simple and inaccurate delays a busy loop could carry out the task, but using the CPU core to perform time-related activities is never a smart solution. For this reason, all microcontrollers provide dedicated hardware peripherals: the timers. Timers are not only timebase generators, but they also provides several additional features used to interact with the Cortex-M core and other peripherals, both internal and external to the MCU. Depending on the family and package used, STM32 microcontrollers implement a variable number of timers, each one with specific characteristics. Some part numbers can provide up to 14 independent timers. Different from the other peripherals, timers have almost the same implementation in all STM32-series, and they are grouped inside nine distinct categories. The most relevant of these are: basic, general purpose and advanced timers. STM32 timers are an advanced peripheral that offer a wide range of customizations. Moreover, some of their features are specific of the application domain. This would require a completely separated book to deepen the topic (you have to consider that usually more than 250 pages of a typical STM32 datasheet is dedicated to timers). This chapter, which is undoubtedly the longest in the book, tries to shape the most relevant concepts regarding basic and general purpose timers in STM32 MCUs, looking to the related CubeHAL module used to program them.

11.1 Introduction to Timers A timer is a free-running counter with a counting frequency that is a fraction of its source clock. The counting speed can be reduced using a dedicated prescaler for each timer¹. Depending on the timer type, it can be clocked by the internal clock (which is derived from the bus where it is connected), by an external clock source or by another timer used as “master”. Usually, a timer counts from zero up to a given value, which cannot be higher than the maximum unsigned value for its resolution (for example, a 16-bit timer overflows when the counter reaches 65535), but it can also count on the contrary and in other ways we will see next. The most advanced timers in an STM32 microcontroller have several features: • They can be used as time base generator (which is the feature common to all STM32 timers). • They can be used to measure the frequency of an external event (input capture mode). • To control an output waveform, or to indicate when a period of time has elapsed (output compare mode). ¹This is not entirely true, but it is ok to consider it true here.

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– One pulse mode (OPM) is a particular case of the input capture mode and the output compare mode. It allows the counter to be started in response to a stimulus and to generate a pulse with a programmable length after a programmable delay. • To generate PWM signals in edge-aligned mode or center-aligned mode independently on each channel (PWM mode). – In some STM32 MCUs (notably from STM32F3 and recent STM32L4 series), some timers can generate a center-aligned PWM signals with a programmable delay and phase shift. Depending on the timer type, a timer can generate interrupts or DMA requests when the following events occur: • Update events – Counter overflow/underflow – Counter initialized – Others • Trigger – Counter start/stop – Counter Initialize – Others • Input capture/Output compare

11.1.1 Timer Categories in an STM32 MCU STM32 timers can mainly grouped in nine categories. Let us give a brief look to each one of them. • Basic timers: timers from this category are the simplest form of timers in STM32 MCUs. They are 16-bit timers used as time base generator, and they do not have output/input pins. Basic timers are also used to feed the DAC peripheral, since their update event can trigger DMA requests for the DAC (for this reason they are usually available in STM32 MCUs providing at least a DAC). Basic timers can be also used as “masters” for other timers. • General purpose timers: they are 16/32-bit timers (depending on the STM32-series) providing the classical features that a timer of a modern embedded microcontroller is expected to implement. They are used in any application for output compare (timing and delay generation), One-Pulse Mode, input capture (for external signal frequency measurement), sensor interface (encoder, hall sensor), etc. Obviously, a general purpose timer can be used as time base generator, like a basic timer. Timers from this category provide four-programmable input/output channels. – 1-channel/2-channels: they are two subgroups of general purpose timers providing only one/two input/output channel. – 1-channel/2-channels with one complimentary output: same as previous type, but having a dead time generator on one channel. This allows having complementary signals with a time base independent from the advanced timers.

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• Advanced timers: these timers are the most complete ones in an STM32 MCU. In addition to the features found in a general purpose timer, they include several features related to motor control and digital power conversion applications: three complementary signals with dead time insertion, emergency shut-down input. • High resolution timer: The high-resolution timer (HRTIM1) is a special timer provided by some microcontrollers from the STM32F3 series (which is the series dedicated to motor control and power conversion). It allows generating digital signals with high-accuracy timings, such as PWM or phase-shifted pulses. It consists of 6 sub-timers, 1 master and 5 slaves, totaling 10 high-resolution outputs, which can be coupled by pairs for dead time insertion. It also features 5 fault inputs for protection purposes and 10 inputs to handle external events such as current limitation, zero voltage or zero current switching. HRTIM1 timer is made of a digital kernel clocked at 144 MHz followed by delay lines. Delay lines with closed loop control guarantee a 217ps resolution whatever the voltage, temperature or chip-to-chip manufacturing process deviation. The high-resolution is available on the 10 outputs in all operating modes: variable duty cycle, variable frequency, and constant ON time. This book will not cover HRTIM1 timer. • Low-power timers: timers from this group are especially designed for low-power applications. Thanks to their diversity of clock sources, these timers are able to keep running in all power modes (except for Standby mode). Given this capability to run even with no internal clock source, Low-power timers can be used as a “pulse counter” which can be useful in some applications. They also have the capability to wake up the system from low-power modes.

Table 1: The most relevant feature of each timer category

Table 1² summarizes the most relevant features to keep on hand for each timer category. ²The table is adapted from the one found in the AN4013(http://bit.ly/1WAewd6) from ST, an application note dedicated to STM32 timers.

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11.1.2 Effective Availability of Timers in the STM32 Portfolio Not all types of timers are available in all STM32 MCUs. It depends mainly on the STM32-series, the sales type and package used. The Table 2 summarizes the distribution of the 22 timers in all STM32 families.

Table 2: Which timers are implemented in each STM32-series

It is important to remark some things regarding Table 2: • Given a specific timer (e.g. TIM1, TIM8, etc.), its implementation (features, number and types

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of registers, generated interrupts, DMA requests, peripheral interconnection³, etc.) is the same⁴ in all STM32 MCUs. This guarantees you that a firmware written to use a specific timer is portable to other MCUs or STM32-series having the same timer. • The effective presence of a timer in an MCU belonging to the given family depends on sales type and the package used (packages with more pins may provide all timers implemented by that family). • The table was extracted, expanded and rearranged from the AN4013⁵. I have checked carefully the values reported in that table, and found some non-updated things. However, I am not totally sure that it faithfully adheres to actual implementation⁶ of the whole STM32 portfolio (I should check more than 600 microcontrollers to be sure of that values). For this reason, I have leaved cells empty, so you can eventually add values if you discover a mistake⁷. Table 3 reports the list of all timers implemented by the MCUs equipping the sixteen Nucleo boards we are considering in this book. It is important to underline some things reported in Table 3: • STM32F411RE, STM32F401RE and STM32F103RB do not provide a basic timer. • The “MAX clock speed” column reports the maximum clock speed for all timers in a given STM32 MCU. This means that the timer maximum clock speed depends on the bus where it is connected to. Always consult the datasheet to determine to which bus the timer is connected (see the peripheral mapping section of the datasheet) and use CubeMX Clock configuration view to determine the configured bus speed. • The STM32F410RB MCU, which has been introduced on the market at the beginning of 2016, implements a feature that is distinctive of the STM32L0/L4 series: a low-power timer. When dealing with timers, it is important to have a pragmatic approach. Otherwise, it is really easy to get lost in their settings and in the corresponding HAL routines (the HAL_TIM and HAL_TIM_EX modules are among the most articulated in the CubeHAL). For this reason, we will start studying how to use basic timers, whose functionalities are also common to more advanced STM32 timers. ³With the term peripheral interconnection we indicate the ability of some peripherals to “trigger” other peripherals, or to fire some of their DMA requests (for example, the TIM6 update event can trigger the DAC1 conversion). More about this topic in a following chapter. ⁴As said at the beginning of this chapter, STM32 timers are the only peripherals that share the same implementation among all STM32 families. This is almost true, except for TIM2 and TIM5 timers, which have a 32-bit resolution in the majority of STM32 MCUs and 16-bit resolution in some early STM32 MCUs. Moreover, some really specific features may have a slight different implementation between some STM32 series (especially between more “old” STM32F1 microcontrollers and more recent STM32F4 ones). Always consult the datasheet for your MCU before you plan to use a really dedicated feature provided by some timers. ⁵http://bit.ly/1WAewd6 ⁶The table was arranged in February 2016. STM32 MCUs evolve almost day-by-day, so some things may be changed when you read this chapter (for example, I suspect that ST is going to release an STM32L1 MCU with at least one low-power timer soon). ⁷And eventually send me an email so that I can correct the table in next releases of the book :-)

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Table 3: Which timers are implemented in each STM32 MCU equipping sixteen Nucleo boards

11.2 Basic Timers Basic timers TIM6, TIM7 and TIM18⁸ are the most simple timers available in the STM32 portfolio. Even if they are not provided by all STM32 MCUs, it is important to underline that STM32 timers are designed so that more advanced timers implement the same features (in the same way) of less powerful ones, as shown in Figure 1. This means that it is perfectly possible to use a general purpose timer in the same way of a basic timer. The CubeHAL also reflects this hardware implementation: the base operations on all timers are performed by using the HAL_TIM_Base_XXX functions. ⁸The TIM18 basic timer is only available in STM32F37x microcontrollers.

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A single timer is referenced by using an instance of the C struct TIM_HandleTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { TIM_TypeDef TIM_Base_InitTypeDef HAL_TIM_ActiveChannel DMA_HandleTypeDef HAL_LockTypeDef __IO HAL_TIM_StateTypeDef } TIM_HandleTypeDef;

*Instance; Init; Channel; *hdma[7]; Lock; State;

/* /* /* /* /* /*

Pointer to timer descriptor TIM Time Base required parameters Active channel DMA Handlers array Locking object TIM operation state

*/ */ */ */ */ */

Figure 1: The relation between the three major categories of timers

Let us see more in depth the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the TIM descriptor we are going to use. For example, TIM6 is one of the basic timers available in the majority of STM32 microcontrollers. • Init: is an instance of the C struct TIM_Base_InitTypeDef, which is used to configure the base timer functionalities. We will study it more in depth in a while. • Channel: it indicates the number of active channels in timers that provide one or more input/output channels (this is not the case of basic timers). It can assume one or more values from the enum HAL_TIM_ActiveChannel, and we will study its usage in a next paragraph. • *hdma[7]: this is an array containing the pointers to DMA_HandleTypeDef descriptors for DMA requests associated to the timer. As we will see later, a timer can generate up to seven DMA requests used to drive its features. • State: this is used internally by the HAL to keep track of the timer state. All the timer configuration activities are performed by using an instance of the C struct TIM_Base_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way:

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typedef struct { uint32_t Prescaler; uint32_t CounterMode; uint32_t Period;

*/ */

/* Specifies the prescaler value used to divide the TIM clock. /* Specifies the counter mode. /* Specifies the period value to be loaded into the active Auto-Reload Register at the next update event. uint32_t ClockDivision; /* Specifies the clock division. uint32_t RepetitionCounter; /* Specifies the repetition counter value. } TIM_Base_InitTypeDef;

*/ */ */

• Prescaler: it divides the timer clock by a factor ranging from 1 up to 65535 (this means that the prescaler register has a 16-bit resolution). For example, if the bus where the timer is connected runs at 48MHz, then a prescaler value equal to 48 lowers the counting frequency to 1MHz. • CounterMode: it defines the counting direction of the timer, and it can assume one of the values from Table 4. Some counting modes are available only in general purpose and advanced timers. For basic timers, only the TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP is defined. • Period: sets the maximum value for the timer counter before it restarts counting again. This can assume a value from 0x1 to 0xFFFF (65535) for 16-bit timers, and from 0x1 to 0xFFFF FFFF for TIM2 and TIM5 timers in those MCUs that implement them as 32-bit timers. If Period is set to 0x0 the timer does not start. • ClockDivision: this bit-field indicates the division ratio between the internal timer clock frequency and sampling clock used by the digital filters on ETRx and TIx pins. It can assume one value from Table 5, and it is available only in general purpose and advanced timers. We will study digital filters on input pins of a timer later in this chapter. This field is also used by the dead time generator (a feature non described in this book). • RepetitionCounter: every timer has a specific update register that keeps track of the timer overflow/underflow condition. This can also generate a specific IRQ, as we will see next. The RepetitionCounter says how many times the timer overflows/underflows before the update register is set, and the corresponding event is raised (if enabled). RepetitionCounter is only available in advanced timers. Table 4: Available counter mode for a timer

Counter Mode

Description

TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP

The timer counts from zero up to the Period value (which cannot be higher than the timer resolution - 16/32-bit) and then generates an overflow event. The timer counts down from the Period value to zero and then generates an underflow event. In center-aligned mode, the counter counts from 0 to the Period value – 1, generates an overflow event, then counts from the Period value down to 1 and generates a counter underflow event. Then it restarts counting from 0. The Output compare interrupt flag of channels configured in output mode is set when the counter counts down.

TIM_COUNTERMODE_DOWN TIM_COUNTERMODE_CENTERALIGNED1

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Table 4: Available counter mode for a timer

Counter Mode

Description

TIM_COUNTERMODE_CENTERALIGNED2

Same as TIM_COUNTERMODE_CENTERALIGNED1, but the Output compare interrupt flag of channels configured in output mode is set when the counter counts up. Same as TIM_COUNTERMODE_CENTERALIGNED1, but the Output compare interrupt flag of channels configured in output mode is set when the counter counts up and down.

TIM_COUNTERMODE_CENTERALIGNED3

Table 5: Available ClockDivision modes for general purpose and advanced timers

Clock division modes

Description

TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1

Computes 1 sample of the input signal on ETRx and TIx pins Computes 2 sample of the input signal on ETRx and TIx pins Computes 4 sample of the input signal on ETRx and TIx pins

TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV2 TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV4

11.2.1 Using Timers in Interrupt Mode Before seeing a complete example, it is best to summarize what we have seen so far. A basic timer: • is a free-running counter, which counts from 0 up to the value specified in the Period⁹ field in the TIM_Base_InitTypeDef initialization structure, which can assume the maximum value of 0xFFFF (0xFFFF FFFF for 32-bit timers); • the counting frequency depends on the speed of the bus where the timer is connected, and it can be lowered up to 65536 times by setting the Prescaler register in the initialization structure; • when the timer reaches the Period value, it overflows and the Update Event (UEV) flag is set¹⁰; the timer automatically restarts counting again from the initial value (which is always zero for basic timers)¹¹. ⁹The Period is used to fill the Auto-reload register (ARR) of the timer. I do not know why ST engineers have decided to name it in this way, since ARR is the register name used in all ST datasheets. This can lead to a lot of confusion, especially when you are new to the CubeHAL, but unfortunately there is nothing we can do. ¹⁰The Update Event (UEV) is latched to the prescaler clock, and it is automatically cleared on the next clock edge. Don’t confuse the UEV with the Update Interrupt Flag (UIF), which must be cleared manually like every other IRQ. UIF is set only when the corresponding interrupt is enabled. As we will discover in a following chapter, the UEV event, like all event flags set for other peripherals, allows to wake up the MCU when it entered a low-power mode using the WFE instruction. ¹¹This is an important distinction with other microcontroller architectures (especially 8-bit ones) where timers need to be “rearmed” manually before they can start counting again.

320

Timers

The Period and Prescaler registers determine the timer frequency, that is how long does it takes to overflow (or, if you prefer, how often an Update Event is generated), according this simply formula: U pdateEvent =

T imerclock (P rescaler + 1)(P eriod + 1)

[1]

For example, assume a timer connected to the APB1 bus in an STM32F030 MCU, with the HCLK set to 48MHz, a Prescaler value equal to 47999 and a Period value equal to 499. We have that timer will overflow at every: U pdateEvent =

48.000.000 1 = 2Hz = s = 0.5s (47999 + 1)(499 + 1) 2

The following code, designed to run on a Nucleo-F030R8, shows a complete example using the TIM6¹². The example is nothing more than the classical blinking LED, but this time we use a basic timer to compute delays. Filename: src/main-ex1.c 7

TIM_HandleTypeDef htim6;

8 9 10

int main(void) { HAL_Init();

11

Nucleo_BSP_Init();

12 13

htim6.Instance = TIM6; htim6.Init.Prescaler = 47999; //48MHz/48000 = 1000Hz htim6.Init.Period = 499; //1000HZ / 500 = 2Hz = 0.5s

14 15 16 17

__HAL_RCC_TIM6_CLK_ENABLE(); //Enable the TIM6 peripheral

18 19

HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(TIM6_IRQn, 0, 0); //Enable the peripheral IRQ HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(TIM6_IRQn);

20 21 22

HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim6); //Configure the timer HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT(&htim6); //Start the timer

23 24 25

while (1);

26 27

}

28 29 30

void TIM6_IRQHandler(void) { // Pass the control to HAL, which processes the IRQ

¹²Owners of the Nucleo boards equipping F411, F401 and F103 STM32 MCUs will find a slight different example using a general purpose timer. However, concepts remain the same.

321

Timers HAL_TIM_IRQHandler(&htim6);

31 32

}

33 34 35 36 37 38

void HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim) { // This callback is automatically called by the HAL on the UEV event if(htim->Instance == TIM6) HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin); }

Lines [15:17] configure TIM6 using the Prescaler and Period values computed before. The timer peripheral is then enabled by using the macro at line 19. The same applies to its IRQ. The timer is then configured at line 24 and started in interrupt mode using the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT() function¹³. The rest of the code is really similar to what seen until now. The TIM6_IRQHandler() ISR fires when the timer overflows, and the HAL_TIM_IRQHandler() is then called. The HAL will automatically handle for us all the necessary operations to properly manage the update event, and it will call the HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback() routine to signal us that the timer has been overflowed.

The Performance of the HAL_TIM_IRQHandler() Routine For timers running really fast, the HAL_TIM_IRQHandler() has a non-negligible overhead. That function is designed to check up to nine different interrupt status flags, which requires several ARM assembly instructions to carry out the task. If you need to process the interrupts in less time, probably it is best to handle the IRQ by yourself. Once again, the HAL is designed to abstract a lot of details to the user, but it introduces performance penalties that every embedded developer should know.

How to Choose the Values for Prescaler and Period Fields? First of all, note that not all combinations of Prescaler and Period values lead to integer division of the timer clock frequency. For example, for a timer running at 48MHz, a Period equal to 65535 lowers the timer frequency to 732,4218 Hz. This author is used to divide the main frequency of the timer setting an integer divider for the Prescaler value (e.g. 47999 for a 48MHz timer - remember that, according equation [1], the frequency is computed by adding 1 to both the Prescaler and Period values), and then playing with the Period value to achieve the wanted frequency. MikroElektronica provides a nice tool¹⁴ to automatically compute that values, given a specific STM32 MCUs and the HCLK frequency. Unfortunately, the code it generates does not cover the CubeHAL at the time of writing this chapter. ¹³A really common mistake made by novices is to forget to start a timer, by using one of the HAL_TIM_xxx_Start function provided by the CubeHAL. ¹⁴http://www.mikroe.com/timer-calculator/

322

Timers

11.2.1.1 Time Base Generation in Advanced Timers So far we have seen that all base functionalities of a timer are configured through an instance of the TIM_Base_InitTypeDef struct. This struct contains a field named RepetitionCounter used to further increase the period between two consecutive update events: the timer will count a given number of times before setting the event and raising the corresponding interrupt. RepetitionCounter is only available in advanced timers, and this causes that the formula to compute the frequency of update events becomes: U pdateEvent =

T imerclock (P rescaler + 1)(P eriod + 1)(RepetitionCounter + 1)

Leaving the RepetitionCounter equal to zero (default behaviour), we obtain the same working mode of a basic timer.

11.2.2 Using Timers in Polling Mode The CubeHAL provides three ways to use timers: polling, interrupt and DMA mode. For this reason, the HAL provides three distinct functions to start a timer: HAL_TIM_Base_Start(), HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT() and HAL_TIM_Base_Start_DMA(). The idea behind the polling mode is that the timer counter register (TIMx->CNT) is accessed continuously to check for a given value. But care must be taken when polling a timer. For example, it is quite common to find around in the web code like the following one: ... while (1) { if(__HAL_TIM_GET_COUNTER(&tim) == value) ...

That way to poll for a timer is completely wrong, even if it apparently works in some examples. Why? Timers run independently from the Cortex-M core. A timer can count really fast, up to the same clock frequency of the CPU core. But checking a timer counter for equality (that is, to check if it is equal to a given value) requires several ARM assembly instructions, which in turn need several clock cycles. There is no guarantee that the CPU accesses to the counter register exactly at the same time it reaches the configured value (this happens only if the timer runs really slow). A better way is to check if the timer current counter value is equal or greater than the given value, or to check against the UIF flag status¹⁵: in the worst case we can have a shift in time measuring, but we will not lose the event at all (unless the timer runs really fast and we lose the subsequent events because the interrupt is masked - that is, UIF flag it still set before it is cleared manually by us or automatically by the HAL). ¹⁵However this requires that the timer is enabled in interrupt mode, using the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT() function.

323

Timers ... while (1) { if(__HAL_TIM_GET_FLAG(&tim) == TIM_FLAG_UPDATE) { //Clear the IRQ flag otherwise we lose other events __HAL_TIM_CLEAR_IT(htim, TIM_IT_UPDATE); ...

However, timers are asynchronous peripherals, and the correct way to manage the overflow/underflow event is by using interrupts. There is no reason to not use a timer in interrupt mode, unless the timer runs really fast and generating an interrupt after few microseconds (or even nanoseconds) would completely flood the MCU preventing it from processing other instructions¹⁶.

11.2.3 Using Timers in DMA Mode Timers are often programmed to work in DMA mode, especially when they are not used as timebase generators. This mode guarantees that the operations performed by the timer are deterministic and with the smallest possible latency, especially if they run really fast. Moreover, the Cortex-M core is freed from the timer management, which usually involves the handling of really frequent ISRs that could congest the CPU. Finally, in some advanced modes, like the output PWM one, it is almost impossible to reach given switching frequencies without using the timer in DMA Mode. For these reasons, timers offer up to seven DMA requests, which are listed in Table 6. Basic timers implement only the TIM_DMA_UPDATE request, since they do not have input/output I/Os. However, it is really useful to take advantage of the TIMx_UP request in those situation where we want to perform DMA transfers on a time-basis. Table 6: DMA requests (the most of them are available only in general purpose and advanced timers

Timer DMA request

Description

TIM_DMA_UPDATE TIM_DMA_CC1 TIM_DMA_CC2 TIM_DMA_CC3 TIM_DMA_CC4 TIM_DMA_COM TIM_DMA_TRIGGER

Update request (it is generated on the UEV event) Capture/Compare 1 DMA request Capture/Compare 2 DMA request Capture/Compare 3 DMA request Capture/Compare 4 DMA request Commutation request Trigger request

The following example is another variation of the blinking LED application, but this time we use a ¹⁶Remember that even if the exception handling in a Cortex-M MCU has a deterministic latency (Cortex-M3/4/7 cores serve an interrupt in 12 CPU cycles, while Cortex-M0 does it in 15 cycles and Cortex-M0+ in 16 cycles) it has a non-negligible cost, which requires several nanoseconds in “low-speed” MCUs (for example, for an STM32F030 MCU running at 48MHz, an interrupt is serviced in about 300ns). This cost has to be added to the overhead introduced by the HAL during the interrupt management, as seen before.

324

Timers

timer in DMA mode to turn the LED ON/OFF. Here we are going to use the TIM6 timer programmed to overflow every 500ms: when this happens, the timer generates the TIM6_UP request (which in an STM32F030 MCU is bound to the third channel of DMA1) and the next element of a buffer is transferred to the GPIOA->ODR register in DMA circular mode, which causes that the LD2 blinks indefinitely. Read Carefully In STM32F2/F4/F7/L1/L4 families, only the DMA2 has full access to the Bus Matrix. This means that only timers whose requests are bound to this DMA controller can be used to perform transfers involving other peripheral (except for the internal and external volatile memories). For this reasons, this example for Nucleo boards based on F2/F4/L1/L4 MCUs use TIM1 as base generator. In STM32F103R8, STM32F302RB and STM32F334R8, STM32L053R8 and STM32L073RZ MCUs TIMx_UP request does not allow to trigger transfer between memory and GPIO peripheral. So this example is not available for the corresponding Nucleo boards. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 13 14

int main(void) { uint8_t data[] = {0xFF, 0x0};

15 16 17 18

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_DMA_Init();

19 20 21 22 23 24

htim6.Instance = TIM6; htim6.Init.Prescaler = 47999; //48MHz/48000 = 1000Hz htim6.Init.Period = 499; //1000HZ / 500 = 2Hz = 0.5s htim6.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; __HAL_RCC_TIM6_CLK_ENABLE();

25 26 27

HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim6); HAL_TIM_Base_Start(&htim6);

28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

hdma_tim6_up.Instance = DMA1_Channel3; hdma_tim6_up.Init.Direction = DMA_MEMORY_TO_PERIPH; hdma_tim6_up.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_tim6_up.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_tim6_up.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_tim6_up.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_BYTE; hdma_tim6_up.Init.Mode = DMA_CIRCULAR; hdma_tim6_up.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_tim6_up);

Timers

325

38

HAL_DMA_Start(&hdma_tim6_up, (uint32_t)data, (uint32_t)&GPIOA->ODR, 2); __HAL_TIM_ENABLE_DMA(&htim6, TIM_DMA_UPDATE);

39 40 41

while (1);

42 43

}

Lines [29:37] configure the DMA_HandleTypeDef for the DMA1_Channel3 in circular mode. Then line 39 starts the DMA transfer so that the content of the data buffer is transferred inside the GPIOA>ODR register every time a TIM6_UP request is generated, that is the timer overflows. This causes that the LD2 LED blinks. Take note that we are not using the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_DMA() function here. Why not? Looking to the implementation of the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_DMA() routine, you can see that ST engineers have defined it so that the DMA transfer is performed from the memory buffer to the TIM6->ARR, which corresponds to the Period. HAL_TIM_Base_Start_DMA(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim, uint32_t *pData, uint16_t Length) { ... /* Enable the DMA channel */ HAL_DMA_Start_IT(htim->hdma[TIM_DMA_ID_UPDATE], (uint32_t)pData, (uint32_t)&htim->Instan\ ce->ARR, Length); /* Enable the TIM Update DMA request */ __HAL_TIM_ENABLE_DMA(htim, TIM_DMA_UPDATE); ...

Basically, we can use the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_DMA() only to change the timer Period every time it overflows. So we need to configure the DMA by ourself in order to perform this transfer.

11.2.4 Stopping a Timer The CubeHAL provides three functions to stop a running timer: HAL_TIM_Base_Stop(), HAL_TIM_Base_Stop_IT() and HAL_TIM_Base_Stop_DMA(). We pick one of these depending on the timer mode we are using (for example, if we have started a timer in interrupt mode, then we need to stop it using the HAL_TIM_Base_Stop_IT() routine). Each function is designed to properly disable IRQs and DMA configurations.

11.2.5 Using CubeMX to Configure a Basic Timer CubeMX can reduce to the minimum the effort needed to configure a basic timer. Once the timer is enabled in the Pinout view by checking the flag Activated, it can be configured from the

326

Timers

Configuration view. The timer configuration view allows to setup the values for the Prescaler and Period registers, as shown in Figure 2. CubeMX will generate all the necessary initialization code inside the MX_TIMx_Init() function. Moreover, always in the same configuration dialog, it is possible to enable timer-related IRQs and DMA requests.

Figure 2: CubeMX allows to easily generate the necessary code to configure a timer

11.3 General Purpose Timers The majority of STM32 timers are general purpose ones. Different from the basic timers seen before, they offer much more interaction capabilities, thanks to up to four independent channels that can be used to measure input signals, to output signals on a time basis, to generate Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) signals. General purpose timers, however, offer much more functionalities that we will discover progressively in this part of the chapter.

11.3.1 Time Base Generator With External Clock Sources The Figure 3 shows the block diagram of a general purpose timer¹⁷. Some parts of the diagram have been masked: we will study them more in depth later. The path highlighted in red is used to feed the timer when the APB clock is selected as source: the internal clock CK_INT feeds the Prescaler ¹⁷The figure is arranged from the one found in the RM0368(http://bit.ly/1Kq3SoE) reference manual from ST.

327

Timers

(PSC), which in turn determines how fast the Counter Register (CNT) is increased/decreased. This one is compared with the content of the auto-reload register (which is filled with the value of the TIM_Base_InitTypeDef.Period field). When they match, the UEV event is generated, and the corresponding IRQ is fired, if enabled.

Figure 3: The structure of a general purpose timer

Looking at Figure 3, we can see that a timer can receive “stimuluses” from other sources. These can be divided in two main groups: • Clock sources, which are used to clock the timer. They can come from external sources connected to the MCU pins or from other timers connected internally to the MCU. Keep in mind that a timer cannot work without a clock source, because this is used to increment the counter register. • Trigger sources, which are used to synchronize the timer with external sources connected to the MCU pins or with other timers connected internally. For example, a timer can be configured to start counting when an external event triggers it. In this case the timer is clocked by another clock source (which can be both the APBx bus or an external clock source

328

Timers

connected to the ETR2 pin), and it is controlled (that is, when it starts counting, etc.) by another device. Depending on the timer type and its actual implementation, a timer can be clocked from: • The internal TIMx_CLK provided by the RCC (shown in paragraph 11.2) • Internal trigger input 0 to 3 – ITR0, ITR1, ITR2 and ITR3 using another timer (master) as prescaler of this timer (slave) (shown in paragraph 11.3.1.2) • External input channel pins (shown in paragraph 11.3.1.2) – Pin 1: TI1FP1 or TI1F_ED – Pin 2: TI2FP2 • External ETR pins: – ETR1 pin (shown in paragraph 11.3.1.2) – ETR2 pin (shown in paragraph 11.3.1.1) A timer can, instead, be triggered from: • Internal trigger inputs 0 to 3 – ITR0, ITR1, ITR2 and ITR3 using another timer as master (shown in paragraph 11.3.2) • External input channel pins (shown in paragraph 11.3.2) – Pin 1: TI1FP1 or TI1F_ED – Pin 2: TI2FP2 • External ETR1 pin Let us study these ways to clock/trigger a timer from an external source by analyzing practical examples. 11.3.1.1 External Clock Mode 2 General purpose timers have the ability to be clocked from external sources, setting them in two distinct modes: External Clock Source Mode 1 and 2. The fist one is available when the timer is configured in slave mode. We will study this mode in the next paragraph. The second mode is, instead, activated simply by using an external clock source. This allows to use more accurate and dedicated sources, and to eventually further reduce the counting frequency. In fact, when the External Clock Source Mode 2 is selected, the formula to compute the frequency of update events becomes:

U pdateEvent =

EXTclock (EXTclock P rescaler)(P rescaler + 1)(P eriod + 1)(RepetitionCounter + 1)

[2]

329

Timers

where EXTclock is the frequency of the external source and EXTclock P rescaler is a source frequency divider that can assume the values 1, 2, 4 and 8. The clock source of a general purpose timer can be selected by using the function HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource() and an instance of the struct TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t ClockSource; uint32_t ClockPolarity; uint32_t ClockPrescaler; uint32_t ClockFilter; } TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef;

/* /* /* /*

TIM TIM TIM TIM

clock clock clock clock

sources */ polarity */ prescaler */ filter */

• ClockSource: specifies the source of the clock signal used to bias the timer. It can assume a value from the Table 7. By default, the TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL mode is selected. • ClockPolarity: indicates the polarity of the clock signal used to bias the timer. It can assume a value from the Table 8. By default, the TIM_CLOCKPOLARITY_RISING mode is selected. • ClockPrescaler: specifies the prescaler for the external clock source. It can assume a value from the Table 9. By default, the TIM_CLOCKPRESCALER_DIV1 value is selected. • ClockFilter: this 4-bit field defines the frequency used to sample the external clock signal and the length of the digital filter applied to it. The digital filter is made of an event counter in which N consecutive events are needed to validate a transition on the output. Refer to the datasheet of your MCU about how the fDT S (Dead-Time Signal) is computed. By default, the filter is disabled. Table 7: Available clock source modes for general purpose and advanced timers

Clock source mode

Description

TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_ETRMODE1

The timer is clocked by the APBx bus where the timer is connected to This mode is called External Clock Mode 1¹⁸ and it is available when the timer is configured in slave mode. The timer can be clocked by an internal/external source connected to ITR0, ITR1, ITR2, ITR3, TI1FP1, TI2FP2 or ETR1 pin. This mode is called External Clock Mode 2. The timer can be clocked by an external source connected to ETR2 pin.

TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_ETRMODE2

¹⁸In the ST documentation these modes are also called External Trigger mode 1 and 2 (ETR1 and ETR2).

330

Timers

Table 8: Available external clock polarity modes for general purpose and advanced timers

External clock polarity mode

Description

TIM_CLOCKPOLARITY_RISING TIM_CLOCKPOLARITY_FALLING

The timer is synchronized on the rising edge of the external clock source The timer is synchronized on the falling edge of the external clock source The timer is synchronized on rising and falling edges of the external clock source (this will increase the sampled frequency)

TIM_CLOCKPOLARITY_BOTHEDGE

Table 9: Available external clock prescaler modes for general purpose and advanced timers

External clock prescaler mode

Description

TIM_CLOCKPRESCALER_DIV1 TIM_CLOCKPRESCALER_DIV2 TIM_CLOCKPRESCALER_DIV4 TIM_CLOCKPRESCALER_DIV8

No prescaler used Capture performed once every 2 events Capture performed once every 4 events Capture performed once every 8 events

Let us build an example that shows how to use an external clock source for the TIM3 timer. The example consists in routing the Master Clock Output (MCO) pin to the TIM3_ETR2 pin, which corresponds to PD2 pin for all Nucleo boards providing this timer. This can easily done by using the Morpho connectors, as shown in Figure 4 for the Nucleo-F030R8 (for your Nucleo, use CubeMX tool to identify the MCO pin and the corresponding pinout diagram from Appendix C).

Figure 4: How to route the MCO pin to the TIM3_ETR pin in a Nucleo-F030R8 board

Timers

331

The MCO pin is enabled and connected to the LSE clock source, which runs at 32.768kHz¹⁹. The following code shows the most relevant parts of the example. Filename: src/main-ex3.c 23 24

void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig;

25

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 16383; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; htim3.Init.RepetitionCounter = 0; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim3);

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_ETRMODE2; sClockSourceConfig.ClockPolarity = TIM_CLOCKPOLARITY_NONINVERTED; sClockSourceConfig.ClockPrescaler = TIM_CLOCKPRESCALER_DIV1; sClockSourceConfig.ClockFilter = 0; HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim3, &sClockSourceConfig);

34 35 36 37 38 39

HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(TIM3_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(TIM3_IRQn);

40 41 42

}

43 44 45 46 47 48 49

void HAL_TIM_Base_MspInit(TIM_HandleTypeDef* htim_base) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct; if(htim_base->Instance==TIM3) { /* Peripheral clock enable */ __HAL_RCC_TIM3_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOD_CLK_ENABLE();

50

/**TIM3 GPIO Configuration PD2 ------> TIM3_ETR */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_2; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOD, &GPIO_InitStruct);

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

} }

¹⁹Unfortunately, early releases of the Nucleo boards do not provide an external low speed clock source. If this is your case, rearrange the examples so that the LSI oscillator is used. Moreover, it is not possible to route either LSI nor LSE to the MCO pin in an STM32F103R8 MCU. For this reason, this example on the Nucleo-F103R8 uses the HSI as MCO source.

332

Timers

Lines [27:33] configure the TIM3 timer, setting its period to 19999. Lines [34:38] configure the external clock source for TIM3. Since the LSE oscillator runs at 32.768kHz, using the equation [2] we can compute the UEV frequency, which is equal to: U pdateEvent =

32.768 = 2Hz = 0.5s (1)(0 + 1)(16383 + 1)(0 + 1)

Finally, lines [48:58] enable the TIM3 and configure the PD2 pin (which corresponds to the TIM3_ETR2 pin) as input source. Read Carefully It is important to underline that the GPIO port D must be enabled, before we can use it as clock source for TIM3, by using the __GPIOD_CLK_ENABLE() macro. The same applies even to TIM3, which is enabled by using the __TIM3_CLK_ENABLE(): this is required because the external clocks are not directly feeding the prescaler, but they are first synchronized with the APBx clock through dedicated logical blocks.

11.3.1.2 External Clock Mode 1 STM32 general purpose and advanced timers can be configured to work in master or slave mode²⁰. When configured to act as a slave, a timer can be fed by internal ITR0, ITR1, ITR2 and ITR3 lines, an external clock connected to the ETR1 pin or from other clock sources connected to TI1FP1 and TI2FP2 sources, which correspond to Channel 1 and 2 input pins. This working mode is called External Clock Mode 1. The External Clock Mode 1 and 2 are rather confusing for all novices of the STM32 platform. Both modes are a way to clock a timer using an external clock source, but the first one is achieved by configuring the timer in slave mode (it is indeed a form of “triggering”), while the second one is obtained by simply selecting a different clock source. I do not know the origin of this nomenclature, and what are the practical effects of this distinction. However, it is important to remark here that the ways to configure a timer in ETR1 or ETR2 mode are completely different, as we will see in the next example.

Looking to Figure 16 we can see that the TI1FP1 and TI2FP2 inputs are nothing more than the TI1 and TI2 input channels of a timer after the input filter has been applied.

To configure a timer in slave mode we use the function HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization() and an instance of the struct TIM_SlaveConfigTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: ²⁰As we will see next, a timer can be configured to work in master and slave mode at the same time.

333

Timers typedef struct { uint32_t SlaveMode; uint32_t InputTrigger; uint32_t TriggerPolarity; uint32_t TriggerPrescaler; uint32_t TriggerFilter; } TIM_SlaveConfigTypeDef;

/* /* /* /* /*

Slave Input Input Input Input

mode selection */ Trigger source */ Trigger polarity */ trigger prescaler */ trigger filter */

• SlaveMode: when a timer is configured in slave mode, it can be clocked/triggered by several sources. This field can assume a value from Table 10. This paragraph is about the TIM_SLAVEMODE_EXTERNAL1 mode. • InputTrigger: defines the source that triggers/clocks the timer configured in slave mode. It can assume a value from Table 11 • TriggerPolarity: indicates the polarity of the trigger/clock source. It can assume a value from the Table 12. • TriggerPrescaler: specifies the prescaler for the external clock source. It can assume a value from the Table 13. By default, the TIM_TRIGGERPRESCALER_DIV1 value is selected. • TriggerFilter: this 4-bit field defines the frequency used to sample the external clock/trigger signal connected to input pin and the length of the digital filter applied to it. The digital filter is made of an event counter in which N consecutive events are needed to validate a transition on the output. Refer to the datasheet of your MCU about how the fDT S (Dead-Time Signal) is computed. By default, the filter is disabled.

Table 10: Available slave modes for general purpose and advanced timers

Slave modes

Working

Description

TIM_SLAVEMODE_DISABLE TIM_SLAVEMODE_RESET

Disabled Trigger

TIM_SLAVEMODE_GATED

Trigger

TIM_SLAVEMODE_TRIGGER

Trigger

TIM_SLAVEMODE_EXTERNAL1

Clock

TIM_SLAVEMODE_COMBINED_RESETTRIGGER²¹

Trigger

The slave mode is disabled (default value) Rising edge of the selected trigger input (TRGI) reinitializes the counter and generates an update of the registers The counter clock is enabled when the trigger input (TRGI) is high. The counter stops (but is not reset) as soon as the trigger becomes low. Both start and stop of the counter are controlled The counter starts at a rising edge of TRGI (but it is not reset). Only the start of the counter is controlled Rising edges of the selected TRGI clock the counter Rising edge of the selected trigger input (TRGI) reinitializes the counter, generates an update of the registers and starts the counter

²¹This mode is available only in some STM32F3 MCUs.

334

Timers

Table 11: Available trigger/clock sources for a timer working in slave mode

Trigger/clock source

Description

TIM_TS_ITR0

Trigger/clock source is the ITR0 line (which is internally connected to a master timer) Trigger/clock source is the ITR1 line (which is internally connected to a master timer) Trigger/clock source is the ITR2 line (which is internally connected to a master timer) Trigger/clock source is the ITR3 line (which is internally connected to a master timer) Trigger/clock source is the TIM_TS_TI1F_ED line Trigger/clock source is the TIM_TS_TI1FP1 line that corresponds to the Channel 1 Trigger/clock source is the TIM_TS_TI2FP2 line that corresponds to the Channel 2 Trigger/clock source is the ETR1 pin No external clock/trigger source

TIM_TS_ITR1 TIM_TS_ITR2 TIM_TS_ITR3 TIM_TS_TI1F_ED TIM_TS_TI1FP1 TIM_TS_TI2FP2 TIM_TS_ETRF TIM_TS_NONE

Table 12: Available trigger/clock polarity modes for a timer working in slave mode

Trigger/clock polarity mode

Description

TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_INVERTED

This is used when the external clock source is ETR1. ETR1 is noninverted, active at high level or rising edge This is used when the external clock source is ETR1. ETR1 is inverted, active at low level or falling edge Polarity for TIxFPx or TI1_ED trigger sources. The timer is synchronized on the rising edge of the external trigger source Polarity for TIxFPx or TI1_ED trigger sources. The timer is synchronized on the falling edge of the external trigger source Polarity for TIxFPx or TI1_ED trigger sources. The timer is synchronized on rising and falling edges of the external trigger source (this will increase the sampled frequency)

TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_NONINVERTED TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_RISING TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_FALLING TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_BOTHEDGE

Table 13: Available trigger/clock prescaler modes for a timer working in slave mode

External clock prescaler mode

Description

TIM_TRIGGERPRESCALER_DIV1 TIM_TRIGGERPRESCALER_DIV2 TIM_TRIGGERPRESCALER_DIV4 TIM_TRIGGERPRESCALER_DIV8

No prescaler used Capture performed once every 2 events Capture performed once every 4 events Capture performed once every 8 events

When the External Clock Source Mode 1 is selected, the formula to compute the frequency of update events becomes:

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Timers

U pdateEvent =

T RGIclock (P rescaler + 1)(P eriod + 1)(RepetitionCounter + 1)

[3]

where T RGIclock is the frequency of the clock source connected to the ETR1 pin, the frequency of the internal/external trigger clock source connected to internal lines ITR0..ITR3 or the frequency of signal connected to external channels TI1FP1..T2FP2. So, let us recap what seen until now: • a timer can be clocked by an external source when working only in master mode²² by connecting this source to the ETR2 pin; • if the timer is working in slave mode, then it can be clocked by a signal connected to the ETR1 pin, by any trigger source connected to the internal lines ITR0…ITR2 (hence, the clock source can be only another timer) or by an input signal connected to the timer channels TI1 and TI2, which becomes TI1FP1 and TI2FP2 if the input filtering stage is activated. Let us build another example that shows how to use an external clock source for the TIM3 timer. The example consists in routing the Master Clock Output (MCO) pin to the TI2FP2 pin (that is, the second channel of TIM3 timer), which in a Nucleo-F030R8 corresponds to PA7 pin. This can easily done by using the Morpho connectors, as shown in Figure 5 (for your Nucleo, use CubeMX tool to identify both MCO and TI2FP2 pins).

Figure 5: How to route the MCO pin to the TI2FP2 pin in a Nucleo-F030R8 board

The MCO pin is enabled and connected to the LSE clock source, as seen in the previous example. The following code shows the most relevant parts of the example. ²²As we will discover later, the master/slave mode of a timer is not exclusively: a timer can be configured to work as a master and slave at the same time.

Timers

336

Filename: src/main-ex4.c 24 25

void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_SlaveConfigTypeDef sSlaveConfig;

26

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 16383; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim3);

27 28 29 30 31 32 33

sSlaveConfig.SlaveMode = TIM_SLAVEMODE_EXTERNAL1; sSlaveConfig.InputTrigger = TIM_TS_TI2FP2; sSlaveConfig.TriggerPolarity = TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_RISING; sSlaveConfig.TriggerFilter = 0; HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization(&htim3, &sSlaveConfig);

34 35 36 37 38 39

HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(TIM3_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(TIM3_IRQn);

40 41 42

}

43 44 45 46 47 48 49

void HAL_TIM_Base_MspInit(TIM_HandleTypeDef* htim_base) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct; if(htim_base->Instance==TIM3) { /* Peripheral clock enable */ __HAL_RCC_TIM3_CLK_ENABLE(); __HAL_RCC_GPIOA_CLK_ENABLE();

50

/**TIM3 GPIO Configuration PA7 ------> TIM3_CH2 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_7; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; GPIO_InitStruct.Alternate = GPIO_AF1_TIM3; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

}

Lines [34:38] configure TIM3 in slave mode. The input trigger source is set to TI2FP2, and the timer is synchronized to the rising edge of the input signal. Finally, lines [54:59] configure the PA7 as input pin for the second channel of TIM3.

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11.3.1.3 Using CubeMX to Configure the Source Clock of a General Purpose Timer Configuring the clock source of a general purpose timer can be a nightmare, especially for novices of the STM32 platform. CubeMX can simplify this process, even if a good understanding of master/slave modes and ETR1 and ETR2 modes is required. To configure the timer in External Clock Mode 2 it is sufficient to select ETR2 as clock source from the Pinout view, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: How to select the ETR2 mode from the IP pane

Once the clock source is selected, it is possible to set the external clock filter, polarity and prescaler from the timer configuration dialog, as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7: How to configure a timer working in ETR2 mode

To configure the timer in External Clock Mode 1, we have to select this mode from the Slave entry and then select the Trigger Source (which in this case is the clock source for the timer), as shown in Figure 8.

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Figure 8: How to select the ETR1 mode from the IP tree pane

Once the clock source is selected, it is possible to set the other configuration parameters from the timer configuration dialog (not shown here).

11.3.2 Master/Slave Synchronization Modes Once a timer operates in master mode it can feed another timer configured in slave mode through a dedicated output line, called Trigger Output (TRGO)²³, connected to the internal dedicated lines called ITR0, ITR1, ITR2 and ITR3. The master timer can both provide the clock source (and hence act as a first order prescaler - this is what we have studied in the previous paragraph) or trigger the slave timer. These Internal Trigger (ITR) lines (ITR0, ITR1, ITR2 and ITR3) are precisely internal to the chip, and each line is hardwired between two defined timers. For example, in an STM32F030 MCU the TIM1 TRGO line is connected to the ITR0 line of TIM2 timer, as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9: The TIM1 can fed the TIM2 timer through the ITR0 line

A timer configured as slave can also simultaneously act as master for another timer, allowing to create complex networks of timers. For example, the Figure 10 shows how timers can be connected in cascade, while Figure 11 shows how timers can form hierarchical structures using combinations of master/slave modes. Note that TIM1, TIM2 and TIM3 are internally interconnected through the ²³Some STM32 microcontrollers, notably STM32F3 ones, provide two independent trigger lines, named TRGO1 and TRGO2. This case is not shown in this book.

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same ITR0 line. This allows to synchronize several timers upon the same event (reset, enable, update, etc.).

Figure 10: The combination of master/slave modes allows to configure timers in cascade

Figure 11: The combination of master/slave modes allows to configure timers in a hierarchical structure

To configure a timer in master mode we use the function HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization() and an instance of the struct TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t MasterOutputTrigger; uint32_t MasterSlaveMode; } TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef;

/* Trigger output (TRGO) selection */ /* Master/slave mode selection */

• MasterOutputTrigger: specifies the behaviour of the TRGO output and it can assume a value from Table 14. • MasterSlaveMode: it is used to enable/disable the master/slave mode of a timer. It can assume the values TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_ENABLE or TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE.

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Table 14: Available trigger/clock sources for a timer working in slave mode

Timer master mode selection

Description

TIM_TRGO_RESET

The TRGO signal is generated when the UG bit of the TIMx->EGR register is set. More about this in paragraph 11.3.3 The TRGO signal is generated when master timer is enabled. It is useful to start several timers at the same time or to control a window in which a slave timer is enabled The update event is selected as trigger output (TRGO). For instance a master timer can then be used as a prescaler for a slave timer (we have studied this mode in paragraph 11.3.1.2) The trigger output send a positive pulse as soon as a capture or a compare match occurred The trigger output send a positive pulse as soon as a capture or a compare match occurred on Channel 1 The trigger output send a positive pulse as soon as a capture or a compare match occurred on Channel 2 The trigger output send a positive pulse as soon as a capture or a compare match occurred on Channel 3 The trigger output send a positive pulse as soon as a capture or a compare match occurred on Channel 4

TIM_TRGO_ENABLE

TIM_TRGO_UPDATE

TIM_TRGO_OC1 TIM_TRGO_OC1REF TIM_TRGO_OC2REF TIM_TRGO_OC3REF TIM_TRGO_OC4REF

Let us see an example that shows how to configure TIM1 and TIM3 in cascade mode, with TIM1 as master for TIM3 timer. TIM1 is used as clock source for TIM3 through the ITR0 line. Moreover, the TIM1 is configured so that it starts counting upon an external event on its TI1FP1 line, which in a Nucleo-F030 corresponds to PA8 pin: TIM1 starts counting when the PA8 pin goes high, and then it feeds the TIM3 timer through the ITR0 line. Filename: src/main-ex5.c 12 13

int main(void) { HAL_Init();

14

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_TIM1_Init(); MX_TIM3_Init();

15 16 17 18

HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT(&htim3);

19 20

while (1);

21 22

}

23 24 25 26 27

void MX_TIM1_Init(void) { TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig; TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig; TIM_SlaveConfigTypeDef sSlaveConfig;

Timers 28

htim1.Instance = TIM1; htim1.Init.Prescaler = 47999; htim1.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim1.Init.Period = 249; htim1.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; htim1.Init.RepetitionCounter = 0; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim1);

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL; HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim1, &sClockSourceConfig);

37 38 39

sSlaveConfig.SlaveMode = TIM_SLAVEMODE_TRIGGER; sSlaveConfig.InputTrigger = TIM_TS_TI1FP1; sSlaveConfig.TriggerPolarity = TIM_TRIGGERPOLARITY_RISING; sSlaveConfig.TriggerFilter = 15; HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization(&htim1, &sSlaveConfig);

40 41 42 43 44 45

sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_UPDATE; sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_ENABLE; HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim1, &sMasterConfig);

46 47 48 49

}

50 51 52

void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_SlaveConfigTypeDef sSlaveConfig;

53

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 1; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim3);

54 55 56 57 58 59 60

sSlaveConfig.SlaveMode = TIM_SLAVEMODE_EXTERNAL1; sSlaveConfig.InputTrigger = TIM_TS_ITR0; HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization(&htim3, &sSlaveConfig);

61 62 63 64

HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(TIM3_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(TIM3_IRQn);

65 66 67

}

68 69 70 71 72

void HAL_TIM_Base_MspInit(TIM_HandleTypeDef* htim_base) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct; if(htim_base->Instance==TIM3) { __HAL_RCC_TIM3_CLK_ENABLE();

341

342

Timers }

73 74

if(htim_base->Instance==TIM1) { __HAL_RCC_TIM1_CLK_ENABLE();

75 76 77

GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_8; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLDOWN; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; GPIO_InitStruct.Alternate = GPIO_AF2_TIM1; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

78 79 80 81 82 83

}

84 85

}

Lines [29:38] configure TIM1 to be clocked from the internal APB1 bus. Lines [40:44] configure TIM1 in slave mode, so that it starts counting when the TI1FP1 line goes high (that is, it is triggered). PA8 GPIO is configured accordingly in lines [74:79] (it is configured as GPIO_AF2_TIM1). Take note that the internal pull-down resistor is activated in line 76: this prevents that a floating input could accidentally trigger the timer. For the same reason, the TriggerFilter is set to the maximum level at line 43 (if you try to set it to zero, you will notice that it is really easy to trigger accidentally the timer, even by simply touching the wire connected to PA8 pin). Lines [46:48] configure TIM1 to work also in master mode. The timer will trigger its internal line (which is connected to the ITR0 line of TIM3) every time the update event is generated. Finally, lines [61:63] configure the TIM3 in External Clock Mode 1, selecting the ITR0 line as source clock. Note that the, in order to have LD2 LED blinking every 500ms (2Hz), the TIM1 period is set to 249²⁴, which causes that the update frequency of TIM1 is 4Hz. This is required because, applying the equation [3], we have that: U pdateEvent =

4Hz = 2Hz = 0.5s (0 + 1)(1 + 1)(0 + 1)

Remember that the Period field cannot be set to zero.

To trigger TIM1 you have to connect the PA8 pin to a +3V3 source. Figure 12 shows how to connect it in a Nucleo-F030. Finally, note that we do not call the HAL_TIM_Base_Start() function for the TIM1 timer (see the main() routine), because the timer is started upon the trigger event generated on Channel 1 (that is, we tight the PA8 pin to the +3V3 source). ²⁴Clearly, that prescaler value is referred to an STM32F030R8 MCU running at 48MHz. For your Nucleo, check the book examples for the right prescaler setting.

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Figure 12: How to connect the TI2FP2 pin to AVDD pin in a Nucleo-F030R8 board

11.3.2.1 Enable Trigger-Related Interrupts When a timer works in slave mode, the timer IRQ is raised, if enabled, every time the specified trigger event occurs. For example, when the master clock triggers due to an update event, the IRQ of the slave timer is faired and we can be notified of this by defining the callback: void HAL_TIM_TriggerCallback(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim) { ... }

By default, the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT() does not enable this type of interrupt. We have to use the function HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization_IT(), instead of the function HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization(). Obviously, the corresponding ISR must be defined, and the function HAL_TIM_IRQHandler() has to be called from it. 11.3.2.2 Using CubeMX to Configure the Master/Slave Synchronization To configure a timer in slave mode from CubeMX, it is sufficient to select the desired trigger mode (Reset Mode, Gated Mode, Trigger Mode) from the IP Pane tree (Slave mode combo-box), and then select the Trigger Source, as shown in Figure 13. Remember that a timer configured in slave mode, and not working in External Clock Mode 1, must be clocked from the internal clock or by the ETR2 clock source.

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Figure 13: How to configure a timer in slave mode

Instead, to enable the master mode, we have to select this mode from the timer configuration view, as shown in Figure 14. Once the master mode is selected, it is possible to select the TRGO source event.

Figure 14: How to configure a timer in master mode

11.3.3 Generate Timer-Related Events by Software Timers usually generate events when a given condition is met. For example, they generate the Update Event (UEV) when the counter register (CNT) matches the Period value. However, we can force a timer to generate a particular event by software. Every timer provide a dedicated register, named Event Generator (EGR). Some bits of this register are used to fire a timer-related event. For example, the first bit, named Update Generator (UG), allows to generate a UEV event when set. This bit is automatically cleared once the event is generated. To generate events by software, the HAL provides the following function:

345

Timers HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_TIM_GenerateEvent(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim, uint32_t EventSource);

which accepts the pointer to the timer handle and the event to generate. The EventSource parameter can assume one value from Table 15. Table 15: Software-triggerable events

Event soure

Description

TIM_EVENTSOURCE_UPDATE TIM_EVENTSOURCE_CC1 TIM_EVENTSOURCE_CC2 TIM_EVENTSOURCE_CC3 TIM_EVENTSOURCE_CC4 TIM_EVENTSOURCE_COM TIM_EVENTSOURCE_TRIGGER TIM_EVENTSOURCE_BREAK

Timer update Event source Timer Capture Compare 1 Event source Timer Capture Compare 2 Event source Timer Capture Compare 3 Event source Timer Capture Compare 4 Event source Timer COM event source Timer Trigger Event source Timer Break event source

The TIM_EVENTSOURCE_UPDATE plays two important roles. The first one is related to the way the Period register (that is the TIMx->ARR register) is updated when the timer is running. By default, the content of the ARR register is transferred to the internal shadow register when the TIM_EVENTSOURCE_UPDATE event is generated, unless the timer is differently configured. More about this later. The TIM_EVENTSOURCE_UPDATE event is also useful when the TRGO output of a timer configured as master is set in TIM_TRGO_RESET mode: in this case, the slave timer will be triggered only if the TIMx->EGR register is used to generate the TIM_EVENTSOURCE_UPDATE event (that is, the UG bit is set). The following code shows how to software event generation works (the example is based on an STM32F401RE MCU). TIM3 and TIM4 are two timers configured in master and slave mode respectively. TIM4 is configured to work in ETR1 mode (that is, it is clocked by the master timer). TIM3 is configured to trigger the TRGO output (which is internally connected to the ITR2 line) when the UG bit of the TIM3->EGR register is set. Finally, we generate the UEV event manually every 200ms from the main() routine. int main(void) { ... while (1) { HAL_TIM_GenerateEvent(&htim3, TIM_EVENTSOURCE_UPDATE); HAL_Delay(200); } ... } void MX_TIM3_Init(void){

Timers

346

TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig; TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig; htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 65535; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 120; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim3); sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL; HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim3, &sClockSourceConfig); sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_RESET; sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_ENABLE; HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim3, &sMasterConfig); } void MX_TIM4_Init(void) { TIM_SlaveConfigTypeDef sSlaveConfig; htim4.Instance = TIM4; htim4.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim4.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim4.Init.Period = 1; htim4.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim4); sSlaveConfig.SlaveMode = TIM_SLAVEMODE_EXTERNAL1; sSlaveConfig.InputTrigger = TIM_TS_ITR2; HAL_TIM_SlaveConfigSynchronization_IT(&htim4, &sSlaveConfig); }

11.3.4 Counting Modes At the beginning of this chapter we have seen that a basic timer counts from zero to a given Period value. General purpose and advanced timers can count in other different ways, as reported in Table 4. The Figure 15 shows the three main counting modes. When a timer counts in TIM_COUNTERMODE_DOWN mode, it starts from the Period value and counts down to zero: when the counter reaches the end, the timer IRQ is raised and the UIF flag is set (that is, the update event is generated and the HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback() is called by the HAL).

347

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Figure 15: The three major counting modes of a general purpose timer

Instead, when a timer counts in TIM_COUNTERMODE_CENTERALIGNED mode, it starts counting from zero up to Period value: this causes that the timer IRQ is raised and the UIF flag is set (that is, the update event is generated and the HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback() is called by the HAL). Then the timer starts counting down to zero and another update event is generated (as well as the corresponding IRQ).

11.3.5 Input Capture Mode General purpose timers have not been designed to be used as timebase generators. Even if it is perfectly possible to use them to accomplish this job, other timers like basic ones and the SysTick timer can be used to carry out this task. General purpose timers offer much more advanced capabilities, which can be used to drive other important time-related activities. The Figure 16 shows the structure of the input channels in a general purpose timer²⁵. As you can see, each input is connected to an edge detector, which is also equipped with a filter used to “debounce” the input signal. The output of the edge detector goes into a source multiplexer (IC1, IC2, etc.). This allows to “remap” the input channels if a given I/O is allocated to another peripheral. Finally, a dedicated prescaler allows to “slow down” the frequency of the input signal, in order to match the timer running frequency if this cannot be lowered, as we will see in a while. ²⁵Some general purpose timers (for example, TIM14) have less input channels and hence a simplified input stage structure. Refer to the reference manual for your MCU to know the exact structure of the timer you are going to use.

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Timers

Figure 16: The structure of the input channel in a general purpose timer

The input capture mode offered by general purpose and advanced timers allows to compute the frequency of external signals applied to each one of the 4 channels that these timers provide. And the capture is performed independently for each channel.

Figure 17: The capture process of an external signal feeding one of the timer channels

The Figure 17 shows how the capture process works. TIMx is a timer, configured to work at a given TIMx_CLK clock frequency²⁶. This means that it increments the TIMx_CNT register up to 1 the Period value every T IM x_CLK seconds. Supposing that we apply a square wave signal to one ²⁶The timer clock frequency is independent from the way the timer works (in this case, input capture mode). As seen in the previous paragraphs, the timer clock depends on the bus frequency or the external clock source and on the related prescaler settings.

349

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of the timer channels, and supposing that we configure the timer to trigger at every rising edge of the input signal, we have that the TIMx_CCRx²⁷ register will be updated with the content of the TIMx_CNT register at every detected transition. When this happens, the timer will generate a corresponding interrupt or a DMA request, allowing to keep track of the counter value. To get the external signal period, two consecutive captures are needed. The period is calculated by subtracting these two values, CN T0 (the value 4 in Figure 17) and CN T1 (the value 20 in Figure 17), and using the following formula: ( P eriod = Capture ·

T IM x_CLK (P rescaler + 1)(CHP rescaler )(P olarityIndex )

)−1 [4]

where: Capture = CN T1 − CN T0 if CN T0 < CN T1 Capture = (T IM x_P eriod − CN T0 ) + CN T1 if CN T0 > CN T1 CHP rescaler is a further prescaler that can be applied to the input channel and P olarityIndex is equal to 1 if the channel is configured to trigger on rising or falling edge of the input signal, or it is equal to 2 if both the edges are sampled. Another relevant condition is that the UEV frequency should be lower than the sampled signal frequency. The reason why this matters is evident: if the timer runs faster that the sampled signal, then it will overflow (that is, it runs out the Period counter) before it can sample the signal edges (see Figure 18). For this reason, it usually convenient to set the Period value to the maximum, and increase the Prescaler factor to lower the counting frequency.

Figure 18: If the timer runs faster than the sample signal, then it overflow before the two rising edges are dected

To configure the input channels we use the function HAL_TIM_IC_ConfigChannel() and an instance of the C struct TIM_IC_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way:

²⁷CCR is acronym for Capture Compare Register and the x is the channel number.

350

Timers typedef struct { uint32_t ICPolarity; uint32_t ICSelection; uint32_t ICPrescaler; uint32_t ICFilter; } TIM_IC_InitTypeDef;

/* /* /* /*

Specifies Specifies Specifies Specifies

the the the the

active edge of the input signal. */ input. */ Input Capture Prescaler. */ input capture filter. */

• ICPolarity: specifies the polarity of the input signal, and it can assume a value from Table 16. • ICSelection: specifies the used input of the timer. It can assume a value from Table 17. It is possible to selectively remap input channels to different input sources, that is (IC1,IC2) are mapped to (TI2,TI1) and (IC3,IC4) are mapped to (TI4,TI3). Usually this is used to differentiate rising-edge from falling-edge captures for signals where the Ton is different from Tof f . It is also possible to capture from the same internal channel, named TRC, connected to ITR0..ITR3 sources. • ICPrescaler: configures the prescaler stage of a given input. It can assume a value from Table 18. • ICFilter: this 4-bit field defines the frequency used to sample the external clock signal connected to TIMx_CHx pin and the length of the digital filter applied to it. It is useful to debounce the input signal. Refer to the datasheet of your MCU for more information.

Table 16: Available input capture polarity

Input capture polarity mode

Description

TIM_ICPOLARITY_RISING TIM_ICPOLARITY_FALLING TIM_ICPOLARITY_BOTHEDGE

The rising edge of the external signal is captured The falling edge of the external signal is captured The rising and falling edges of the external signal determine the capture period (this will increase the frequency of the sampled signal) Table 17: Available input capture selection modes

Input capture selection mode

Description

TIM_ICSELECTION_DIRECTTI

TIM Input 1, 2, 3 or 4 is selected to be connected to IC1, IC2, IC3 or IC4, respectively TIM Input 1, 2, 3 or 4 is selected to be connected to IC2, IC1, IC4 or IC3, respectively. TIM Input 1, 2, 3 or 4 is selected to be connected to TRC (Trigger line in Figure 3 - TRC input highlighted in red in Figure 16)

TIM_ICSELECTION_INDIRECTTI TIM_ICSELECTION_TRC

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Table 18: Available input prescaler modes

Input capture prescaler mode

Description

TIM_ICPSC_DIV1 TIM_ICPSC_DIV2 TIM_ICPSC_DIV4 TIM_ICPSC_DIV8

No prescaler used Capture performed once every 2 events Capture performed once every 4 events Capture performed once every 8 events

Now it is the right time to see a practical example. We are going to rearrange the Example 2 of this chapter so that we sample the switching frequency of PA5 pin (the one connected to LD2 LED) through the Channel 1 of TIM3 timer (in an STM32F030 MCU this pin coincides with PA6 pin). We so configure the Channel 1 as input capture pin, and we configure it in DMA mode so that it triggers the TIM3_CH1 request to automatically fill a temporary buffer that stores the value of the TIM3_CNT register when the rising edge of input signal is detected. Before we analyze the main() function, it is best to give a look to the TIM3 initialization routines. Filename: src/main-ex6.c 59 60 61

/* TIM3 init function */ void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_IC_InitTypeDef sConfigIC;

62

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 65535; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_IC_Init(&htim3);

63 64 65 66 67 68 69

sConfigIC.ICPolarity = TIM_INPUTCHANNELPOLARITY_RISING; sConfigIC.ICSelection = TIM_ICSELECTION_DIRECTTI; sConfigIC.ICPrescaler = TIM_ICPSC_DIV1; sConfigIC.ICFilter = 0; HAL_TIM_IC_ConfigChannel(&htim3, &sConfigIC, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

70 71 72 73 74 75

}

76 77 78 79 80 81

void HAL_TIM_IC_MspInit(TIM_HandleTypeDef* htim_ic) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct; if (htim_ic->Instance == TIM3) { /* Peripheral clock enable */ __HAL_RCC_TIM3_CLK_ENABLE();

82 83 84 85

/**TIM3 GPIO Configuration PA6 ------> TIM3_CH1 */

352

Timers GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_6; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_PP; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_LOW; GPIO_InitStruct.Alternate = GPIO_AF1_TIM3; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

86 87 88 89 90 91 92

/* Peripheral DMA init*/ hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Instance = DMA1_Channel4; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.Direction = DMA_PERIPH_TO_MEMORY; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.Mode = DMA_NORMAL; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_tim3_ch1_trig);

93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103

/* Several peripheral DMA handle pointers point to the same DMA handle. Be aware that there is only one channel to perform all the requested DMAs. */ __HAL_LINKDMA(htim_ic, hdma[TIM_DMA_ID_CC1], hdma_tim3_ch1_trig);

104 105 106

}

107 108

}

The MX_TIM3_Init() configures the TIM3 timer so that it runs at a frequency equal to ∼732Hz. The first channel is then configured to trigger the capture event (TIM3_CH1) at every rising edge of the input signal. The HAL_TIM_IC_MspInit() then configures the hardware part (the PA6 pin connected to the TIM3 Channel 1) and the DMA descriptor used to configure the TIM3_CH1 request. Here we have two things to note. First of all, the DMA is configured so that both the peripheral and memory data align are set to perform a 16-bit transfer, since the timer counter register is 16-bit wide. In those MCU where TIM2 and TIM5 timers have a counter register 32-bit wide, you need to setup the DMA to perform a word-aligned transfer. Next, since we are using the HAL_TIM_IC_Init() at line 69, the HAL is designed to call the function HAL_TIM_IC_MspInit() to perform low-level initializations, instead of the HAL_TIM_Base_MspInit one.

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Filename: src/main-ex6.c 20 21 22

uint8_t odrVals[] = { 0x0, 0xFF }; uint16_t captures[2]; volatile uint8_t captureDone = 0;

23 24 25 26

int main(void) { uint16_t diffCapture = 0; char msg[30];

27

HAL_Init();

28 29

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_DMA_Init();

30 31 32

MX_TIM3_Init(); MX_TIM6_Init();

33 34 35

HAL_DMA_Start(&hdma_tim6_up, (uint32_t) odrVals, (uint32_t) &GPIOA->ODR, 2); __HAL_TIM_ENABLE_DMA(&htim6, TIM_DMA_UPDATE); HAL_TIM_Base_Start(&htim6);

36 37 38 39

HAL_TIM_IC_Start_DMA(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_1, (uint32_t*) captures, 2);

40 41

while (1) { if (captureDone != 0) { if (captures[1] >= captures[0]) diffCapture = captures[1] - captures[0]; else diffCapture = (htim3.Instance->ARR - captures[0]) + captures[1];

42 43 44 45 46 47 48

frequency = HAL_RCC_GetPCLK1Freq() / (htim3.Instance->PSC + 1); frequency = (float) frequency / diffCapture;

49 50 51

sprintf(msg, "Input frequency: %.3f\r\n", frequency); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY); while (1);

52 53 54

}

55

}

56 57

}

The most relevant part of the application is the main() function. We first initialize TIM6 timer (which is configured to run at 100kHz - this means that the PA5 pin is set HIGH every 20µs = 50kHz) using the MX_TIM6_Init() function and then we start it in DMA mode, as described so far in this chapter. Then we start TIM3 and we enable the DMA mode on the first channel, by using the

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HAL_TIM_IC_Start_DMA() function (line 40). The captures array is used to store the two consecutive

captures acquired on the channel. Lines [42:53] are the part where we compute the frequency of the external signal. When the two captures are performed, the global variable captureDone is set to 1 by the HAL_TIM_IC_CaptureCallback() callback function (not shown here), which is invoked at the end of the capture process. When this happens we compute the frequency of the sample signal using the equation [4]. 11.3.5.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the Input Capture Mode Thanks to CubeMX, it is really easy to configure the input channels of a general purpose timer in the input capture mode. To bound one channel to the corresponding input (that is, IC1 to TI1), you have to select the Input capture direct mode for the desired channel, as shown in Figure 19.

Figure 19: How to enable a channel in input capture mode

Instead, to map the other channel of the couple (IC1,IC2) or (IC3,IC4) to the same input (that is TI1 or TI2 for (IC1,IC2)), it is possible to enable the other channel in the couple in Input capture indirect mode, as shown in Figure 20. Finally, from the TIMx configuration view (not shown here), it is possible to configure the other input capture parameters (channel polarity, its filter, and so on).

Figure 20: How to enable a channel in input capture indirect mode

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355

11.3.6 Output Compare Mode So far we have used a couple of techniques to control an output waveform, one using interrupts and one the DMA. Both of them use the generation of UEV event to toggle a GPIO configured as output pin. The output compare is a mode offered by general purpose and advanced timers that allows to control the status of output channels when the channel compare register (TIMx_CCRx) matches with the timer counter register (TIMx_CNT). There are six²⁸ output compare modes available to programmers: • Output compare timing²⁹: the comparison between the output compare register (CCRx) and the counter (CNT) has no effect on the output. This mode is used to generate a timing base. • Output compare active: set the channel output to active level on match. The channel output is forced high when the counter (CNT) matches the capture/compare register (CCRx). • Output compare inactive: set channel to inactive level on match. The channel output is forced low when the counter (CNT) matches the capture/compare register (CCRx). • Output compare toggle: the channel output toggles when the counter (CNT) matches the capture/compare register (CCRx). • Output compare forced active/inactive: the channel output is forced high (active mode) or low (inactive mode) independently from counter value. Each channel of the timer is configured in output compare mode by using the function HAL_TIM_OC_ConfigChannel() and an instance of the C struct TIM_OC_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t OCMode; uint32_t Pulse;

/* Specifies the TIM mode. */ /* Specifies the pulse value to be loaded into the Capture Compare Register. */ uint32_t OCPolarity; /* Specifies the output polarity. */ uint32_t OCNPolarity; /* Specifies the complementary output polarity.*/ uint32_t OCFastMode; /* Specifies the Fast mode state. */ uint32_t OCIdleState; /* Specifies the TIM Output Compare pin state during Idle state.*/ uint32_t OCNIdleState; /* Specifies the complementary TIM Output Compare pin state during Idle state. */ } TIM_OC_InitTypeDef;

• OCMode: specifies the output compare mode and it can assume a value from Table 19. • Pulse: the content of this field will be stored inside the CCRx register and it establishes when to trigger the output. ²⁸The output compare modes are actually eight, but two of them are related to PWM output, and they will be analized in the next paragraph. ²⁹This mode in CubeMX is called Frozen mode.

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• OCPolarity: defines the output channel polarity when the CCRx registers matches with the CNT one. It can assume a value from Table 20. • OCNPolarity: defines the complimentary output polarity. It is a mode available only in TIM1 and TIM8 advanced timers, which allow to generate, on additional dedicated channels, complimentary signals (that is, when the CH1 is HIGH the CH1N is LOW and vice versa). This feature is especially designed for motor control applications, and it is not described in this book. It can assume a value from Table 21. • OCFastMode: specifies the fast mode state. This parameter is valid only in PWM1 and PWM2 mode and it can assume the values TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE and TIM_OCFAST_ENABLE. • OCIdleState: specifies the channel output compare pin state during the timer idle state. It can assume the values TIM_OCIDLESTATE_SET and TIM_OCIDLESTATE_RESET. This parameter is available only in TIM1 and TIM8 advanced timers. • OCNIdleState: specifies the complementary channel output compare pin state during the timer idle state. It can assume the values TIM_OCNIDLESTATE_SET and TIM_OCNIDLESTATE_RESET. This parameter is available only in TIM1 and TIM8 advanced timers.

Table 19: Available output compare modes

Output compare mode

Description

TIM_OCMODE_TIMING

The comparison between the output compare register (CCRx) and the counter (CNT) has no effect on the output (aka, frozen mode) Set the channel output to active level on match Set channel to inactive level on match The channel output toggles when the counter (CNT) matches the capture/compare register (CCRx) PWM Mode 1 - see next paragraph PWM Mode 2 - see next paragraph The channel output is forced high independently from the counter value The channel output is forced low independently from the counter value

TIM_OCMODE_ACTIVE TIM_OCMODE_INACTIVE TIM_OCMODE_TOGGLE TIM_OCMODE_PWM1 TIM_OCMODE_PWM2 TIM_OCMODE_FORCED_ACTIVE TIM_OCMODE_FORCED_INACTIVE

Table 20: Available output compare polarity modes

Output compare polarity mode

Description

TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH

When the CCRx and CNT registers match, the output channel is set high When the CCRx and CNT registers match, the output channel is set low

TIM_OCPOLARITY_LOW

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Table 21: Available complementary output compare polarity modes

Complementary output compare polarity mode

Description

TIM_OCNPOLARITY_HIGH

When the CCRx and CNT registers match, the complementary output channel is set high When the CCRx and CNT registers match, the complementary output channel is set low

TIM_OCNPOLARITY_LOW

When the CCRx registers matches with the timer CNT counter, and the channel is configured to work in output compare mode, a specific interrupt is generated (if enabled). This allows to control the switching frequency of each channel independently, and eventually perform phase shift between channels. The channel frequency can be computed using the following formula: CHx_U pdate =

T IM x_CLK CCRx

[5]

where: T IM x_CLK is the running frequency of the timer and CCRx is the Pulse value of the TIM_OnePulse_InitTypeDef struct used to configure the channel. This means that we can compute the Pulse value, given a channel frequency, in the following way: Pulse =

T IM x_CLK CHx_U pdate

[6]

Clearly, it is important to underline that the timer frequency must be set so that the Pulse value computed with [6] is lower than the timer Period value (the CCRx value cannot be higher than the TIM->ARR value, which corresponds to the timer’s Period). The following example shows how to generate two output square wave signals, one running at 50kHz and one at 100kHz. It uses the Channel 1 and 2 (bound to OC1 and OC2) of TIM3 timer and it is designed to run on a Nucleo-F030R8. Filename: src/main-ex7.c 17 18

volatile uint16_t CH1_FREQ = 0; volatile uint16_t CH2_FREQ = 0;

19 20 21

int main(void) { HAL_Init();

22 23 24

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_TIM3_Init();

25 26 27

HAL_TIM_OC_Start_IT(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_1); HAL_TIM_OC_Start_IT(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_2);

358

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while (1);

29 30

}

31 32 33 34

/* TIM3 init function */ void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC;

35

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 2; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 65535; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_OC_Init(&htim3);

36 37 38 39 40 41 42

CH1_FREQ = computePulse(&htim3, 50000); CH2_FREQ = computePulse(&htim3, 100000);

43 44 45

sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_TOGGLE; sConfigOC.Pulse = CH1_FREQ; sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH; sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE; HAL_TIM_OC_ConfigChannel(&htim3, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

46 47 48 49 50 51

sConfigOC.Pulse = CH2_FREQ; HAL_TIM_OC_ConfigChannel(&htim3, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_2);

52 53 54

}

Lines [48:59] configure Channel 1 and 2 to work as output compare channels. Both are configured in toggle mode (that is, they invert the state of the GPIO every time the CCRx register matches with the CNT timer register). The TIM3 is configured to run at 16MHz, and hence the function computePulse(), which uses the equation [6], will return the values 320 and 160 to have a channel switching frequency equal to 50kHz and 100kHz respectively. However, the above code is still not sufficient to drive the GPIO at that frequency. Here we are configuring the channels so that they will toggle their output every time the timer CNT register is equal to 320 for Channel 1 and to 160 for Channel 2. But this means that the switching frequency is equal to: 16.000.000 = 244Hz 65535 + 1 and we only have a shift of 10µs between the two channels, as shown by Figure 21. That 65535 value corresponds to the timer Period value, that is the maximum value reached by the timer CNT register.

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Figure 21: The toggling shift between channels 1 and 2

To reach the desired switching frequency³⁰, we need to toggle the output every each 320 and 160 ticks of the TIM3 CNT register. To do so, we can define the following callback routine: Filename: src/main-ex7.c uint16_t pulse;

62 63

/* TIM2_CH1 toggling with frequency = 50KHz */ if(htim->Channel == HAL_TIM_ACTIVE_CHANNEL_1) { pulse = HAL_TIM_ReadCapturedValue(htim, TIM_CHANNEL_1); /* Set the Capture Compare Register value */ __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(htim, TIM_CHANNEL_1, (pulse + CH1_FREQ)); }

64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

/* TIM2_CH2 toggling with frequency = 100KHz */ if(htim->Channel == HAL_TIM_ACTIVE_CHANNEL_2) { pulse = HAL_TIM_ReadCapturedValue(htim, TIM_CHANNEL_2); /* Set the Capture Compare Register value */ __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(htim, TIM_CHANNEL_2, (pulse + CH2_FREQ)); }

72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

}

The HAL_TIM_OC_DelayElapsedCallback() is automatically called by the HAL every time the Channel CCRx register matches the timer counter. We can so increase the Pulse (that is, the CCRx register) by 320 for Channel 1 and by 160 for Channel 2. This causes that the corresponding channel will switch at the wanted frequency, as shown in Figure 22. ³⁰Please, take note that the quality of the output signal is affected by the GPIO slew rate setting, as described in Chapter 6.

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Figure 22: Channel 2 is configured to switch twice as fast as channel 1

The same result may be obtained using the DMA mode and a pre-initialized vector, eventually stored in the flash memory by using the const modifier: const uint16_t ch1IV[] = {320, 640, 960, ...}; ... HAL_TIM_OC_Start_DMA(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_1, (uint32_t)ch1IV, sizeof(ch1IV));

11.3.6.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the Output Compare Mode The configuration process of the output compare mode in CubeMX is identical to the one for the input capture mode. The first step is to select the Output compare CHx mode for the desired channel, as shown in Figure 19. Next, from the TIMx configuration view (not shown here), it is possible to configure the other output compare parameters (the output mode, channel polarity, and so on).

11.3.7 Pulse-Width Generation The square waves generated until now have all one common characteristic: they have a TON period equal to the TOF F one. For this reason they are also said to have a 50% duty cycle. A duty cycle is the percentage of one period of time (for example, 1s) in which a signal is active. As a formula, a duty cycle is expressed as: D=

TON × 100% [8] P eriod

where D is the duty cycle, TON is the time the signal is active. Thus, a 50% duty cycle means the signal is on 50% of the time but off 50% of the time. The duty cycle says nothing about how long it lasts. The “on time” for a 50% duty cycle could be a fraction of a second, a day, or even a week, depending on the length of the period. The pulse width is the duration of the TON , given the actual period. For example, assuming a period of 1s, a duty cycle of 20% generates a pulse width of 200ms.

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Figure 23: Three different duty cycles - 50%, 20% and 80%

The Figure 23 shows three different duty cycles: 50%, 20% and 80%. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a technique used to generate several pulses with different duty cycles in a given period of time or, if you prefer, at a given frequency. PWM has many applications in digital electronics, but all of them can be grouped in two main categories: • control the output voltage (and hence the current); • encoding (that is, modulate) a message (that is, a series of bytes in digital electronics³¹) on a carrier wave (which runs at a given frequency). Those two categories can be expanded in several practical usages of the PWM technique. Focusing our attention on the control of the output voltage, we can find several applications: • generation of an output voltage ranging from 0V up to VDD (that is, the maximum allowed voltage for an I/O, which in an STM32 is 3.3V); – dimming of LEDs; – motor control; – power conversion; • generation of an output wave running at a given frequency (sine wave, triangle, square, and so on); • sound output; ³¹However, keep in mind that the PWM as modulation technique is not limited to digital electronics, but it originates in the “analog era” when it was used to modulate an audio wave on a carrier frequency.

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With adequate output filtering, which usually involves the usage of a low-pass filter, the PWM can replicate the behaviour of a DAC, even if the MCU does not provide one. By varying the duty cycle of the output pin it is possible to regulate the output voltage proportionally. An amplifier can increase/decrease the voltage range at a need, and it is also possible to control high currents and loads using power transistors. A timer channel is configured in PWM mode by using the function HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel() and an instance of the C struct TIM_OC_InitTypeDef seen in the previous paragraph. The TIM_OC_InitTypeDef.Pulse field defines the duty cycle, and it ranges from 0 up to the timer Period field. The longer is the Period the wider is the tuning range. This means that we can fine-tune the output voltage. The choice of the period, which determines the frequency of the output signal together with the timer clock (internal, external and so on), is not a detail to be left to chance. It depends on the specific application field, and it can have a severe impact on the overall EMI emissions. Moreover, some devices controlled with PWM tecnnique may emit audible noise at given frequencies. This is the case of electric motors, which could emit unwanted buzzing noise when controlled at frequencies in the hearing range. Another example, not too much related here but with a similar genesis, is the noise emitted by power inductors in switching power supplies, which use the concept underlying the PWM to regulate their output voltage, and therefore the current. Sometimes, the output noise is unavoidable, and it is required to use varnishing products to reduce the problem. Other times, the right frequency come from “natural limitations”: dimming a LED at a frequency close to 100Hz is usually sufficient to avoid visible flickering of the light.

There are two PWM modes avialable: PWM mode 1 and 2. Both of them are configurable through the field TIM_OC_InitTypeDef.OCMode, using the values TIM_OCMODE_PWM1 and TIM_OCMODE_PWM2. Let us see the differnces. • PWM mode 1: in upcounting, the channel is active as long as Period < Pulse, else inactive. In downcounting, the channel is inactive as long as Period > Pulse, else active. • PWM mode 2: in upcounting, channel 1 is inactive as long as Period < Pulse, else active. In downcounting, channel 1 is active as long as Period > Pule, else inactive. The following example shows a typical application of the PWM technique: LED dimming. The example is designed to run on a Nucleo-F401RE and it fades ON/OFF the LD2 LED³².

³²Unfortunately, not all Nucleo boards have the LD2 LED connected to a timer channel (this depends on the fact that the pinout of LQFP-64 STM32 microcontrollers is not perfectly compatible). Only seven of them have this feature. Owners of other Nucleo boards have to rearrange the example using an external LED.

Timers

363

Filename: src/main-ex8.c 11 12

int main(void) { HAL_Init();

13

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_TIM2_Init();

14 15 16

HAL_TIM_PWM_Start(&htim2, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

17 18

uint16_t dutyCycle = HAL_TIM_ReadCapturedValue(&htim2, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

19 20

while(1) { while(dutyCycle < __HAL_TIM_GET_AUTORELOAD(&htim2)) { __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2, TIM_CHANNEL_1, ++dutyCycle); HAL_Delay(1); }

21 22 23 24 25 26

while(dutyCycle > 0) { __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim2, TIM_CHANNEL_1, --dutyCycle); HAL_Delay(1); }

27 28 29 30

}

31 32

}

33 34 35 36

/* TIM3 init function */ void MX_TIM2_Init(void) { TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC;

37

htim2.Instance = TIM2; htim2.Init.Prescaler = 499; htim2.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim2.Init.Period = 999; htim2.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_PWM_Init(&htim2);

38 39 40 41 42 43 44

sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM1; sConfigOC.Pulse = 0; sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH; sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE; HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel(&htim2, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

45 46 47 48 49 50

}

Lines [45:49] configure the first channel of timer TIM2 to work in PWM Mode 1. The duty cycle will be range from 0 up to 999, which corresponds to the Period value. This means that we can regulate

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the output voltage with steps of ∼0,0033V if the output is well filtered (and the PCB has a good layout). This is close to the performances of a 10bit DAC. Lines [21:32] is where the fading effect takes place. The first loop increments the value of the Pulse (which corresponds to the Capture Compare Register 1 (CCR1)) up to the Period value (which corresponds to the Auto Reload Register (ARR)) every 1ms. This means that in less then 1s the LED becomes full bright. The second loop, in the same way, decrements the Pulse field unless it reaches zero. The update frequency of the timer is set to 84MHz³³/(499+1)(999+1)=168Hz. The same frequency can be obtained by setting the Prescaler to 249 and the Period to 1999. But the fading effect changes. Why that happens? If you cannot explain the difference, I strongly suggest taking a break before going on, and doing experiments by yourself.

11.3.7.1 Generating a Sinusoidal Wave Using PWM An output square wave generated with the PWM technique can be filtered to generate a smoothed signal, that is an analog signal that has a reduced peak-to-peak voltage (Vpp ). A Resistor-Capacitor (RC) low-pass filter (see Figure 24) is able to cut-off all those AC signals having a frequency higher than a given threshold. The general rule of thumb of RC low-pass filters is that the lower is the cut-off frequency the lower is the Vpp ³⁴. An RC low-pass filter uses an important characteristic of capacitors: the ability to block DC currents while allowing the passing of AC ones: given the R/C time constant formed by the resistor-capacitor network, the filter will short to ground those AC signal with a frequency higher than the RC constant, allowing to pass DC component of the signal and lower frequency AC voltages.

Figure 24: A typical low pass filter implemented with a resistor and a capscitor

While this circuit is very simple, choosing the appropriate values for R (the resistance) and C (the capacitance) encompass some design decisions: how much ripple we can tolerate and how fast the filter needs to respond. These two parameters are mutually exclusive. In most filters, we would like to have the perfect filter – one that passes all frequencies below the cut-off frequency, with no voltage ³³The maximum frequency of timers in an STM32F401RE MCU, when clocked from the APB1 bus, is 84MHz. ³⁴When dealing with filters to smooth an output wave it is more convenient to consider the effects on the output voltage than the response in frequency of the filter. However, the math under the transfer function of a filter is outside the scope of this book. If interested, this on-line calculator(http://bit.ly/22breq2) allows to evaluate the Vpp output given a VIN , the PWM frequency and the R and C values.

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ripple. Unfortunately this ideal filter does not exists: to reduce the ripple to zero we have to chose a very large filter, which causes that it will take a lot of time to the output to become stable. While this could be acceptable for a continuous and fixed voltage, this has sever impact on the quality of the output signal if we are trying to generate a complex waveform from the PWM signal. The cut-off frequency (fc ) of a first order RC low-pass filter is expressed by the formula: fc =

1 2πRC

[9]

Figure 25 shows the effect of a low-pass filter on a PWM signal with a frequency of 100Hz. Here we have chosen a 1K resistor and a 10µF capacitor. This means that the cut-off frequency is equal to: fc =

1 ≈ 15.9Hz 2π103 × 10−5

Figure 25: The effect of a low-pass filter with cut-off frequency equal to 15.9Hz

Figure 26 shows the effect of the low-pass filter with a 4300K resistor and a 10µF capacitor. This means that the cut-off frequency is equal to: fc =

1 ≈ 3.7Hz 2π(4.3 × 103 ) × 10−5

As you can see, the second filter allows to have a (Vpp ) equal to about 160mV, which is a voltage difference passable for a lot of applications.

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Figure 26: The effect of a low-pass filter with cut-off frequency equal to 3.7Hz

By varying the output voltage (which implies that we vary the duty cycle) we can generate an arbitrary output waveform, whose frequency is a fraction of the PWM period. The basic idea here is to divide the waveform we want, for example a sine wave, into ‘x’ number of divisions. For each division we have a single PWM cycle. The TON time (that is, the duty cycle) directly corresponds to the amplitude of the waveform in that division, which is calculated using sin() function.

Figure 27: How a sine wave can be approximated with multiple PWM signals

Consider the diagram shown in Figure 27. Here the sine wave has been divided in 10 steps. So here we will require 10 different PWM pulses increasing/decreasing in sinusoidal manner. A PWM pulse with 0% duty cycle will represent the min amplitude (0V), the one with 100% duty cycle will represent max amplitude(3.3V). Since out PWM pulse has voltage swing between 0V to 3.3V, our sine wave will swing between 0V to 3.3V too. It takes 360 degrees for a sine wave to complete one cycle. Hence for 10 divisions we will need to increase the angle in steps of 36 degrees. This is called the Angle Step Rate or Angle Resolution. We can increase the number of divisions to get more accurate waveform. But as divisions increase we also need to increase the resolution, which implies that we have to increase the frequency of the timer used to generate the PWM signal (the faster runs the timer the smaller is the period). Usually 200 divisions are a good approximation for an output wave. This means that if we want to generate a 50Hz sine wave, we need to run the timer at a 50Hz*200 = 10kHz. The pulse period will be

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equal to 200 (the number of steps - this means that we vary the output voltage by 3.3V/200=0.016V), and so the Prescaler value will be (assuming an STM32F030 MCU running at 48MHz): P rescaler =

48M Hz = 24 50Hz × 200divisions × 200Pulse

The following example shows how to generate a 50Hz pure sine wave in an STM32F030MCU running at 48MHz. Filename: src/main-ex9.c 14 15

#define PI #define ASR

3.14159 1.8 //360 / 200 = 1.8

16 17 18 19

int main(void) { uint16_t IV[200]; float angle;

20

HAL_Init();

21 22

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_TIM3_Init();

23 24 25

for (uint8_t i = 0; i < 200; i++) { angle = ASR*(float)i; IV[i] = (uint16_t) rint(100 + 99*sinf(angle*(PI/180))); }

26 27 28 29 30

HAL_TIM_PWM_Start_DMA(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_1, (uint32_t *)IV, 200);

31 32

while (1);

33 34

}

35 36 37 38

/* TIM3 init function */ void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC;

39 40 41 42 43 44 45

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 23; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 199; htim3.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV4; HAL_TIM_PWM_Init(&htim3);

46 47 48

sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM1; sConfigOC.Pulse = 0;

368

Timers sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH; sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE; HAL_TIM_PWM_ConfigChannel(&htim3, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

49 50 51 52

hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Instance = DMA1_Channel4; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.Direction = DMA_MEMORY_TO_PERIPH; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.Mode = DMA_CIRCULAR; hdma_tim3_ch1_trig.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_tim3_ch1_trig);

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

/* Several peripheral DMA handle pointers point to the same DMA handle. Be aware that there is only one channel to perform all the requested DMAs. */ __HAL_LINKDMA(&htim3, hdma[TIM_DMA_ID_CC1], hdma_tim3_ch1_trig); __HAL_LINKDMA(&htim3, hdma[TIM_DMA_ID_TRIGGER], hdma_tim3_ch1_trig);

63 64 65 66 67

}

The most relevant part is represented by lines [26:29]. That lines of code are used to generate the Initialization Vector (IV), that is the vector containing the Pulse values used to generate the sine wave (which corresponds to the output voltage levels). The C sinf() returns the sine of the given angle expressed in radians. So we need to convert the angular expresses in degrees to radians using the formula: Radians =

π × Degrees 180°

However, in our case we have divided the sine wave cycle in 200 steps (that is, we have divided the circumference in 200 steps), so we need to compute the value in radians of each step. But since sine gives negative values for angle between 180° and 360° (see Figure 28) we need to scale it, since PWM output values cannot be negative.

369

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Figure 28: The values assumed by sine function between 180° and 360°

Once the IV vector is generated, we can start PWM in DMA mode. The DMA1_Channel4 is configured to work in circular mode, so that it automatically sets the value of the TIMx_CCRx register according the Pulse values contained in IV. Using a timer in DMA mode is the best way to generate arbitrary function without introducing latency and affecting the Cortex-M core. However, often IVs are hardcoded inside the program, using const arrays automatically stored in the flash memory. You can find several on-line tools to do this, like the one provided here³⁵.

Figure 29: How timers allow to approximate a 50Hz sine wave using PWM

Figure 29 shows the output from TIM3 Channel 1: as you can see, using an adequate filtering stage³⁶, it is really easy to generate a pure 50Hz sine wave. 11.3.7.2 Using CubeMX to Configure the PWM Mode The configuration process of the PWM mode in CubeMX is straightforward, once the fundamental concepts of PWM generation have been mastered. The first step is to select the PWM Generation CHx mode for the desired channel, as shown in Figure 19. Next, from the TIMx configuration view (not shown here), it is possible to configure the other PWM settings (PWM mode 1 or 2, channel polarity, and so on). ³⁵http://bit.ly/1QPfm4k ³⁶Here, I have used a 100ohm resistor an a 10µF capacitor, which give a cut-off frequency of ∼159Hz and a Vpp equal to 0.08V.

370

Timers

11.3.8 One Pulse Mode One Pulse Mode (OPM) is a mix of the input capture and the output compare modes offered by general purpose and advanced timers. It allows the counter to be started in response to a stimulus and to generate a pulse with a programmable duration (PWM) after a programmable delay. OPM is a mode designed to work exclusively with Channel 1 and 2 of a timer. We can decide which of the two channels is the output and which is the input by using the function: HAL_TIM_OnePulse_ConfigChannel(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim, TIM_OnePulse_InitTypeDef* sConfig, uint32_t OutputChannel, uint32_t InputChannel);

Both the channel are configured with an instance of the C struct TIM_OnePulse_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t Pulse; /* Specifies the pulse value to be loaded into the CCRx register.*/ /* Output channel configuration */ uint32_t OCMode; /* Specifies the TIM mode. */ uint32_t OCPolarity; /* Specifies the output polarity. */ uint32_t OCNPolarity; /* Specifies the complementary output polarity. */ uint32_t OCIdleState; /* Specifies the TIM Output Compare pin state during Idle state.*/ uint32_t OCNIdleState; /* Specifies the TIM Output Compare pin state during Idle state.*/ /* Input channel configuration */ uint32_t ICPolarity; /* Specifies the active edge of the input signal. */ uint32_t ICSelection; /* Specifies the input. */ uint32_t ICFilter; /* Specifies the input capture filter. */ } TIM_OnePulse_InitTypeDef;

The struct is logically divided in two parts: one related to the configuration of the input channel, and one to the output. We will not go into the details of the struct fields, because they are similar to what seen so far when we have talked about input capture and output compare modes. An important aspect to understand is the way the timer computes delay and pulse durations. The delay is computed according the following formula: Delay =

Pulse

(

T IM x_CLK Prescaler+1

)

[10]

while the duration (that is, the duty cycle) of the pulse is computed with this one: Duration =

Period - Pulse IM x_CLK ) ( TPrescaler+1

[11]

Timers

371

This means that, once the input channel detects the trigger event, the timer starts counting and when the CNT register reaches the CCRx register (Pulse) it generates the output signal, which lasts until the CNT register reaches the ARR register (Period), that is Period - Pulse. The OPM can be set as single shoot or in repetitive mode. This is performed by using the HAL_TIM_OnePulse_Init(TIM_HandleTypeDef *htim, uint32_t OnePulseMode);

which accepts the pointer to the timer handler and the symbolic constant TIM_OPMODE_SINGLE to configure OPM in single shoot or TIM_OPMODE_REPETITIVE to enable repetitive mode. The following example shows how to configure TIM3 in OPM mode in an STM32F030 MCU. Filename: src/main-ex10.c 12 13

int main(void) { HAL_Init();

14

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_TIM3_Init();

15 16 17

HAL_TIM_OnePulse_Start(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

18 19

while (1);

20 21

}

22 23 24 25

/* TIM3 init function */ void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_OnePulse_InitTypeDef sConfig;

26 27 28 29 30 31

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 47; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 65535; HAL_TIM_OnePulse_Init(&htim3, TIM_OPMODE_SINGLE);

32 33 34 35 36

/* Configure the Channel 1 */ sConfig.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_PWM1; sConfig.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_LOW; sConfig.Pulse = 19999;

37 38 39 40 41 42

/* Configure the Channel 2 */ sConfig.ICPolarity = TIM_ICPOLARITY_RISING; sConfig.ICSelection = TIM_ICSELECTION_DIRECTTI; sConfig.ICFilter = 0;

372

Timers HAL_TIM_OnePulse_ConfigChannel(&htim3, &sConfig, TIM_CHANNEL_1, TIM_CHANNEL_2);

43 44

}

Lines [34:36] configure the output channel in PWM Mode 1, while lines [39:41] configure the input channel. The HAL_TIM_OnePulse_ConfigChannel(), at line 43, configures the two channels, setting the Channel 1 as the output and the Channel 2 as the input. Finally the HAL_TIM_OnePulse_Start() (called at line 18) starts the timer in OPM mode. By biasing the PA7 pin in a Nucleo-F030R8, the timer will start after a delay of 20ms, and it will generate a PWM of about 45ms, as shown in Figure 30.

Figure 30: How the One Pulse mode works

The output channel of a timer running in One Pulse can be configured even in other modes different than the PWM one. 11.3.8.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the OPM Mode To enable the OPM mode using CubeMX, the first step is to configure the two Channel 1 and 2 independently, and then to select the One Pulse Mode checkbox, as shown in Figure 31. Next, from the TIMx configuration view (not shown here), it is possible to configure the other channels settings.

Figure 31: How to enable the One Pulse mode in a timer

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Timers

It is important to remark that, at the time of writing this chapter, the code generated by CubeMX is not that good. The code does not use the HAL_TIM_OnePulse_ConfigChannel(), and each channel is configured as they would be used independently. This leads to a more verbose and confusing code. However, it could be that when you read this chapter, ST has already fixed this part.

11.3.9 Encoder Mode Rotary encoders are devices that have a really wide range of applications. They are used to measure the speed as well as the angular position of rotating objects. They can be used to measure RPM and direction of a motor, to control servo-motors as well step motors, and so on. There are several types of rotary encoders: optical, mechanical, magnetic. Incremental encoders are a type of rotary encoders that provide cyclic output when they detect movement. The mechanical type requires debouncing and is typically used as “digital potentiometer”. Most modern home and car stereos use mechanical rotary encoders for volume control. The incremental rotary encoder is the most widely used of all rotary encoders due to its low cost and ability to provide signals that can be easily interpreted to provide motion related information such as velocity.

Figure 32: The square waves emitted by a quadrature encoder on A and B channels

They employ two outputs called A and B, which are called quadrature outputs, as they are 90 degrees out of phase, as shown in Figure 32. The direction of the motor depends if phase A leads phase B, or phase B leads phase A. An optional third channel, index pulse, occurs once per revolution and it is used as a reference to measure an absolute position. There are several ways to detect direction and position of a rotary encoder. By connecting the A and B pins to two MCU I/O it is possible to detect when the signal goes HIGH and LOW. This can be performed both manually (using interrupts to capture when the channel changes status) or by using a timer: its channels can be configured in input capture mode and the capture values are compared to compute the direction and speed of the encoder. STM32 general purpose timers provide a convenient way to read rotary encoders: this mode is indeed called encoder mode and it simplifies a lot the capture process. When a timer is configured in encoder mode, the timer counter register (TIMx_CNT) is incremented/decremented on the edge of input channels.

374

Timers

Figure 33: How encoder speed and direction are computed by a timer in encoder mode

There are two capturing modes available: X2 and X4. In X2 mode the CNT register is incremented/decremented on every edge of only one channel (either T1 or T2). In X4 mode the CNT register is updated on every edge of both the channels: this doubles the capture frequency. The direction of the movement is automatically derived and made available to the programmer in the TIMx_DIR register, as shown in Figure 33. By comparing the value of the counter register on a regular basis, it is possible to derive the number of RPM, given the number of pulses the encoder emits per revolution. Incremental mechanical encoders usually need to be debounced, due to noisy output. A comparator is usually used as filtering stage of these devices, especially if they are used to interface motors and other noisy devices. Under certain conditions, the input filter stage of an STM32 timer can be used to filter the A and B channels, reducing the number of BOM components. The encoder mode is available only on TI1 and TI2 channels, and it is activated by using the function HAL_TIM_Encoder_Init() and an instance of the C struct TIM_Encoder_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way.

375

Timers typedef struct { /* T1 channel */ uint32_t EncoderMode; /* uint32_t IC1Polarity; /* uint32_t IC1Selection; /* uint32_t IC1Prescaler; /* uint32_t IC1Filter; /* /* T2 channel */ uint32_t IC2Polarity; /* uint32_t IC2Selection; /* uint32_t IC2Prescaler; /* uint32_t IC2Filter; /* } TIM_Encoder_InitTypeDef;

Specifies Specifies Specifies Specifies Specifies

the the the the the

active edge of the input signal. */ active edge of the input signal. */ input. */ Input capture prescaler. */ input capture filter. */

Specifies Specifies Specifies Specifies

the the the the

active edge of the input signal. */ input. */ Input capture prescaler. */ input capture filter. */

We have encountered the majority of the TIM_Encoder_InitTypeDef fields in the previous paragraphs. The only remarkable one is the EncoderMode, which can assume the values TIM_ENCODERMODE_TI1 or TIM_ENCODERMODE_TI2 to set the X2 encoder mode on one of the two channels, and the value TIM_ENCODERMODE_TI12 to set the X4 mode so that the TIMx_CNT register is updated on every edge of TI1 and TI2 channels. The following example, designed to run on a Nucleo-F030R8, simulates an incremental encoder by using the TIM1 in output compare mode. TIM1 OC1 and OC2 (PA8, PA9) channels are routed to TIM3 TI1 and TI2 channels (PA6, PA7) using the morpho connector, and they are configured so that they generate two square wave signals having the same period but shifted in phase. The TIM3 is then configured in encoder mode. The SysTick timer is used to generate the timebase: every 1s, the number of pulses is computed, together with the encoder direction. The number of RPMs is then derived, assuming an encoder that generates 4 pulses for every revolution. Finally, by pressing the USER button it is possible to change the phase shift between phase A and B: this will invert the encoder revolution. Filename: src/main-ex11.c 22

#define PULSES_PER_REVOLUTION 4

23 24 25

int main(void) { HAL_Init();

26 27 28 29

Nucleo_BSP_Init(); MX_TIM1_Init(); MX_TIM3_Init();

30 31 32 33 34

HAL_TIM_Encoder_Start(&htim3, TIM_CHANNEL_ALL); HAL_TIM_OC_Start(&htim1, TIM_CHANNEL_1); HAL_TIM_OC_Start(&htim1, TIM_CHANNEL_2);

376

Timers 35 36

cnt1 = __HAL_TIM_GET_COUNTER(&htim3); tick = HAL_GetTick();

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

while (1) { if (HAL_GetTick() - tick > 1000L) { cnt2 = __HAL_TIM_GET_COUNTER(&htim3); if (__HAL_TIM_IS_TIM_COUNTING_DOWN(&htim3)) { if (cnt2 < cnt1) /* Check for counter underflow */ diff = cnt1 - cnt2; else diff = (65535 - cnt2) + cnt1; } else { if (cnt2 > cnt1) /* Check for counter overflow */ diff = cnt2 - cnt1; else diff = (65535 - cnt1) + cnt2; }

52

sprintf(msg, "Difference: %d\r\n", diff); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

53 54 55

speed = ((diff / PULSES_PER_REVOLUTION) / 60);

56 57

/* * * * if

58 59 60 61 62 63

If the first three bits of SMCR register are set to 0x3 then the timer is set in X4 mode (TIM_ENCODERMODE_TI12) and we need to divide the pulses counter by two, because they include the pulses for both the channels */ ((TIM3->SMCR & 0x3) == 0x3) speed /= 2;

64

sprintf(msg, "Speed: %d RPM\r\n", speed); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

65 66 67

dir = __HAL_TIM_IS_TIM_COUNTING_DOWN(&htim3); sprintf(msg, "Direction: %d\r\n", dir); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

68 69 70 71

tick = HAL_GetTick(); cnt1 = __HAL_TIM_GET_COUNTER(&htim3);

72 73 74

}

75 76 77 78 79

if (HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_13) == GPIO_PIN_RESET) { /* Invert rotation by swapping CH1 and CH2 CCR value */ tim1_ch1_pulse = __HAL_TIM_GET_COMPARE(&htim1, TIM_CHANNEL_1); tim1_ch2_pulse = __HAL_TIM_GET_COMPARE(&htim1, TIM_CHANNEL_2);

377

Timers 80

__HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim1, TIM_CHANNEL_1, tim1_ch2_pulse); __HAL_TIM_SET_COMPARE(&htim1, TIM_CHANNEL_2, tim1_ch1_pulse);

81 82

}

83

}

84 85

}

86 87 88 89

/* TIM1 init function */ void MX_TIM1_Init(void) { TIM_OC_InitTypeDef sConfigOC;

90

htim1.Instance = TIM1; htim1.Init.Prescaler = 9; htim1.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim1.Init.Period = 999; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim1);

91 92 93 94 95 96

sConfigOC.OCMode = TIM_OCMODE_TOGGLE; sConfigOC.Pulse = 499; sConfigOC.OCPolarity = TIM_OCPOLARITY_HIGH; sConfigOC.OCFastMode = TIM_OCFAST_DISABLE; sConfigOC.OCIdleState = TIM_OCIDLESTATE_RESET; sConfigOC.OCNPolarity = TIM_OCNPOLARITY_HIGH; sConfigOC.OCNIdleState = TIM_OCNIDLESTATE_RESET; HAL_TIM_OC_ConfigChannel(&htim1, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_1);

97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

sConfigOC.Pulse = 999; /* Phase B is shifted by 90° */ HAL_TIM_OC_ConfigChannel(&htim1, &sConfigOC, TIM_CHANNEL_2);

106 107 108

}

109 110 111 112

/* TIM3 init function */ void MX_TIM3_Init(void) { TIM_Encoder_InitTypeDef sEncoderConfig;

113 114 115 116 117

htim3.Instance = TIM3; htim3.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim3.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim3.Init.Period = 65535;

118 119

sEncoderConfig.EncoderMode = TIM_ENCODERMODE_TI12;

120 121 122 123 124

sEncoderConfig.IC1Polarity = TIM_ICPOLARITY_RISING; sEncoderConfig.IC1Selection = TIM_ICSELECTION_DIRECTTI; sEncoderConfig.IC1Prescaler = TIM_ICPSC_DIV1; sEncoderConfig.IC1Filter = 0;

378

Timers 125

sEncoderConfig.IC2Polarity = TIM_ICPOLARITY_RISING; sEncoderConfig.IC2Selection = TIM_ICSELECTION_DIRECTTI; sEncoderConfig.IC2Prescaler = TIM_ICPSC_DIV1; sEncoderConfig.IC2Filter = 0;

126 127 128 129 130

HAL_TIM_Encoder_Init(&htim3, &sEncoderConfig);

131 132

}

Function MX_TIM1_Init() configures the TIM1 timer so that its OC1 and OC2 channels work in output compare mode, triggering their output every ∼20μs. The two outputs are shifted in phase by setting two different Pulse values (lines 84 and 92). The MX_TIM3_Init() function configures the TIM3 in encoder X4 mode (TIM_ENCODERMODE_TI12). The main() function is designed so that every 1000 ticks of the SysTimer (which is configured to generate a tick every 1ms) the current content of the counter register (cnt2) is compared with a saved value (cnt1): according the encoder direction (up or down), the difference is computed, and the speed is calculated. The code needs also to detect an eventual overflow/underflow of the counter, and compute the difference accordingly. Take also note that, since we are performing a comparison every one second, TIM1 must be configured so that the sum of pulses generated by channels A and B should be less than 65535 per second. For this reason, we slow down TIM1 setting a Prescaler equal to 9. Finally, lines [76:83] invert the phase shift between A and B (that is, OC1 and OC2 channels of TIM1 timer) when the Nucleo user button is pressed. 11.3.9.1 Using CubeMX to Configure the Encoder Mode To enable the encoder mode using CubeMX, the first step is to enable this mode from the Combined Channels combo box, as shown in Figure 34. Next, from the TIMx configuration view (not shown here), it is possible to configure the other channels settings.

Figure 34: How to enable the encoder mode in a timer

Timers

379

11.3.10 Other Features Available in General Purpose and Advanced Timers The features seen so far represent the most common usages of a timer. However, STM32 general purpose and advanced timers provide other important functionalities, really useful in some specific application domains. We will now give a quick overview to these additional capabilities. Since these functionalities share common concepts found in other application shown in previous paragraphs, we will not go too much into details of these topics (especially because it is not so easy to arrange examples without dedicated hardware). 11.3.10.1 Hall Sensor Mode In a brushed DC motor, brushes control the commutation by physically connecting the coils at the correct moment. In Brush-Less DC (BLDC) motors the commutation is controlled by electronics, using PWM. The electronics can either have position sensor inputs, which provide information about when to commutate, or use the Back Electromotive Force (BEF ) generated in the coils. Position sensors are most often used in applications where the starting torque varies greatly or where a high initial torque is required. Position sensors are also often used in applications where the motor is used for positioning. Hall-effect sensors, or simply Hall sensors, are mainly used to compute the position of three-phases BLDC motors (one sensor for each phase). STM32 general purpose timers can be programmed to work in Hall sensor mode. By setting the first three input in XOR mode, it is possible to automatically detect the position of the rotor. This is done using the advanced-control timers (TIM1) to generate PWM signals to drive the motor and another timer (e.g. TIM3) referred to as “interfacing timer”. This interfacing timer captures the three timer input pins (CC1, CC2, CC3) connected through a XOR to the TI1 input channel (see Figure 16). TIM3 is in slave mode, configured in reset mode; the slave input is TI1F_ED³⁷. Thus, each time one of the 3 inputs toggles, the counter restarts counting from 0. This creates a time base triggered by any change on the Hall inputs. On the “interfacing timer” (TIM3), capture/compare channel 1 is configured in capture mode, capture signal is TRC (See Figure 16 - TRC is highlighted in red). The captured value, which corresponds to the time elapsed between 2 changes on the inputs, gives information about motor speed. The “interfacing timer” can be used in output mode to generate a pulse which changes the configuration of the channels of the advanced-control timer (TIM1) (by triggering a COM event). The TIM1 timer is used to generate PWM signals to drive the motor. To do this, the interfacing timer channel must be programmed so that a positive pulse is generated after a programmed delay (in output compare or PWM mode). This pulse is sent to the advanced timer (TIM1) through the TRGO output. ³⁷ED is acronyms for Edge Detector and it is an internal filtered timer input enabled when only one of the three inputs in XOR is HIGH.

Timers

380

11.3.10.2 Combined Three-Phase PWM Mode and Other Motor-Control Related Features The ST32F3 family is the one dedicated to advanced power conversion and motor control. Some STM32F3 MCUs, notably STM32F30x and STM32F3x8, provide the ability to generate one to three center-aligned PWM signals with a single programmable signal ANDed in the middle of the pulses. Moreover, they can generate up to three complementary outputs with insertion of dead time. These features, in addition to the Hall sensor mode seen before, allow to build electronic devices suitable for the motor control. For more information about this, refer to the AN4013³⁸ from ST. 11.3.10.3 Break Input and Locking of Timer Registers The break input is an emergency input in the motor control application. The break function protects power switches driven by PWM signals generated with the advanced timers. The break input is usually connected to fault outputs of power stages and 3-phase inverters. When activated, the break circuitry shuts down the TIM outputs and forces them to a predefined safe state. Moreover, advanced timers offer a gradual protection of their registers, programming the LOCK bits in the BDTR register. There are three locking levels available, which selectively lock up to all timer register. For more information refer to the reference manual for your MCU. 11.3.10.4 Preloading of Auto-Reload Register We have left uncommented one thing from Figure 16. The ARR register is graphically represented with a shadow. This happens because it is preloaded, that is writing to or reading from the ARR register accesses the preload register. The content of the preload register is transferred to the shadow register (that is, the register internal to the timer that effectively contains the counter value to match) permanently or at each UEV event if and only if the auto-reload preload bit (APRE) is enabled in the TIMx->CR1 register. If so, a UEV event can be generated setting the corresponding bit in the TIMx->EGR register: this will cause that the content of the preload register is transferred in the shadow one and the new value will be taken in account by the timer. Obviously, if you stop the timer, you can change the content of the ARR register freely. This is an important aspect to clarify. When a timer is stopped, we can configure the ARR register using the TIM_Base_InitTypeDef.Period structure: the content of the Period field is transferred in the TIMx->ARR register by the HAL_TIM_Base_Init() function. This will cause that the UEV event is generated and, if enabled, the corresponding IRQ will be raised. It is important to remark that this happens even when the timer is configured for the first time since the peripheral was reset. Let us consider this code:

³⁸http://bit.ly/1WAewd6

Timers

381

htim6.Instance = TIM6; htim6.Init.Prescaler = 47999; //48MHz/48000 = 1kHz htim6.Init.Period = 4999; //1kHz / 5000 = 5s htim6.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; __TIM6_CLK_ENABLE(); HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(TIM6_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(TIM6_IRQn); HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim6); HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT(&htim6);

The above code configure the TIM6 timer so that it expires after 5 seconds. However, if you rearrange that code in a complete example, you can see that the IRQ fires almost immediately after the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT() function is called. This is due to the fact that the HAL_TIM_Base_Init() routine generates an UEV events to transfer the content of the TIM6->ARR register inside the internal shadow register. This causes that the UIF flag is set and the IRQ fires when the HAL_TIM_Base_Start_IT() enables it. We can bypass this behaviour by setting the URS bit inside the TIMx->CR1 register: this will cause that the UEV event is generated only when the counter reaches the overflow/underflow. It is possible to configure the timer so that the ARR register is buffered, by setting the TIM_CR1_ARPE bit in the TIMx->CR1 control register. This will cause that the content of the shadow register is updated automatically. Unfortunately, the HAL does not seem to offer an explicit macro to do that, and we need to access to the timer register at low-level: TIM3->CR1 |= TIM_CR1_ARPE; //Enable preloading TIM3->CR1 &= ~TIM_CR1_ARPE; //Disable preloading

Preloading is especially useful when we use a timer in output compare mode with multiple output channels enabled and each one with its own capture value, and we have to be sure that any change to the CCRx register takes place at the same time. This is especially true if we use a timer for motor control or power conversion. Enabling the preload feature guarantees us that the new setting from the CCRx register will take place on the next overflow/underflow of timer counter.

11.3.11 Debugging and Timers During a debug session, when the execution is suspended due to a hardware or software breakpoint, by default timers are not stopped. Sometimes is, instead, useful to stop a timer during debug, especially if it is used to drive an external device. STM32 timers can be selectively configured to stop when the core is halted due to a breakpoint. The HAL macro __HAL_DBGMCU_FREEZE_TIMx() (where the x corresponds to timer number) enables this

382

Timers

working mode of a timer. Additionally, the outputs of the timers having complementary outputs are disabled and forced to an inactive state. This feature is extremely useful for applications where the timers are controlling power switches or electrical motors. It prevents the power stages from being damaged by excessive current, or the motors from being left in an uncontrolled state when hitting a breakpoint. The macro __HAL_DBGMCU_UNFREEZE_TIMx() restores the default behaviour (that is, the timer does not stop during a breakpoint). Please, take note that, before invoking the __HAL_DBGMCU_FREEZE_TIMx() macro, the MCU debug component (DBGMCU) must be enabled by calling the __HAL_RCC_DBGMCU_CLK_ENABLE() macro.

11.4 SysTick Timer SysTick is a special timer, internal to the Cortex-M core, provided by all STM32 microcontrollers. It is mainly used as timebase generator for the CubeHAL and the RTOS (if used). The most important thing about SysTick timer is that, if used as timebase generator for the HAL, it must be configured to generate an exception every 1ms: the exception handler will increment the system tick counter (a global, 32-bit wide and static variable), which can be accessed by calling the HAL_GetTick() routine. The SysTick is a 24-bit downcounter, clocked by the AHB bus (that is, it has the same frequency of the High (speed) Clock - HCLK). Its clock speed can be eventually divided by 8 using the function: void HAL_SYSTICK_CLKSourceConfig(uint32_t CLKSource);

which accepts the parameters SYSTICK_CLKSOURCE_HCLK and SYSTICK_CLKSOURCE_HCLK_DIV8. The SysTick update frequency is determined by the starting value of the SysTick counter, which is configured using the function: uint32_t HAL_SYSTICK_Config(uint32_t TicksNumb);

To configure the SysTick timer so that it generates an update event every 1ms, and assuming that it is clocked at the same speed of the AHB bus, it is sufficient to invoke the HAL_SYSTICK_Config() in the following way: HAL_SYSTICK_Config(HAL_RCC_GetHCLKFreq()/1000);

383

Timers

The HAL_SYSTICK_Config() routine is also responsible of enabling the timer and its SysTick_IRQn exception³⁹. The priority of the exception can be configured at compile time setting the TICK_INT_PRIORITY symbolic constant in the include/stm32XXxx_hal_conf.h file, or by calling the HAL_NVIC_SetPriority() on the SysTick_IRQn exception, as seen in Chapter 7. When the SysTick timer reaches zero, the SysTick_IRQn exception is raised, and the corresponding handler is called. CubeMX already provides for us the right function body, which is defined in the following way: void SysTick_Handler(void) { HAL_IncTick(); HAL_SYSTICK_IRQHandler(); }

The HAL_IncTick() automatically increments the global SysTick counter, while the HAL_SYSTICK_IRQHandler() contains nothing more than a call to the HAL_SYSTICK_Callback() routine, which is a callback that we can optionally implement to be notified when the timer underflows.

Read Carefully Avoid to use slow code inside the HAL_SYSTICK_Callback() routine, otherwise the timebase generation could be affected. This may lead to unpredictable behaviour of some HAL modules, which rely on the exact 1ms timebase generation. Moreover, care must be taken when using HAL_Delay(). This function provides accurate delay (in milliseconds) based on SysTick counter. This implies that if HAL_Delay() is called from a peripheral ISR process, then the SysTick interrupt must have higher priority (numerically lower) than the peripheral interrupt. Otherwise the caller ISR process will be blocked (because the global tick counter is never incremented).

To suspend the system timebase generation, it is possible to use HAL_SuspendTick() routine, while to resume it the HAL_ResumeTick() one.

11.4.1 Use Another Timer as System Timebase Source SysTick timer has just one relevant application: as timebase generator for the HAL or an optional RTOS. Since the SysTick clock cannot be easily prescaled to more flexible counting frequencies, it is not suitable to be used as a conventional timer. However, it has a relevant limitation that we will better analyze in a following chapter: it is not suitable to be used with tickless modes offered by some RTOS for low-power applications. For this reason, sometimes it is important to use another timer (maybe a LPTIM) as system timebase generator. Finally, as we will discover in a following ³⁹Remember that the SysTick_IRQn is an exception and not an interrupt, even if it is common to refer to it as interrupt. This means that we cannot use the HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ() function to enable it.

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chapter, when using an RTOS it is convenient to separate the timebase source for the HAL and for the RTOS. Recent releases of the CubeMX software allow to easily use another timer instead of SysTick. To perform this, go in the Pinout view, then open the RCC entry from the IP tree pane and select the Timebase source, as shown in Figure 35.

Figure 35: How to select another timer as system timebase source

CubeMX will generate an additional file named stm32XXxx_hal_timebase_TIM.c containing the definition of HAL_InitTick() (which contains all the necessary code to initialize the timer so that it overflows every 1ms), HAL_SuspendTick() and HAL_ResumeTick(), plus the definition of the HAL_TIM_PeriodElapsedCallback(), which contains the call to the HAL_IncTick() routine. This “overriding” of the HAL routines is possible thanks to the fact that those function are defined __weak inside the HAL source files.

11.5 A Case Study: How to Precisely Measure Microseconds With STM32 MCUs Sometimes, especially when dealing with communication protocols not implemented in hardware by a peripheral, we need to precisely measure delays ranging from 1 up to a fistful of microseconds. This leads to another more general question: how to measure microseconds precisely in STM32 MCUs? There are several ways to do this, but some methods are more accurate and other ones are more versatile among different MCUs and clock configurations. Let us consider one member of the STM32F4 family: STM32F401RE. This micro is able to run up to 84MHz using internal RC clock. This means that ever 1µs, the clock cycles 84 times. So, we need a way to count 84 clock cycles to assert that 1µs is elapsed (I am assuming that you can tolerate the internal RC clock 1% accuracy). Sometimes, it is common to find around delay routines like the following one:

385

Timers void delay1US() { #define CLOCK_CYCLES_PER_INSTRUCTION #define CLOCK_FREQ

X Y

//IN MHZ (e.g. 16 for 16 MHZ)

volatile int cycleCount = CLOCK_FREQ / CLOCK_CYCLE_PER_INSTRUCTION; while (cycleCount--); }

But how to establish how many clock cycles are required to compute one step of the while(cycleCount-) instruction? Unfortunately, it is not simple to give an answer. Let us assume that cycleCount is equal to 1. Doing some tests (I will explain later how I have done them), with compiler optimizations disabled (option -O0 to GCC), we can see that in this case the whole C instruction requires 24 cycles to execute. How is it possible that? You have to figure out that our C statement is unrolled in several assembly instructions, as we can see if we disassemble the firmware binary file: ... while(counter--); 800183e: f89d 3003 8001842: b2db 8001844: 1e5a 8001846: b2d2 8001848: f88d 2003 800184c: 2b00 800184e: d1f6

ldrb.w uxtb subs uxtb strb.w cmp bne.n

r3, [sp, #3] r3, r3 r2, r3, #1 r2, r2 r2, [sp, #3] r3, #0 800183e

Moreover, another source of latency is related to the fetch of instructions from internal MCU flash (which differs a lot from “low-cost” STM32 MCUs and more powerful ones, like the STM32F4 and STM32F7 with the ART accelerator, which is designed to zero the flash access latency). So that instruction has a “basic cost” of 24 cycles. How many cycles are required if cycleCount is equal to 2? In this case the MCU requires 33 cycles, that is 9 additional cycles. This means that if we want to spin for 84 cycles, cycleCount has to be equal to (84-24)/9, which is about 7. So, we can write our delay function in a more general way: void delayUS(uint32_t us) { volatile uint32_t counter = 7*us; while(counter--); }

Testing this function with this code:

Timers

386

while(1) { delayUS(1); GPIOA->ODR = 0x0; delayUS(1); GPIOA->ODR = 0x20; }

we can check, using an oscilloscope attached to PA5 pin, that we obtain the delay we are looking for:

Is this way to delay 1µs consistent? Unfortunately, the answer is no. First of all, it works well only when this specific MCU (STM32F401RE) works at full speed (84MHz). If we decide to use a different clock speed, we need to rearrange it doing tests. Second, it is subject to compiler optimizations, as we are going to see soon, and to CPU internal caches on D-Bus and I-Bus available in some STM32 microcontrollers (these caches can be eventually disabled by setting the (PREFETCH_ENABLE, INSTRUCTION_CACHE_ENABLE, DATA_CACHE_ENABLE in the include/stm32XXxx_hal_conf.h file). Let us enable GCC optimizations for “size” (-Os). What results do we obtain? In this case we have that the delayUS() function costs only 72 CPU cycles, that is ∼850ns. The oscilloscope confirms this:

And what happens if we enable the maximum optimization for speed (-O3)? In this case we have only 64 CPU cycles, that is our delayUS() lasts only ∼750ns. However, this issue can be addressed using specific GCC pragma directives:

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Timers #pragma GCC push_options #pragma GCC optimize ("O0") void delayUS(uint32_t us) { volatile uint32_t counter = 7*us; while(counter--); } #pragma GCC pop_options

However, if we want use a lower CPU frequency or we want to port our code to a different STM32 MCU, we still need to redo tests again and derive the number of cycles empirically. However, take in account that the lower the CPU frequency is the more difficult is to delay for 1µs precisely, because the number of cycles are fixed for a given instruction, but there is less amount of cycles in the same unit of time.

So, how can we obtain a precise 1µs delay without doing tests if we change hardware setup? One answer may be represented by setting a timer that overflows every 1µs (just setting its Period to the peripheral bus speed in MHz - for example, for an STM32F401RE we need to set the Period to (84 - 1)), and we may increment a global variable that keeps track of elapsed microseconds. This is the same way SysTick timer is used for the timebase generation of the HAL. However, this approach is impractical, especially for low-speed STM32 MCUs. Generating an interrupt every 1µs (which in an STM32F0 MCU running at full speed would mean every 48 CPU cycles) would congest the MCU, reducing the overall multiprogramming degree. Moreover, the interrupt management has a non-negligible cost (from 12 up to 16 cycles), which would affect the 1µs timebase generation. In the same way, polling the timer for the value of its counter is also impractical: a lot of time would be spent checking the counter against a starting value, and the handling of the timer overflow/underflow would impact on the timebase generation. A more robust solution comes from the previous tests. How I have measured CPU cycles? CortexM3/4/7 processors can have an optional debug unit, named Data Watchpoint and Tracing (DWT), that provides watchpoints, data tracing, and system profiling for the processor. One register of this unit is CYCCNT, which counts the number of cycles performed by CPU. So, we can use this special unit available to count the number of cycles performed by the MCU during instruction execution.

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388

uint32_t cycles = 0; /* DWT struct is defined inside the core_cm4.h file */ DWT->CTRL |= 1 ; // enable the counter DWT->CYCCNT = 0; // reset the counter delayUS(1); cycles = DWT->CYCCNT; cycles--; /* We subtract the cycle used to transfer CYCCNT content to cycles variable */

Using DWT we can build a more generic delayUS() routine in this way: #pragma GCC push_options #pragma GCC optimize ("O3") void delayUS_DWT(uint32_t us) { volatile uint32_t cycles = (SystemCoreClock/1000000L)*us; volatile uint32_t start = DWT->CYCCNT; do { } while(DWT->CYCCNT - start < cycles); } #pragma GCC pop_options

How much precise this function is? If you are interested to the best resolution at 1µs, this function will not help you, as shown by the scope.

The best performance is achieved when the higher compiler optimization level is set. As you can see, for a wanted delay of 1µs, the function gives about 1.22µs delay (22% slower). However, if we need to spin for 10µs, we obtain a real delay of 10.5µs (5% slower), which is more close to what we want.

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389

Starting from a delay of 100µs the error is completely negligible. Why this function is not so precise? To understand why this function is less precise from the other one, you have to figure out that we are using a series of instructions to check how many cycles are expired since the function is started (the while condition). These instructions cost CPU cycles both to update the internal CPU registers with the content of CYCCNT register and to do comparison and branching. However, the advantage of this function is that it automatically detects CPU speed, and it works out of the box especially if we are working on faster processors. If you want full control over compiler optimizations, the best 1µs delay can be reached using this macro fully written in assembler: #define delayUS_ASM(us) do { \ asm volatile ("MOV R0,%[loops]\n \ 1: \n \ SUB R0, #1\n \ CMP R0, #0\n \ BNE 1b \t" \ : : [loops] "r" (16*us) : "memory" \ ); \ } while(0)

This is the most optimized way to write the while(counter--) function. Doing tests with the scope, I found that 1µs delay can be obtained when the MCU execute this loop 16 times at 84MHZ. However, this macro has to be rearranged if you processor speed is lower, and keep in mind that being a macro, it is “expanded” every time you use it, causing the increase of firmware size.

12. Analog-To-Digital Conversion It is quite common to interface analog peripherals to a microcontroller. In the digital era, there are still a lot of devices that produce analog signals: sensors, potentiometers, transducers and audio peripherals are just few examples of analog devices that generate a variable voltage, which usually ranges in a fixed interval. By reading this voltage, we can convert it in a numerical entity useful to be processed by our firmware. For example, the TMP36 is a quite-popular temperature sensor, which produces a variable voltage proportional to the circuit operating voltage (it is said to give a ratiometric output) and the ambient temperature. All STM32 microcontrollers provide at least one Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), a peripheral able to acquire several input voltages through dedicated I/O, and to convert them to a number. The input voltage is compared against a well know and fixed voltage, also known as reference voltage. This reference voltage can be either derived from the VDDA domain or, in MCUs with high pin count, supplied by an external and fixed reference voltage generator. The majority of STM32 MCUs provide a 12-bit ADC. Some of them from the STM32F3 portfolio even a 16-bit ADC. Differently from other STM32 peripherals seen so far, ADCs can diverge a lot between the various STM32-series and even inside a given family. For this reason, will give only an introduction to this useful peripheral, leaving to the reader the responsibility to analyze in depth the ADC in the specific MCU he is considering. Before we analyze the features offered by the ADC in an STM32 microcontroller, and the related CubeHAL, it is best to give a quick introduction to the way this peripheral works.

12.1 Introduction to SAR ADC In almost all STM32 microcontrollers, the ADC is implemented as a 12-bit Successive Approximation Register ADC¹. Depending on the sales type and packaged used, it can have a variable number of multiplexed input channels (usually more then ten channels in the most of STM32 MCUs), allowing to measure signals from external sources. Moreover, some internal channels are also available: a channel for internal temperature sensor (VSEN SE ), one for internal reference voltage (VREF IN T ), one for monitoring external VBAT power supply and a channel for monitoring LCD voltage in those MCUs providing a native monochrome passive LCD controller (for example, the STM32L053 is one of these). ADCs implemented in STM32F3 and in majority of STM32L4 MCUs are also capable of converting fully differential inputs. Table 1 lists the exact ADC peripherals number and their related ¹At the time of writing this chapter, the ADC provided by STM32F37x series is the only notably exception to this rule, since it provides a more accurate 16-bit ADC with Sigma-Delta(Σ-Δ) modulator. This type of ADC will not be covered in this book. However, the HAL routines to use it have the same organization.

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input sources for all STM32 MCUs equipping the sixteen Nucleo boards we are considering in this book.

Table 1: The availability of ADC peripheral in STM32 MCUs equipping Nucleo boards

A/D conversion of the various channels can be performed in single, continuous, scan or discontinuous mode. The result of the ADC is stored in a left- or right-aligned 16-bit data register. Moreover, the ADC also implements the analog watchdog feature, which allows the application to detect if the input voltage goes outside the user-defined higher or lower thresholds: if this happens, a dedicated IRQ fires.

Figure 1: The simplified structure of an ADC

Figure 1 schematizes the structure of the ADC². An input selection and scan control unit performs ²Figure 1 is a really simplified representation of the ADC. Since the ADC implementation can differ a lot among the several STM32 families, here we are going to consider a simplified view that clearly describes how the ADC unit is designed.

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the selection of the input source to the ADC. Depending on the conversion mode (single, scan or continuous mode), this unit automatically switches among the input channels, so that every one can be sampled periodically. The output from this unit feeds the ADC. Figure 1 also shows another important part of the ADC: the start and stop control unit. Its role is to control the A/D conversion process, and it can be triggered by software or by a variable number of input sources. Moreover, it is internally connected to the TRGO line of some timers so that timedriven conversions can be automatically performed in DMA mode. We will analyze this important mode of the ADC peripheral later.

Figure 2: The internal structure of a SAR ADC

Figure 2 shows the main blocks forming the SAR ADC unit shown in Figure 1. The input signal goes through the SHA unit. As you can see in Figure 1, a switch and a capacitor are in series with the ADC input. That part represents the Sample-and-Hold (SHA) unit shown in Figure 2, which is a feature available in all ADCs. This unit plays the important role to keep the input signal constant during the conversion cycle. Thanks to an internal timing unit, which is regulated by a configurable clock as we will see later, the SAR constantly connects/disconnects the input source by closing/opening the “switch” in Figure 1. To keep the voltage level of the input constant, the SHA is implemented with a network of capacitors: this ensure that source signal is kept at a certain level during the A/D conversion, which is a procedure that requires a given amount of time, depending on the conversion frequency chosen. The output from the SHA module feeds a comparator that compares it with another signal generated by an internal DAC. The result of comparison is sent to the logic unit, which computes the numerical representation of the input signal according a well-characterized algorithm. This algorithm is what distinguishes SAR ADC from other A/D converters. The Successive Approximation algorithm computes the voltage of the input signal by comparing it with the one generated by the internal DAC, which is a fraction of the VREF voltage: if the input signal is higher than this internal reference voltage, then this is further increased until the input signal is lower. The final result will correspond to a number ranging from zero to the maximum 12-bit unsigned integer, that is 212 − 1 = 4095. Assuming VREF = 3300mV , we have that 3300mV ≈ 0.8mV . For example, an input voltage is represented with 4095. This means that 110 = 3300 4095 equal to 2.5V will be converted to:

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x=

4095 × 2500mV = 3102 3300mV

The SAR algorithm works in the following way: 1. The output data register is zeroed and the MSB bit is set to 1. This will correspond to a welldefined voltage level generated by the internal DAC. 2. The output of the DAC is compared with the input signal VIN : 1. if VIN is higher, than the bit is left to 1; 2. if VIN is lower, than the bit is set back to 0; 3. The algorithm proceeds to the next MSB bit in the data register until all bits are either set to 1 or 0. Figure 3 represents the conversion process made by the SAR logic unit inside a 4-bit ADC. Let us consider the path highlighted in red and let us suppose that VIN = 2700mV and VREF = 3300mV . The algorithm start by setting the MSB to 1, which corresponds to 10002 = 810 . This means that: x=

3300mV × 810 = 1760mV 24 − 1

Being VIN higher than 1760mV the 4th bit is left equal to 1 and the algorithm passes to the next MSB bit. The data register is now equal to 11002 = 1210 , and the DAC generates an output equal to 2640mV. Being VIN still higher than this value the 3rd bit is left again equal to 1. The register is so set to 11102 = 1410 , which leads to an internal voltage equal to 3080mV. This time VIN is lower, and the second bit is reset to zero. The algorithm now sets the 1st bit to 1, which leads to an internal voltage equal to 2860mV. This value is still higher than VIN and the algorithm resets the last bit to zero. The ADC so detects that the input voltage is something close to 2640mV. Clearly, the more resolution the ADC provides, the more close to VIN the converted value will be. As you can see, the SAR algorithm essentially performs a search in a binary tree. The great advantage of this algorithm is that the conversion is performed in N-cycles, where N corresponds to the ADC resolution. So a 12-bit ADC requires twelve cycles to perform a conversion. But how long a cycle can last? The number of cycles per seconds, that is the ADC frequency, is a performance evaluation parameter of the ADC. SAR ADCs can be really fast, especially if the ADC resolution is decreased (less sampled bit corresponds to less cycles per conversion). However, the impedance of the analog signal source, or series resistance (RIN ), between the source and the MCU pin causes a voltage drop across it because of the current flowing into the pin.

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Figure 3: The conversion process made by a SAR ADC

The charging of the internal capacitor network (that we indicate with CADC ) is controlled by the switch in Figure 1 having a resistance equal to RADC . With the addition of source resistance (that is, RT OT = RADC + RIN ), the time required to fully charge the hold capacitor increases. Figure 4 shows the analog signal source resistance effect. The effective charging of CADC is governed by RT OT , so the charging time constant becomes tC = (RADC + RIN ) × CADC . If the sampling time is less than the time required to fully charge the CADC through RT OT (tS < tC ), the digital value converted by the ADC is less than the actual value. In general, it is necessary to wait a multiple of tC to achieve a reasonable accuracy.

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Figure 4: The effect of the ADC resistance on the analog signal source

For high speed A/D conversions, it is important to take in account the effect of the PCB layout and proper decoupling during board design. ST provides a well-written application note, the AN2834³⁴, which offers several and important tips to take the best from ADC integrated in STM32 MCUs.

12.2 HAL_ADC Module After a brief introduction to the most important features offered by the ADC peripheral in STM32 microcontrollers, it is the right time to dive into the related CubeHAL APIs. To manipulate the ADC peripheral, the HAL defines the C struct ADC_HandleTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { *Instance; ADC_TypeDef ADC_InitTypeDef Init; __IO uint32_t NbrOfCurrentConversionRank; DMA_HandleTypeDef *DMA_Handle; HAL_LockTypeDef Lock; __IO uint32_t State; __IO uint32_t ErrorCode; } ADC_HandleTypeDef;

/* /* /* /* /* /* /*

Pointer to ADC descriptor */ ADC initialization parameters */ ADC number of current conversion rank */ Pointer to the DMA Handler */ ADC locking object */ ADC communication state */ Error code */

Let us analyze the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the ADC descriptor we are going to use. For example, ADC1 is the descriptor of the first ADC peripheral. • Init: is an instance of the C struct ADC_InitTypeDef, which is used to configure the ADC. We will study it more in depth in a while. ³http://bit.ly/1rHj9ZN ⁴The equivalent application note for the STM32F37x/38x series is the AN4207(http://bit.ly/1T8qudY).

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• NbrOfCurrentConversionRank: corresponds to the current i-th channel (rank) in a regular conversion group. We will describe it better soon. • DMA_Handle: this is the pointer to the DMA handler configured to perform A/D conversion in DMA mode. It is automatically configured by the __HAL_LINKDMA() macro. ADC configuration is performed by using an instance of the C struct ADC_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way⁵: typedef struct { uint32_t ClockPrescaler; uint32_t Resolution; uint32_t ScanConvMode; uint32_t ContinuousConvMode;

/* /* /* /*

uint32_t DataAlign;

/*

uint32_t NbrOfConversion;

/*

uint32_t NbrOfDiscConversion;

/*

uint32_t DiscontinuousConvMode; /*

uint32_t ExternalTrigConv;

/*

uint32_t ExternalTrigConvEdge; /* uint32_t DMAContinuousRequests; /* uint32_t EOCSelection;

/*

Selects the ADC clock frequency */ Configures the ADC resolution mode */ The scan sequence direction. */ Specifies whether the conversion is performed in Continuous or Single mode */ Specifies whether the ADC data alignment is left or right */ Specifies the number of input that will be converted within the regular group sequencer */ Specifies the number of discontinuous conversions in which the main sequence of regular group */ Specifies whether the conversion sequence of regular group is performed in Complete-sequence/Discontinuous sequence */ Select the external event used to trigger the start of conversion */ Select the external trigger edge and enable it */ Specifies whether the DMA requests are performed in one shot or in continuous mode */ Specifies what EOC (End Of Conversion) flag is used for conversion polling and interruption */

} ADC_InitTypeDef;

Let us analyze the most relevant field of this struct. • ClockPrescaler: defines the speed of the clock (ADCCLK) for the analog circuitry part of ADC. In the previous paragraph we have seen that the ADC has an internal timing unit that controls the switching frequency of the input switch (see Figure 2). The ADCCLK establishes the speed of this timing unit and it impacts on the number of samples per seconds, because it defines the amount of time used by each conversion cycle. This clock is generated from ⁵The ADC_InitTypeDef struct slightly differs from the one defined in CubeF0 and CubeL0 HALs. This because the ADC in those families does not provide the ability to define custom input sampling sequences (by assigning rank values). Moreover, the ADC in those families provide the ability to perform oversampling of the input signal, and in CubeL0 HAL it is possible to enable dedicated low-power features offered by the ADC in those MCUs. For more information, refer to the CubeHAL source code.

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• • • •

• •

the peripheral clock divided by a programmable prescaler that allows the ADC to work at fP CLK /2,/4,/6 or /8 (refer to the datasheets of the specific MCU for the maximum values of ADCCLK and its prescaler). In some STM32 MCUs the ADCCLK can also be derived from the HSI oscillator. The value of this field affects the ADCCLK speed of all ADCs implemented in the MCU. Resolution: apart from STM32F1 MCUs, whose ADC does not allow to select the resolution of samples (see Table 1), using this field it is possible to define the A/D conversion resolution. It can assume a value from Table 2. The higher is the resolution the less number of conversions are possible in a seconds. If speed is not relevant for your application, it is strongly suggested to set the bit resolution to the maximum and the conversion speed to the minimum. ScanConvMode: this field can assume the value ENABLE or DISABLE and it is used to enable/disable the scan conversion mode. More about this later. ContinuousConvMode: specifies if the conversion is performed in single or continuous mode, and it can assume the value ENABLE or DISABLE. More about this later. NbrOfConversion: specifies the number of channels of the regular group that will be converted in scan mode. DataAlign: specifies the data align of the converted result. ADC data register is implemented as half-word register. Since only 12-bits are used to store the conversion, this parameters establishes how this bits are aligned inside the register. It can assume the value ADC_DATAALIGN_LEFT or ADC_DATAALIGN_RIGHT. ExternalTrigConvEdge: select the external trigger source to drive conversion using a timer. EOCSelection: depending on the conversion mode (single or continuous conversions) the ADC sets the End Of Conversion (EOC) flag accordingly. This field is used by the ADC polling or interrupt API to determine when a conversion is completed, and it can assume the values ADC_EOC_SEQ_CONV for continuous conversion, and ADC_EOC_SINGLE_CONV for single conversions. Table 2: Available resolution options for the ADC

ADC resolution

Description

ADC_RESOLUTION_12B ADC_RESOLUTION_10B ADC_RESOLUTION_8B ADC_RESOLUTION_6B

ADC 12-bit resolution ADC 10-bit resolution ADC 8-bit resolution ADC 6-bit resolution

Before we can start doing a practical example, we have to analyze another two topics: how input channels are configured and how their input signals are sampled.

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12.2.1 Conversion Modes ADCs implemented in STM32 MCUs provide several conversion modes useful to deal with different application scenarios. Now we are going to brief introduce the most relevant of them: the AN3116⁶ from ST describes all possible conversion modes provided by the ADC. 12.2.1.1 Single-Channel, Single Conversion Mode This is the simplest ADC mode. In this mode, the ADC performs the single conversion (single sample) of a single channel, as shown in Figure 5, and stops when conversion is finished.

Figure 5: Single-channel, single conversion mode

For example, this mode can be used for the measurement of a voltage level of an external sensor to acquire the ambient temperature. 12.2.1.2 Scan Single Conversion Mode This mode, also called multichannel single mode in some ST documents, is used to convert some channels successively in independent mode. Using ranks, you can use this ADC mode to configure any sequence of up to 16 channels successively with different sampling times and in custom orders. You can, for example, carry out the sequence shown in Figure 6. In this way, you do not have to stop the ADC during the conversion process in order to reconfigure the next channel with a different sampling time. This mode saves additional CPU load and heavy software development. Scan conversions are carried out in DMA mode. ⁶http://bit.ly/1YnOr2j

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Figure 6: Scan single conversion mode

For example, this mode can be used when starting a system depends on some parameters like knowing the coordinates of the arm’s tip in a manipulator arm system. In this case, you have to read the position of each articulation in the manipulator arm system at power-on to determine the coordinates of the arm’s tip. This mode can also be used to make single measurements of multiple signal levels (voltage, pressure, temperature, etc.) to decide if the system can be started or not in order to protect the people and equipment. 12.2.1.3 Single-Channel, Continuous Conversion Mode This mode converts a single channel continuously and indefinitely in regular channel conversion. The continuous mode feature allows the ADC to work in the background. The ADC converts the channels continuously without any intervention from the CPU. Additionally, the DMA can be used in circular mode, thus reducing the CPU load.

Figure 7: Single-channel, continuous conversion

For example, this ADC mode can be implemented to monitor a battery voltage, the measurement and regulation of an oven temperature using a PID, etc. 12.2.1.4 Scan Continuous Conversion Mode This mode is also called multichannel continuous mode and it can be used to convert some channels successively with the ADC in independent mode. Using ranks, you can configure any sequence of up to 16 channels successively with different sampling times and different orders. This mode is similar to the multichannel single conversion mode except that it does not stop converting after the last channel of the sequence but it restarts the conversion sequence from the first channel and continues indefinitely. Scan conversions are carried out in DMA mode.

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Figure 8: Scan continuous conversion mode

This mode may be used, for example, to monitor multiple voltages and temperatures in a multiple battery charger. The voltage and temperature of each battery are read during the charging process. When the voltage or the temperature reaches the maximum level, the corresponding battery should be disconnected from the charger. 12.2.1.5 Injected Conversion Mode This mode is intended for use when conversion is triggered by an external event or by software. The injected group has priority over the regular channel group. It interrupts the conversion of the current channel in the regular channel group.

Figure 9: Injected conversion mode

For example, this mode can be used to synchronize the conversion of channels to an event. It is interesting in motor control applications where transistor switching generates noise that impacts ADC measurements and results in wrong conversions. Using a timer, the injected conversion mode can thus be implemented to delay the ADC measurements to after the transistor switching.

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

401

12.2.1.6 Dual Modes Dual mode is available in STM32 microcontrollers that feature two ADCs: ADC1 master and ADC2 slave. ADC1 and ADC2 triggers are synchronized internally for regular and injected channel conversion. ADC1 and ADC2 work together. In some devices, there are up to 3 ADCs: ADC1, ADC2 and ADC3. In this case ADC3 always works independently, and is not synchronized with the other ADCs. Dual mode works so that when the conversion ends the result from ADC1 and ADC2 is simultaneously saved inside the ADC1 32-bit data register. By separating the two results, we can acquire the data coming from two separated channels at the same time. For more information regarding dual mode, refer to AN3116⁷ from ST.

12.2.2 Channel Selection Depending on the STM32 family and package used, ADCs in STM32 MCUs can convert signals from a variable number of channels. In F0 and L0 families the allocation of channel is fixed: the first one is always IN0, the second IN1 and so on. User can decide only if a channel is enabled or not. This means that in scan mode the first sampled channel will be always IN0, the second IN1 and so on. Other STM32 MCUs, instead, offer the notion of group. A group consists of a sequence of conversions that can be done on any channel and in any order. While input channels are fixed and bound to specific MCU pins (that is, IN0 is the first channel, IN1 the second and so on), they can be logically reordered to form custom sampling sequences. The reordering of channels is performed by assigning to them an index ranging from 1 to 16. This index is called rank in the CubeHAL.

Figure 10: How input channels can be reordered using ranks

The Figure 10 shows this concept. Although the IN4 channel is fixed (for example, it is connected to PA4 pin in an STM32F401RE MCU), it can be logically assigned to the rank 1 so that it will be the first channel to be sampled. Those MCUs offering this possibility also allow to select the sampling speed of each channel individually, differently from F0/L0 MCUs where the configuration is ADC-wide. ⁷http://bit.ly/1YnOr2j

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The channel/rank configuration is performed by using an instance of the C struct ADC_ChannelConfTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t Channel; uint32_t Rank; uint32_t SamplingTime; uint32_t Offset; } ADC_ChannelConfTypeDef;

/* /* /* /*

Specifies the channel to configure into ADC rank */ Specifies the rank ID */ Sampling time value for the selected channel */ Reserved for future use, can be set to 0 */

• Channel: specifies the channel ID. It can assume the value ADC_CHANNEL_0, ADC_CHANNEL_1…ADC_CHANNEL_N, depending the effective number of available channels. • Rank: correspond to the rank associated to the channel. It can assume a value from 1 to 16, which is the maximum number of user-definable ranks. • SamplingTime: specifies the sampling time value to be set for the selected channel, and it corresponds to the number or ADC cycles. This number cannot be arbitrary, but it is part of a selected list of values. As we will see later, CubeMX helps a lot offering the list of admissible values for the specific MCU you are considering. There exist two groups for each ADC: • A regular group, made of up to 16 channels, which corresponds to the sequence of sampled channels during a scan conversion. • An injected group, made of up to 4 channels, which corresponds to the sequence of injected channel if an injected conversion is performed.

12.2.3 ADC Resolution and Conversion Speed It is possible to perform faster conversions by reducing the ADC resolution⁸. The sampling time, in fact, is defined by a fixed number of cycles (usually 3) plus a variable number of cycles depending the A/D resolution. The minimum conversion time for each resolution is then as follows: • • • •

12 bits: 3 + ∼12 = 15 ADCCLK cycles 10 bits: 3 + ∼10 = 13 ADCCLK cycles 8 bits: 3 + ∼8 = 11 ADCCLK cycles 6 bits: 3 + ∼6 = 9 ADCCLK cycles

By reducing the resolution is so possible to increase the number of maximum samples per seconds, reaching even more then 15Msps in some STM32 MCUs. Remember that the ADCCLK is derived from the peripheral clock: this means that SYSCLK and PCLK speeds impact on the maximum number of samples per second. ⁸This is not possible in STM32F1 MCUs.

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12.2.4 A/D Conversions in Polling Mode Like the majority of STM32 peripherals, the ADC can be driven in three modes: polling, interrupt and DMA mode. As we will see later, a timer can eventually drive this last mode so that A/D conversions take place at regular interval. This is extremely useful when we need to sample signals at a given frequency, like in audio applications. Once the ADC controller is configured by using an instance of the ADC_InitTypeDef struct passed to the HAL_ADC_Init() routine, we can start the peripheral using the HAL_ADC_Start() function. Depending on the conversion mode chosen, ADC will convert each selected input continuously or once: in this case, to convert again selected inputs we need to call the HAL_ADC_Stop() function before calling again the HAL_ADC_Start() one. In polling mode we use the function HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_ADC_PollForConversion(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc, uint32_t Timeout);

to determine when the A/D conversion is complete and the result is available inside the ADC data register. The function accepts the pointer to the ADC handler descriptor and a Timeout value, which represents the maximum time expressed in milliseconds we are willing to wait. Alternatively, we can pass the HAL_MAX_DELAY to wait indefinitely. To retrieve the result, we can use the function: uint32_t HAL_ADC_GetValue(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc);

We are now finally ready to analyze a complete example. We will start by seeing the APIs used to perform conversions in polling mode. As you will see, there is nothing new compared to what seen so far with other peripherals. The example we are going to study does a simple thing: it uses the internal temperature sensor available in all STM32 MCUs as source for the ADC. The temperature sensor is connected to an internal ADC input. The exact input number depends on the specific MCU family and package. For example, in an STM32F401RE MCU the temperature sensor is connected to the IN18 of ADC1 peripheral. However, the HAL is designed to abstract this specific aspect. Before we analyze the real code, it is best to give a quick look to the electrical characteristics of the temperature sensor, which are reported in the datasheet of the MCU you are considering.

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Table 3: Electrical characteristics of the temperature sensor in an STM32F401RE MCU

Table 3 shows the characteristics of the temperature sensor in an STM32F401RE MCU. It has a typical accuracy of 1°C⁹ and an average slope of 2.5mV/°C. Moreover, the temperature sensor junction works so that at 25°C the voltage drops is 760mV. This means that, to calculate the detected temperature we can use the formula: T emp(°C) =

(VSEN SE − V25 ) + 25 Avg_Slope

[1]

The following code shows how to perform an A/D conversion of the internal temperature sensor output in an STM32F401RE MCU. Filename: src/main-ex1.c 6 7 8

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/ extern UART_HandleTypeDef huart2; ADC_HandleTypeDef hadc1;

9 10 11

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/ static void MX_ADC1_Init(void);

12 13

int main(void) {

14 15 16

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

17 18 19

/* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_ADC1_Init();

⁹STM32 internal temperature sensors are factory calibrated during the IC production. Two temperatures are usually sampled at 30°C and 110°C. They are called TS_CAL1 and TS_CAL2 respectively. The detected temperatures are stored inside the non-volatile system memory. The exact memory address is reported in the specific datasheet. Using this data, it is possible to perform a linearization of the detected temperatures, so that the error is leaded back in the typical accuracy value of 1°C. ST provides an application note dedicated to this topic: the AN3964(http://bit.ly/1XfbuO6). However, keep in mind that the internal temperature sensor measures the temperature of the IC (and therefore of the PCB). According to the specific STM32 family, the MCU running frequency, operations performed, peripherals enabled, power section and so on, the detected temperature can be much higher than the effective ambient temperature. For example, this author have verified that an STM32F7 MCU running at 200MHz has a working temperature of about ∼45°C, at a room temperature of 20°C.

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20

HAL_ADC_Start(&hadc1);

21 22

while (1) { char msg[20]; uint16_t rawValue; float temp;

23 24 25 26 27

HAL_ADC_PollForConversion(&hadc1, HAL_MAX_DELAY);

28 29

rawValue = HAL_ADC_GetValue(&hadc1); temp = ((float)rawValue) / 4095 * 3300; temp = ((temp - 760.0) / 2.5) + 25;

30 31 32 33

sprintf(msg, "rawValue: %hu\r\n", rawValue); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

34 35 36

sprintf(msg, "Temperature: %f\r\n", temp); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

37 38

}

39 40

}

41 42 43 44

/* ADC1 init function */ void MX_ADC1_Init(void) { ADC_ChannelConfTypeDef sConfig;

45

/* Enable ADC peripheral */ __HAL_RCC_ADC1_CLK_ENABLE();

46 47 48

/* Configure the global features of the ADC (Clock, Resolution, Data Alignment and number of conversion) */ hadc1.Instance = ADC1; hadc1.Init.ClockPrescaler = ADC_CLOCK_SYNC_PCLK_DIV2; hadc1.Init.Resolution = ADC_RESOLUTION_12B; hadc1.Init.ScanConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.ContinuousConvMode = ENABLE; hadc1.Init.DiscontinuousConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.DataAlign = ADC_DATAALIGN_RIGHT; hadc1.Init.NbrOfConversion = 1; hadc1.Init.DMAContinuousRequests = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.EOCSelection = ADC_EOC_SEQ_CONV; HAL_ADC_Init(&hadc1);

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

/* Configure for the selected ADC regular channel its corresponding rank in the sequence\

63 64

r

Analog-To-Digital Conversion and its sample time. */ sConfig.Channel = ADC_CHANNEL_TEMPSENSOR; sConfig.Rank = 1; sConfig.SamplingTime = ADC_SAMPLETIME_480CYCLES; HAL_ADC_ConfigChannel(&hadc1, &sConfig);

65 66 67 68 69 70

406

}

The first part to analyze is the function MX_ADC1_Init(), which initializes the ADC1 peripheral. First of all, at line 52 the ADC is configured so that the ADCCLK (that is, the clock of the analog part of the ADC) is the half of the PCLK frequency, which in an STM32F401RE running at its maximum speed is 84MHz. Next, the ADC resolution is configured to the maximum: 12-bit. The scan conversion mode is disabled (line 54), while the continuous conversion mode is enabled (line 55) so that we can repeatedly poll for a conversion without stopping and then restarting the ADC. Therefore, the EOC flag is set to ADC_EOC_SEQ_CONV at line 60. Take note that the parameter NbrOfConversion at line 59 is completely meaningless and redundant in this case, because the single conversion mode automatically assumes that the number of sampled channels is equal to 1. Lines [66:68] configure the temperature sensor channel and assign it the rank 1: even if we are not performing a scan conversion, we need to specify the rank for the channel used. The sampling time is set to 480 cycles: this means that, given the clock speed of 84MHz, and considered that the ADCCLK is set to the half of the PCLK speed, we have that an A/D conversion is performed every 10μs¹⁰. Why we are choosing that conversion speed? The reason comes from the Table 3, which states that the ADC sampling time, TS_temp , is equal to 10μs to have an accuracy of 1°C. For example, if you increase the speed to 3 cycles, by setting the SamplingTime field to ADC_SAMPLETIME_3CYCLES you will see that the converted result is often completely wrong. Always in the same table you can find another interesting data: the temperature sensor start time (that is, the time needed to stabilize the output voltage when the sensor is enabled) ranges between 6 and 10μs. However, we do not need to take care of this aspect, since the HAL_ADC_ConfigChannel() routine is designed to handle the startup time correctly. This means that, the function will perform busy-wait for 10μs to allow the temperature sensor to settle.

We can now focus on the main() routine. Once the ADC1 peripheral is started (line 21), we start an infinite loop that cyclically polls the ADC for the A/D conversion. When completed, we can retrieve the converted value and apply equation [1] to compute the temperature in Celsius degrees. The result is finally printed on the UART2 interface.

¹⁰That number comes from the fact that the ADCCLK interface, running at 48MHz, performs 48 cycles every 1μs. So 480 cycles divided for 48 cycles/μs gives 10μs.

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The HAL_ADC module in the CubeF1 HAL slightly differs from the other HALs. To start a conversion driven by software it is required that the parameter hadc.Init.ExternalTrigConv = ADC_SOFTWARE_START is specified during the ADC initialization. This completely differs from what other HALs do, and it is not clear why ST developers have adopted this different approach. Moreover, even CubeMX offers a different configuration to take in account this peculiarity when it generates the corresponding initialization code. Refer to book examples for the complete configuration procedure.

12.2.5 A/D Conversions in Interrupt Mode Performing an A/D conversion in interrupt mode is not too much different from what seen so far. As usual, we have to define the ISR connected to the ADC interrupt, to assign a wanted interrupt priority and to enable the corresponding IRQ. Like all other HAL peripherals, we have to call the HAL_ADC_IRQHandler() from the ADC ISR and to implement the callback routine HAL_ADC_ConvCpltCallback(), which is automatically called by the HAL when a conversion ends. Finally, all the ADC related interrupts are enabled by starting the ADC using the HAL_ADC_Start_IT() function. The following example just shows how to perform a conversion in interrupt mode. The initialization code for the ADC is the same used in the previous example. int main(void) { HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init(); /* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_ADC1_Init(); HAL_NVIC_SetPriority(ADC_IRQn, 0, 0); HAL_NVIC_EnableIRQ(ADC_IRQn); HAL_ADC_Start_IT(&hadc1); while (1); } void ADC_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_ADC_IRQHandler(&hadc1); } void HAL_ADC_ConvCpltCallback(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc) { char msg[20]; uint16_t rawValue; float temp;

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rawValue = HAL_ADC_GetValue(&hadc1); temp = ((float)rawValue) / 4095 * 3300; temp = ((temp - 760.0) / 2.5) + 25; sprintf(msg, "rawValue: %hu\r\n", rawValue); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY); sprintf(msg, "Temperature: %f\r\n", temp); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY); }

12.2.6 A/D Conversions in DMA Mode The most interesting mode to drive the ADC peripheral is the DMA one. This mode allows to perform conversions without the intervention of the CPU and, using DMA in circular mode, we can easily setup ADC so that it performs continuous conversions. Moreover, as we will discover next, this mode is perfect to drive conversions using a timer, allowing to sample input signal at a fixed sampling rate. It is also mandatory to use the ADC peripheral in DMA mode when we want to perform conversions of multiple channels using scan mode. To perform A/D conversions in DMA mode, as usual the steps involved in this process are the following ones: • Setup the ADC peripheral according the wanted conversion mode (scan single, scan continuous, etc). • Setup the DMA channel/stream corresponding to the ADC controller used. • Link the DMA handler descriptor to the ADC handler using the __HAL_LINKDMA() macro. • Enable the DMA and the IRQ associated to the DMA stream used. • Start the ADC in DMA mode using the HAL_ADC_Start_DMA() passing the reference to the array used to store acquired data from the ADC. • Be prepared to capture EOC event by defining the HAL_ADC_ConvCpltCallback()¹¹ callback. The following example, designed to run on an STM32F401RE MCU, shows how to perform a single scan conversion using DMA mode. The first part we are going to analyze is the one related to the setup of both ADC peripheral and DMA controller.

¹¹The HAL_ADC module also provides the HAL_ADC_ConvHalfCpltCallback() callback called when half of the scan conversion sequence is completed.

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

Filename: src/main-ex2.c 44 45 46

/* ADC1 init function */ void MX_ADC1_Init(void) { ADC_ChannelConfTypeDef sConfig;

47

/* Enable ADC peripheral */ __HAL_RCC_ADC1_CLK_ENABLE();

48 49 50

/**Configure the global features of the ADC */ hadc1.Instance = ADC1; hadc1.Init.ClockPrescaler = ADC_CLOCK_SYNC_PCLK_DIV8; hadc1.Init.Resolution = ADC_RESOLUTION_12B; hadc1.Init.ScanConvMode = ENABLE; hadc1.Init.ContinuousConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.DiscontinuousConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.DataAlign = ADC_DATAALIGN_RIGHT; hadc1.Init.NbrOfConversion = 3; hadc1.Init.DMAContinuousRequests = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.EOCSelection = ADC_EOC_SEQ_CONV; HAL_ADC_Init(&hadc1);

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

/**Configure for the selected ADC regular channels */ sConfig.Channel = ADC_CHANNEL_TEMPSENSOR; sConfig.Rank = 1; sConfig.SamplingTime = ADC_SAMPLETIME_480CYCLES; HAL_ADC_ConfigChannel(&hadc1, &sConfig);

65 66 67 68 69 70

sConfig.Channel = ADC_CHANNEL_TEMPSENSOR; sConfig.Rank = 2; HAL_ADC_ConfigChannel(&hadc1, &sConfig);

71 72 73 74

sConfig.Channel = ADC_CHANNEL_TEMPSENSOR; sConfig.Rank = 3; HAL_ADC_ConfigChannel(&hadc1, &sConfig);

75 76 77 78

}

79 80 81 82 83

void HAL_ADC_MspInit(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc) { if(hadc->Instance==ADC1) { /* Peripheral clock enable */ __HAL_RCC_ADC1_CLK_ENABLE();

84 85 86 87

/* Peripheral DMA init*/ hdma_adc1.Instance = DMA2_Stream0; hdma_adc1.Init.Channel = DMA_CHANNEL_0;

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hdma_adc1.Init.Direction = DMA_PERIPH_TO_MEMORY; hdma_adc1.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_adc1.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_adc1.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_adc1.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_adc1.Init.Mode = DMA_NORMAL; hdma_adc1.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; hdma_adc1.Init.FIFOMode = DMA_FIFOMODE_DISABLE; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_adc1);

88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

__HAL_LINKDMA(hadc,DMA_Handle,hdma_adc1);

98

}

99 100

}

101 102 103 104

void HAL_ADC_ConvCpltCallback(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc) { convCompleted = 1; }

The MX_ADC1_Init() configures the ADC so that it perform a single scan of three inputs. The ADCCLK is set to the lowest one (line 54), and the scan mode is enabled (line 56). As you can see, we are configuring the ADC so that it always performs a conversion from the internal temperature sensor: it is not too much useful, but unfortunately Nucleo boards do not embed analog peripherals to play with. The HAL_ADC_MspInit() function is automatically called by the HAL when the HAL_ADC_Init() routine is invoked at line 64. It simply configures the DMA2 Stream0/Channel0 so that peripheralto-memory transfers are performed when the ADC completes a conversion. Clearly, the conversion sequence is specified by the rank assigned to a channel. Since the ADC data register is 16-bit wide, we configure the DMA so that a half-word transfer is performed. Finally, the HAL_ADC_ConvCpltCallback() function is automatically called by the HAL when the scan conversion ends (the call to this function is triggered by the HAL_DMA_IRQHandler() invoked from the DMA2_Stream0_IRQHandler(), which is not shown here). The callback sets a global variable used to signal the end of conversion. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 7 8 9 10

extern UART_HandleTypeDef huart2; ADC_HandleTypeDef hadc1; DMA_HandleTypeDef hdma_adc1; volatile uint8_t convCompleted = 0;

11 12 13

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/ static void MX_ADC1_Init(void);

14 15

int main(void) {

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char msg[20]; uint16_t rawValues[3]; float temp;

16 17 18 19

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

20 21 22

/* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_ADC1_Init();

23 24 25

HAL_ADC_Start_DMA(&hadc1, (uint32_t*)rawValues, 3);

26 27

while(!convCompleted);

28 29

for(uint8_t i = 0; i < hadc1.Init.NbrOfConversion; i++) { temp = ((float)rawValues[i]) / 4095 * 3300; temp = ((temp - 760.0) / 2.5) + 25;

30 31 32 33

sprintf(msg, "rawValue %d: %hu\r\n", i, rawValues[i]); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

34 35 36

sprintf(msg, "Temperature %d: %f\r\n",i, temp); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

37 38

}

39 40

while (1);

41 42

}

The above lines of code show the main() function. The ADC is started in DMA mode at line 26, passing the pointer to the rawValues array and the number of conversion: this has to correspond to the hadc1.Init.NbrOfConversion field at line 60. Finally, when the convCompleted variable is set to 1, the content of the rawValues array is converted and the result is printed on the UART2 interface. 12.2.6.1 Convert Multiple Times the Same Channel in DMA Mode To perform a given number of conversions of the same channel (or the same channel sequence) in DMA mode, you need to do the following way: • Set the hadc.Init.ContinuousConvMode field to ENABLE. • Allocate a sufficient-sized buffer. • Pass to the HAL_ADC_Start_DMA() the number of wanted acquisitions.

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12.2.6.2 Continuous Conversions in DMA Mode To perform continuous conversions in DMA mode, you need to do the following steps: • Set the hadc.Init.ContinuousConvMode field to ENABLE. • Set the hadc.Init.DMAContinuousRequests field to ENABLE, otherwise the ADC does not retrigger the DMA once the first scan sequence completes. • Configure the DMA Stream/Channel in DMA_CIRCULAR mode.

12.2.7 Errors Management ADC peripheral has the ability to notify developers in case a conversion is lost. This error condition happens when a continuous or scan mode conversion is ongoing and the ADC data register is overwritten by the successive transaction before it is read. When this happens a special bit in the ADC_SR register is set and the ADC interrupt is generated. We can capture the overrun error by implementing the following callback: void HAL_ADC_ErrorCallback(ADC_HandleTypeDef *hadc);

When the overrun error occurs, DMA transfers are disabled and DMA requests are no longer accepted. In this case, if a DMA request is made, the regular conversion in progress is aborted and further regular triggers are ignored. It is then necessary to clear the OVR flag and the DMAEN bit of the used DMA stream, and to reinitialize both the DMA and the ADC to have the wanted converted channel data transferred to the right memory location (all these operations are automatically performed by the HAL when calling the HAL_ADC_Start_DMA() routine). We can simulate an overrun error by enabling the continuous conversion mode in the previous example, and setting to ENABLE the hadc.Init.DMAContinuousRequests field¹²: if the ADC interrupt is enabled, and the HAL_ADC_IRQHandler() is invoked from it, then you will be able to catch the overrun error. The overrun error is not only related to wrong configurations of the ADC interface. It can be generated even when the ADC works in DMA circular mode. For a custom design based on an STM32F4 MCU I made a while ago, where the DMA was heavily exploited by several peripherals, I experienced that the overrun error can occur when other concurrent transactions are performed by the DMA. Even if the bus arbitration should avoid race conditions, especially when priorities are properly set, I experienced this error in some non-reproducible situations. By correctly handling the overrun error I was able to restart conversions when this happened. Needless to say that, before I realized the source of unexpected stops in DMA conversion, I spent several days trying to debug the issue.

¹²In some STM32 MCUs it is also required to explicitly enable the overrun detection by setting the ADC_OVR_DATA_OVERWRITTEN. Consult the HAL source code for the MCU family you are considering.

hadc.Init.Overrun to

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12.2.8 Timer-Driven Conversions ADC peripheral can be configured to be driven from a timer through the TRGO trigger line. The timer used to perform this operation is hardwired during the chip design. For example, in an STM32F401RE MCU the ADC1 peripheral can be synchronized using the TIM2 timer. This feature is extremely useful to perform ADC conversions at a given frequency. For example, we can sample an audio wave generated by a microphone at 20kHz frequency. The result data can be then stored in a persistent memory. The ADC conversions can be driven by timers both in interrupt and DMA mode. The former is useful when we sample just one channel at low frequencies. The latter is mandatory for scan mode conversions at high frequencies. To enable timer-driven conversions you can follow this procedure: • Configure the timer connected to the ADC through the TRGO line according the wanted sampling frequency. • Configure the timer’s TRGO line so that it triggers every time the update event is generated (TIM_TRGO_UPDATE)¹³. • Configure the ADC so that the selected timer TRGO line triggers the conversions, and be sure that continuous conversion mode is disabled (because it is the TRGO line that fires the conversion). Moreover, set the hadc.Init.DMAContinuousRequests field to ENABLE and the DMA in circular mode if you want to perform N conversion at time indefinitely, or set the hadc.Init.DMAContinuousRequests field to DISABLE if you want to stop after N conversions are performed. • Be sure to set the hadc.Init.ContinuousConvMode field to DISABLE, otherwise the ADC performs conversions by its own without waiting the timer trigger. • Start the timer. • Start the ADC in interrupt or DMA mode. The following example shows how to trigger a conversion every 1s in an STM32F401RE MCU using the TIM2 timer.

¹³Please, take note that it is important to configure the timer’s TRGO output mode by using the HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization() routine even if the timer does not work in master mode. This is a source of confusion for novice users and I have to admit that that is a little bit counter-intuitive.

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

Filename: src/main-ex3.c 17 18 19 20

int main(void) { char msg[20]; uint16_t rawValues[3]; float temp;

21

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

22 23 24

/* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_TIM2_Init(); MX_ADC1_Init();

25 26 27 28

HAL_TIM_Base_Start(&htim2); HAL_ADC_Start_DMA(&hadc1, (uint32_t*)rawValues, 3);

29 30 31

while(1) { while(!convCompleted);

32 33 34

for(uint8_t i = 0; i < hadc1.Init.NbrOfConversion; i++) { temp = ((float)rawValues[i]) / 4095 * 3300; temp = ((temp - 760.0) / 2.5) + 25;

35 36 37 38

sprintf(msg, "rawValue %d: %hu\r\n", i, rawValues[i]); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

39 40 41

sprintf(msg, "Temperature %d: %f\r\n",i, temp); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

42 43

} convCompleted = 0;

44 45

}

46 47

}

48 49 50 51

/* ADC1 init function */ void MX_ADC1_Init(void) { ADC_ChannelConfTypeDef sConfig;

52 53 54

/* Enable ADC peripheral */ __HAL_RCC_ADC1_CLK_ENABLE();

55 56 57 58 59 60

/**Configure the global features of the ADC */ hadc1.Instance = ADC1; hadc1.Init.ClockPrescaler = ADC_CLOCK_SYNC_PCLK_DIV8; hadc1.Init.Resolution = ADC_RESOLUTION_12B;

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hadc1.Init.ScanConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.ContinuousConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.DiscontinuousConvMode = DISABLE; hadc1.Init.ExternalTrigConv = ADC_EXTERNALTRIG2_T2_TRGO; hadc1.Init.ExternalTrigConvEdge = ADC_EXTERNALTRIGCONVEDGE_RISING; hadc1.Init.DataAlign = ADC_DATAALIGN_RIGHT; hadc1.Init.NbrOfConversion = 3; hadc1.Init.DMAContinuousRequests = ENABLE; hadc1.Init.EOCSelection = 0; HAL_ADC_Init(&hadc1);

61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

/**Configure for the selected ADC regular channels */ sConfig.Channel = ADC_CHANNEL_TEMPSENSOR; sConfig.Rank = 1; sConfig.SamplingTime = ADC_SAMPLETIME_480CYCLES; HAL_ADC_ConfigChannel(&hadc1, &sConfig);

72 73 74 75 76 77

}

78 79 80 81

void MX_TIM2_Init(void) { TIM_ClockConfigTypeDef sClockSourceConfig; TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig;

82

__HAL_RCC_TIM2_CLK_ENABLE();

83 84

htim2.Instance = TIM2; htim2.Init.Prescaler = 41999; // 84MHz / 42000 = 2000 htim2.Init.Period = 1999; htim2.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim2.Init.ClockDivision = TIM_CLOCKDIVISION_DIV1; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim2);

85 86 87 88 89 90 91

sClockSourceConfig.ClockSource = TIM_CLOCKSOURCE_INTERNAL; HAL_TIM_ConfigClockSource(&htim2, &sClockSourceConfig);

92 93 94

sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_UPDATE; sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE; HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim2, &sMasterConfig);

95 96 97 98

}

99 100 101 102

void HAL_ADC_ConvCpltCallback(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc) { convCompleted = 1; }

The code should be really easy to understand. The function MX_TIM2_Init() configures the TIM2 timer so that it overflow ever 1s. Moreover, the timer is configured so that the TRGO line is asserted

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

416

when it overflows (line 95). The ADC, instead, is configured to perform 3 conversions from the same channel (the channel connected to the temperature sensor). The ADC is also configured to be triggered from the TIM2 TRGO line (lines [65:66]). Finally, the timer is started at line 29 and the ADC is started in DMA mode to perform 3 acquisitions from the DMA data register. The DMA is also configured to work in circular mode. If you run the example, you can see that ever three seconds the DMA completes the transfer and the convCompleted variable is set: this causes that the three conversions are printed on the UART2 interface. Owners of Nucleo boards based on STM32F410RB MCU will find a slightly different example. This because those STM32 MCUs do not allow to trigger the ADC on the timer update event, but only through the Capture Compare Event. For this reason, the timer is started in output capture compare mode, as described in Chapter 11.

12.2.9 Conversions Driven by External Events In some STM32 MCUs it is possible to configure an EXTI line to trigger A/D conversions. For example, in an STM32F401RE MCU the EXTI line 11 can be enabled for such uses. This means that any MCU pin connected on that line (PA11, PB11, etc.) is a valid source to trigger conversions. Take note that it is not possible to use an EXTI line and a timer as trigger source at the same time.

12.2.10 ADC Calibration The ADCs implemented by some STM32 families, like the STM32L4 and STM32F3 ones, provide an automatic calibration procedure that drives all the calibration sequence including the poweron/off sequence of the ADC. During the procedure, the ADC calculates a calibration factor, which is 7-bit wide and which is applied internally to the ADC until the next ADC power-off. During the calibration procedure, the application must not use the ADC and must wait until calibration is complete. Calibration is preliminary to any ADC operation. It removes the offset error that may vary from chip to chip due to process or bandgap variation. The calibration factor to be applied for single-ended input conversions is different from the factor to be applied for differential input conversions. The HAL_ADC_Ex module provides three functions useful to work with ADC calibration. The HAL_ADCEx_Calibration_Start(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc, uint32_t SingleDiff);

automatically performs a calibration procedure. It must be called just after the HAL_ADC_Init(), and before any HAL_ADC_Start_XXX() routine is used. Passing the parameter ADC_SINGLE_ENDED a singleended calibration is performed, while passing the ADC_DIFFERENTIAL_ENDED performs a differential input calibration. The function

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

417

uint32_t HAL_ADCEx_Calibration_GetValue(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc, uint32_t SingleDiff);

is used to retrieve the computed calibration value, while the HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_ADCEx_Calibration_SetValue(ADC_HandleTypeDef* hadc, uint32_t SingleD\ iff, uint32_t CalibrationFactor);

is used to set up a custom derived calibration value. For more information, consult the reference manual for the MCU you are considering.

12.3 Using CubeMX to Configure ADC Peripheral CubeMX allows to easily configure the ADC peripheral in few steps. The first one consists in enabling the wanted ADC channels in the IP Tree view, as shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11: The IP Tree view pane allows to select input channels of the ADC

Once the inputs are enabled, we can configure the ADC peripheral from the Configuration view, as shown in Figure 12.

418

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

Figure 12: The ADC configuration view in CubeMX

The fields reflect the ADC configuration parameters seen so far. There is only one part that tends to confuse novice users: the way channels are configured. In fact, we first need to configure the number of channels used by setting the Number of Conversion field. Next, (this is really important) we need to click elsewhere in the configuration dialog so that the number of Rank fields increases according the specified number of channels. In those MCU providing the notion of regular and injected groups we can select the sampling speed for each channel independently. CubeMX will generate all the initialization code automatically.

As stated before in this chapter, the HAL_ADC module in the CubeF1 HAL differs from the other HALs. To start a conversion driven by software it is required that the parameter hadc.Init.ExternalTrigConv = ADC_SOFTWARE_START is specified during the ADC initialization. CubeMX reflects this different configuration, but it is tricky to understand how to configure the peripheral in the right way. So, to enable software-driven conversion, the External Trigger Conversion Edge parameter must be set to Trigger detection on the rising edge. This makes the field External Trigger Conversion Source available and you have to select the entry Software trigger. Otherwise you will not be able to perform conversions.

Analog-To-Digital Conversion

419

13. Digital-To-Analog Conversion In the previous chapter we focused our attention on the ADC controller, showing the most relevant characteristics of this important peripheral that all STM32 microcontrollers provide. The reverse of this operation is demanded to the Digital to Analog Converter (DAC). Depending on the family and package used, STM32 microcontrollers usually provide only a DAC with one or two dedicated outputs, with the exception of few part numbers from the STM32F3-series that implement two DACs, the first one with two outputs and the other one with just one output. DAC channels can be configured to work in 8/12-bit mode, and the conversion of the two channels can be performed independently or simultaneously: this last mode is useful in those applications where two independent but synchronous signals must be generated (for example, in audio applications). Like the ADC peripheral, even the DAC can be triggered by a dedicated timer, in order to generate analog signals at a given frequency. This chapter gives a quick introduction to the most relevant characteristics of this peripheral, leaving to the reader the responsibility to deepen the features of the DAC in the specific STM32 microcontroller he is considering. As usual, we are now going to give a brief explanation about how a DAC controller works.

13.1 Introduction to the DAC Peripheral A DAC is a device that converts a number to an analog signal, which is proportional to a supplied reference voltage VREF (see Figure 1). There are many categories of DACs. Some of these include Pulse Width Modulators (PWM), interpolating, sigma-delta DACs and high speed DACs. We have analyzed how to use an STM32 timer to generate PWM signals in Chapter 11, and we have used this capability to generate an output sine wave with the help of a RC low-pass filter.

Figure 1: The general structure of a DAC

DAC peripherals available in STM32 microcontrollers are based on the common R-2R resistor ladder network. A resistor ladder is an electrical circuit made of repeating units of resistors, and it is

421

Digital-To-Analog Conversion

an inexpensive and simple way to perform a digital-to-analog conversion using repetitive resistor networks, made with high-precise resistors. The network acts as a programmable voltage divider between the reference voltage and the ground.

Figure 2: How a R-2R network can be used to convert a digital quantity to an analog signal

A 8-bit R–2R resistor ladder network is shown in Figure 2. Each bit of the DAC is driven by digital logic gates. Ideally, these gates switch the input bit between V = 0 (logic 0) and V = VREF (logic 1). The R–2R network causes these digital bits to be weighted in their contribution to the output voltage VOU T . Depending on which bits are set to 1 and which to 0, the output voltage will have a corresponding stepped value between 0 and VREF minus the value of the minimal step, corresponding to bit 0. For a given numeric value D, of a R–2R DAC with N bits and 0V /VREF logic levels, the output voltage VOU T is: VOU T =

VREF × D 2N

[1]

For example, if N = 12 (hence 2N = 4096) and VREF = 3.3 V (typical analog supply voltage in an STM32 MCU), then VOU T will vary between 0V (VAL = 0 = 000000002 ) and the maximum (VAL = 4095 = 111111112 ): VOU T = 3.3 ×

4095 ≈ 3.29V 4096

with steps (corresponding to VAL = 1): ∆VOU T = 3.3 ×

1 ≈ 0.0002V 4096

Digital-To-Analog Conversion

422

However, always keep in mind that the precision and stability of the DAC output is heavily affected by the quality of VDDA power domain and the layout of PCB. In STM32 microcontrollers, the DAC module has an accuracy of 12-bit, but it can be configured to work in 8-bit too. In 12-bit mode, the data could be left- or right-aligned. Depending on the sales type and package used, the DAC has two output channels, each one with its own converter. In dual DAC channel mode, conversions could be done independently or simultaneously when both channels are grouped together for synchronous update operations. An input reference pin, VREF+ (shared with others analog peripherals) is available for better resolution. As it happens for the ADC peripheral, even the DAC may be used in conjunction with the DMA controller to generate variable output voltages at a given fixed frequency. This is extremely useful in audio applications, or when we want to generate analog signals working at a given carrier frequency. As we will see later in this chapter, the STM32 DACs have the ability to generate noise waves and triangular waves. Finally, the DAC implemented in STM32 MCUs integrates an output buffer for each channel (see Figure 2), which can be used to reduce the output impedance and to drive external loads directly without having to add an external operational amplifier. Each DAC channel output buffer can be enabled and disabled. Table 1 lists the exact number of DAC peripherals and their related output channels for all STM32 MCUs equipping the sixteen Nucleo boards we are considering in this book.

Table 1: The availability of DAC peripheral in STM32 MCUs equipping Nucleo boards

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13.2 HAL_DAC Module After a brief introduction to the most important features offered by the DAC peripheral in STM32 microcontrollers, it is the right time to dive into the related CubeHAL APIs. To manipulate the DAC peripheral, the HAL defines the C struct DAC_HandleTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { DAC_TypeDef __IO HAL_DAC_StateTypeDef HAL_LockTypeDef DMA_HandleTypeDef DMA_HandleTypeDef __IO uint32_t } DAC_HandleTypeDef;

*Instance; State; Lock; *DMA_Handle1; *DMA_Handle2; ErrorCode;

/* /* /* /* /* /*

Pointer to DAC descriptor */ DAC communication state */ DAC locking object */ Pointer DMA handler for channel 1 */ Pointer DMA handler for channel 2 */ DAC Error code */

Let us analyze the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the DAC descriptor we are going to use. For example, DAC1 is the descriptor of the first DAC peripheral. • DMA_Handle{1,2}: this is the pointer to the DMA handler configured to perform D/A conversions in DMA mode. In DACs with two output channels, there exist two independent DMA handlers used to perform conversions for each channel. As you can see, the DAC_HandleTypeDef struct differs from the other handler descriptors used so far. In fact, it does not provide a dedicated Init parameter, used by the HAL_DAC_Init() function to configure the DAC. This because the effective configuration of the DAC is performed at channel level, and it is demanded to the struct DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t DAC_Trigger;

/* Specifies the external trigger for the selected DAC channel */ uint32_t DAC_OutputBuffer;/* Specifies whether the DAC channel output buffer is enabled or disabled */ } DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef;

• DAC_Trigger: specifies the source used to trigger the DAC conversion. It can assume the value DAC_TRIGGER_NONE when the DAC is driven manually using the HAL_DAC_SetValue() function; the value DAC_TRIGGER_SOFTWARE when the DAC is driven in DMA mode without a timer to “clock” the conversions; the value DAC_TRIGGER_Tx_TRGO to indicate a conversion driven by a dedicated timer. • DAC_OutputBuffer: enables the dedicated output buffer. To actually configure a DAC channel, we use the function:

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424

HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DAC_ConfigChannel(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac, DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef* sConfig, uint32_t Channel);

which accepts the pointer to an instance of the DAC_HandleTypeDef struct, the pointer to an instance of the DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef struct seen before and the macro DAC_CHANNEL_1 to configure the first channel and DAC_CHANNEL_2 for the second one. In some more recent STM32 microcontrollers, like the STM32L476, the DAC also provides additional low-power features. For example, it is possible to enable the sample-and-hold circuitry that allows to keep the output voltage stable even if the DAC is powered off. This is extremely useful in batterypowered applications. In these MCUs the structure of the DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef struct differs, to allow the configuration of these additional features. Refer to the HAL source code for the MCU you are considering.

13.2.1 Driving the DAC Manually The DAC peripheral can be driven manually or using the DMA and a trigger source (e.g. a dedicated timer). We are now going to analyze the first method, which is used when we do not need conversions at high frequencies. The first step consists in starting the peripheral by calling the function HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DAC_Start(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac, uint32_t Channel);

The function accepts the pointer to an instance of the DAC_HandleTypeDef struct, and the channel to activate (DAC_CHANNEL_1 or DAC_CHANNEL_2). Once the DAC channel is enabled, we can perform a conversion by calling the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DAC_SetValue(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac, uint32_t Channel, uint32_t Alignment, uint32_t Data);

where the Alignment parameter can assume the value DAC_ALIGN_8B_R to drive the DAC in 8-bit mode, DAC_ALIGN_12B_L or DAC_ALIGN_12B_R to drive the DAC in 12-bit mode passing the output value left- or right-aligned respectively. The following example, designed to run on a Nucleo-F072RB, shows how to drive the DAC peripheral manually. The example is based on the fact that in the majority of Nucleo boards providing the DAC peripheral one of the output channels corresponds to the PA5 pin, which is connected to LD2 LED. This allows us to fade ON/OFF the LD2 using the DAC.

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Filename: src/main-ex1.c 8

DAC_HandleTypeDef hdac;

9 10 11

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/ static void MX_DAC_Init(void);

12 13 14 15

int main(void) { HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

16

/* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_DAC_Init();

17 18 19

HAL_DAC_Init(&hdac); HAL_DAC_Start(&hdac, DAC_CHANNEL_2);

20 21 22

while(1) { int i = 2000; while(i < 4000) { HAL_DAC_SetValue(&hdac, DAC_CHANNEL_2, DAC_ALIGN_12B_R, i); HAL_Delay(1); i+=4; }

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

while(i > 2000) { HAL_DAC_SetValue(&hdac, DAC_CHANNEL_2, DAC_ALIGN_12B_R, i); HAL_Delay(1); i-=4; }

31 32 33 34 35

}

36 37

}

38 39 40 41 42

/* DAC init function */ void MX_DAC_Init(void) { DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef sConfig; GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

43 44

__HAL_RCC_DAC1_CLK_ENABLE();

45 46 47 48

/* DAC Initialization hdac.Instance = DAC; HAL_DAC_Init(&hdac);

*/

49 50 51

/**DAC channel OUT2 config */ sConfig.DAC_Trigger = DAC_TRIGGER_NONE;

Digital-To-Analog Conversion

426

sConfig.DAC_OutputBuffer = DAC_OUTPUTBUFFER_ENABLE; HAL_DAC_ConfigChannel(&hdac, &sConfig, DAC_CHANNEL_2);

52 53 54

/* DAC GPIO Configuration PA5 ------> DAC_OUT2 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_5; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_ANALOG; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

}

The code is really straightforward. Lines [40:62] configure the DAC so that the Channel 2 is used as output channel. For this reason, the PA5 is configured as analog output (lines [58:61]). Please, take note that since we are going to drive the DAC conversions manually, the channel trigger source is set to DAC_TRIGGER_NONE (line 51). Finally, the main() is nothing more than an infinite loop that increases/decreases the output voltage so that the LD2 fades ON/OFF.

13.2.2 Driving the DAC in DMA Mode Using a Timer The most common usage of the DAC peripheral is to generate an analog waveform with a given frequency (e.g. in audio applications). If this the case, then the best way to drive the DAC is by using the DMA and a timer to trigger the conversions. To start the DAC and perform a transfer in DMA mode we need to configure the corresponding DMA channel/stream pair and use the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DAC_Start_DMA(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac, uint32_t Channel, uint32_t* pData, uint32_t Length, uint32_t Alignment);

which accepts the pointer to an instance of the DAC_HandleTypeDef struct, the channel to activate (DAC_CHANNEL_1 or DAC_CHANNEL_2), the pointer to the array of values to transfer in DMA mode, its length, and the alignment of output values in memory, which can assume the value DAC_ALIGN_8B_R to drive the DAC in 8-bit mode, DAC_ALIGN_12B_L or DAC_ALIGN_12B_R to drive the DAC in 12-bit mode passing the output value left- or right-aligned respectively. For example, we can easily generate a sinusoidal wave using the DAC. In Chapter 11 we have analyzed how to use the PWM mode of a timer to generate sine waves. If our MCU provides a DAC, then the same operation can be carried out more easily. Moreover, depending the specific application, by enabling the output buffer we can avoid external passives at all. To generate a sinusoidal wave running at a given frequency, we have to divide the complete period in a number of steps. Usually more than 200 steps are are a good approximation for an output wave.

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This means that if we want to generate a 50Hz sine wave, then we need to perform a conversion every: fsinewave = 50Hz ∗ 200 = 10kHz

[2]

Since the STM32 DAC has a resolution of 12-bit, we have to divide the value 4095, which corresponds to the maximum output voltage, by 200 steps using the following formula: DACOutput

) )( ) ( ( 2π 4096 +1 = sin x · ns 2

[3]

where ns is the number of samples, that is 200 in our example. Using the above formula we can generate an initialization vector to feed the DAC in DMA mode. Like for the ADC peripheral, we can use a timer configured to trigger the TRGO line at the frequency given by [2]. The following example shows how to generate a 50Hz sine wave using the DAC in an STM32F072 MCU. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 7 8

#define PI 3.14159 #define SAMPLES 200

9 10 11 12 13

/* Private variables ---------------------------------------------------------*/ DAC_HandleTypeDef hdac; TIM_HandleTypeDef htim6; DMA_HandleTypeDef hdma_dac_ch1;

14 15 16 17

/* Private function prototypes -----------------------------------------------*/ static void MX_DAC_Init(void); static void MX_TIM6_Init(void);

18 19 20

int main(void) { uint16_t IV[SAMPLES], value;

21 22 23

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

24 25 26 27

/* Initialize all configured peripherals */ MX_TIM6_Init(); MX_DAC_Init();

28 29 30 31

for (uint16_t i = 0; i < SAMPLES; i++) { value = (uint16_t) rint((sinf(((2*PI)/SAMPLES)*i)+1)*2048); IV[i] = value < 4096 ? value : 4095;

428

Digital-To-Analog Conversion }

32 33

HAL_DAC_Init(&hdac); HAL_TIM_Base_Start(&htim6); HAL_DAC_Start_DMA(&hdac, DAC_CHANNEL_1, (uint32_t*)IV, SAMPLES, DAC_ALIGN_12B_R);

34 35 36 37

while(1);

38 39

}

40 41 42 43 44

/* DAC init function */ void MX_DAC_Init(void) { DAC_ChannelConfTypeDef sConfig; GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

45 46

__HAL_RCC_DAC1_CLK_ENABLE();

47 48 49 50

/**DAC Initialization hdac.Instance = DAC; HAL_DAC_Init(&hdac);

*/

51 52 53 54 55

/**DAC channel OUT1 config */ sConfig.DAC_Trigger = DAC_TRIGGER_T6_TRGO; sConfig.DAC_OutputBuffer = DAC_OUTPUTBUFFER_ENABLE; HAL_DAC_ConfigChannel(&hdac, &sConfig, DAC_CHANNEL_1);

56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

/**DAC GPIO Configuration PA4 ------> DAC_OUT1 */ GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_4; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_ANALOG; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOA, &GPIO_InitStruct);

64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74

/* Peripheral DMA init*/ hdma_dac_ch1.Instance = DMA1_Channel3; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.Direction = DMA_MEMORY_TO_PERIPH; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.PeriphInc = DMA_PINC_DISABLE; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.MemInc = DMA_MINC_ENABLE; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.PeriphDataAlignment = DMA_PDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.MemDataAlignment = DMA_MDATAALIGN_HALFWORD; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.Mode = DMA_CIRCULAR; hdma_dac_ch1.Init.Priority = DMA_PRIORITY_LOW; HAL_DMA_Init(&hdma_dac_ch1);

75 76

__HAL_LINKDMA(&hdac,DMA_Handle1,hdma_dac_ch1);

Digital-To-Analog Conversion 77

429

}

78 79 80 81 82

/* TIM6 init function */ void MX_TIM6_Init(void) { TIM_MasterConfigTypeDef sMasterConfig;

83

__HAL_RCC_TIM6_CLK_ENABLE();

84 85

htim6.Instance = TIM6; htim6.Init.Prescaler = 0; htim6.Init.CounterMode = TIM_COUNTERMODE_UP; htim6.Init.Period = 4799; HAL_TIM_Base_Init(&htim6);

86 87 88 89 90 91

sMasterConfig.MasterOutputTrigger = TIM_TRGO_UPDATE; sMasterConfig.MasterSlaveMode = TIM_MASTERSLAVEMODE_DISABLE; HAL_TIMEx_MasterConfigSynchronization(&htim6, &sMasterConfig);

92 93 94 95

}

The function MX_DAC_Init() configures the DAC so that the first channel performs a conversion when the TIM6 TRGO line is generated. Moreover, the DMA is configured accordingly, setting it in circular mode so that it transfers the content of the initialization vector in the DAC data register continuously. The MX_TIM6_Init() function sets the TIM6 so that it overflows with a frequency equal to 10kHz, triggering the TRGO line that is internally connected to the DAC. Finally, lines [29:32] generate the initialization vector according the equation [3]. Its content is then used to feed the DAC, which is started in DMA mode after the TIM6 is enabled.

Figure 3: The output sine wave generated with the DAC peripheral

By connecting an oscilloscope probe to the PA4 pin of our Nucleo board we can see the output sine wave generate by the DAC (see Figure 3). If we are interested in knowing when a DAC conversion in DMA mode has been completed, we can implement the callback function:

430

Digital-To-Analog Conversion void HAL_DACEx_ConvCpltCallbackChX(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac);

which is automatically called by the HAL_DMA_IRQHandler() routine invoked from the ISR of the DMA channel associated to the DAC peripheral. The final X in the function name must be replaced with 1 or 2 depending on the channel used.

13.2.3 Triangular Wave Generation In several audio applications it is useful to generate triangular waves. While it is perfectly possible to generate a triangular wave using the DMA technique seen before, STM32 DACs allow to generate waves with a triangular shape in hardware.

Figure 4: A triangular wave generated with the DAC

The Figure 4 shows the three parameters that define the shape of the triangular wave. Let us analyze them. • Amplitude: it is a value ranging from 0 to 0xFFF and it determines the maximum height of the wave. It is directly connected to the offset value, as we will see next. Amplitude cannot be an arbitrary value, but it is part of a list of of fixed values. Consult the HAL source code for the complete list of admissible values. • Offset: it is the minimum output value and it represents the lowest point of the wave. The sum of the offset and amplitude cannot exceed the maximum value of 0xFFF. This means that the maximum amplitude of the wave will be given by the difference amplitude - offset. • Frequency: is the frequency of the wave and it is determined by the update frequency of the timer connected to the DAC. The update frequency of the timer is determined by the equation [4] below. This means that if we want to generate a 50Hz triangular wave with an amplitude equal to 2047, the prescaler of a timer running at 48MHz needs to be configured to 234.

fU EV = 2 · amplitude · fwave To generate a triangular waveform we use the function

[4]

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Digital-To-Analog Conversion

HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DACEx_TriangleWaveGenerate(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac, uint32_t Channel\ , uint32_t Amplitude);

which accepts the DAC channel to use and the wanted amplitude. The wave offset, instead, is configured using the HAL_DAC_SetValue() routine. The full procedure to generate a triangular wave is the following one: • • • • •

Configure the DAC channel used to generate the wave. Configure the timer associated to the DAC, and configure its prescaler according equation [4]. Start the DAC using the HAL_DAC_Start() function. Configure the wanted offset value using the HAL_DAC_SetValue() routine. Start triangular wave generation by calling the HAL_DACEx_TriangleWaveGenerate() function.

13.2.4 Noise Wave Generation STM32 DACs are also able to generate noise waves (see Figure 5), using a pseudo-random generator. This is useful in some application domains, like audio applications and RF systems. Moreover, it can be also used to increase the accuracy of ADC peripheral¹. In order to generate a variable-amplitude pseudo-noise, an LFSR (linear feedback shift register) is available in the DAC. This register is preloaded with the value 0xAAA, which may be masked partially or totally. This value is then added up to the DAC data register contents without overflow and this value is then used as output value.

Figure 5: a noise wave generated with the DAC

To generate the noise wave we can use the HAL routine

¹ST provides the AN2668(http://bit.ly/25lJoqx) dedicated to this topic.

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432

HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_DACEx_NoiseWaveGenerate(DAC_HandleTypeDef* hdac, uint32_t Channel, uint32_t Amplitude);

which accepts the channel used to generate the wave and the amplitude value, which is added to the LFSR content to generate the pseudo-random wave. Like for the triangular wave generation, a timer can be used to trigger conversion: this means that the frequency of the wave is determined by the overflow frequency of the timer.

14. I²C Nowadays even the simplest PCB contains two or more digital integrated circuits (IC), in addition to the main MCU, designated to specific tasks. ADCs and DACs, EEPROM memories, sensors, logic I/O ports, RTC clocks, RF circuits and dedicated LCD controllers are just a small list of possible ICs specialized in doing just a single task. Modern digital electronics design is all about the right selection (and programming) of powerful, specific and, most of the times, cheap ICs to mix on the final PCB. Depending on the characteristics of these ICs, they are often designed to exchange messages and data with a programmable device (which usually is, but not limited to, a microcontroller) according to a well-defined communication protocol. Two of the most used protocols for intraboard communications are the I²C and the SPI, both date back to early ‘80 but still widespread in the electronics industry, especially when communication speed is not a strict requirement and it is limited to the PCB boundaries¹. Almost all STM32 microcontrollers provide dedicated hardware peripherals able to communicate using I²C and SPI protocols. This chapter is the first of two dedicated to this topic, and it briefly introduces the I²C protocol and the related CubeHAL APIs to program this peripheral. If interested in deepen the I²C protocol, the UM10204 by NXP² provides the complete and the most updated specification.

14.1 Introduction to the I²C specification The Inter-Integrated Circuit (aka I²C - pronounced I-squared-C or very rarely I-two-C) is a hardware specification and protocol developed by the semiconductor division of Philips (now NXP Semiconductors³) back in 1982. It is a multi-slave⁴, half-duplex, single-ended 8-bit oriented serial bus specification, which uses only two wires to interconnect a given number of slave devices to a master. ¹Although there exist applications where I²C and SPI protocols are used to exchange messages over external wires (usually with a length around the meter), these specifications were not designed to guarantee the robustness of communication over potentially noisy mediums. For this reason, their application is limited to the single PCB. ²http://bit.ly/29URmka ³NXP acquired Freescale Semiconductor in 2015 and both companies provide Cortex-M based microcontrollers. This means that NXP currently provides two distinct and complimentary families of Cortex-M based MCU, the LPC one coming from NXP and the Kinetis one from Freescale. These two families are direct competitors of the STM32 portfolio, and it is not clear which of the two families will survive after this important acquisition (keep evolving both of them is a non-sense, according this author). Although both Kinetis and LPC portfolios are comparable with the STM32-series, this last one is probably more widespread, especially between makers and students. ⁴The I²C can be also a multi-master protocol, meaning that two or more masters can exist on the same bus, but only one master at a time can take the bus control and it is up to masters to arbitrate the access to the bus. In practice, it is really rare to use the I²C in multi-master mode in embedded systems. This book does not cover the multi-master mode.

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I²C

Until October 2006, the development of I²C-based devices was subject to the payment of royalty fees to Philips, but this limitation has been superseded⁵.

Figure 1: A graphical representation of the I²C bus

The two wires forming an I²C bus are bidirectional open-drain lines, named Serial Data Line (SDA) and Serial Clock Line (SCL) respectively (see Figure 1). The I²C protocol specifies that these two lines need to be pulled up with resistors. The sizing of these resistors is directly connected with the bus capacitance and the transmission speed. This document from Texas Instruments⁶ provides the necessary math to compute the resistors value. However, it is quite common to use resistors with a value close to 4.7KΩ. Modern microcontrollers, like STM32 ones, allow to configure GPIO lines as open-drain pull-up, enabling internal pull-up resistors. It is quite common to read around in the web that you can use internal pull-ups to pull I²C lines, avoiding the usage of dedicated resistors. However, in all STM32 devices the internal pull-up resistors have a value close to 20KΩ to avoid unwanted power leaks. Such a value increases the time needed by the bus to reach the HIGH state, reducing the transmission speed. If speed is not important for your application and if (very important) you are not using long traces between the MCU and the IC (less then 2cm), then it is ok to use internal pull-up resistors for a lot of applications. But, if you have sufficient room on the PCB to place a couple of resistors, then it is strongly suggested to use external and dedicated ones.

Read Carefully STM32F1 microcontrollers do not provide the ability to pull-up SDA and SCL lines. Their GPIOs must be configured as open-drain, and two external resistors are required to pull-up I²C lines. ⁵You still have to pay royalties to NXP if you want to receive an official and licensed I²C address pool for your devices, but I think that this not the case of readers of this book. ⁶http://bit.ly/29URjoy

I²C

435

Being a protocol based on just two wires, there should be a way to address an individual slave device on the same bus. For this reason, I²C defines that each slave device provides a unique slave address for the given bus⁷. The address may be 7- or 10-bit wide (this last option is quite uncommon). I²C bus speeds are well-defined by the protocol specification, even if it is not so uncommon to find chips able to talk with custom (and often fuzzy) speeds. Common I²C bus speeds are the 100kHz⁸, also known as standard mode, and the 400kHz, known as fast mode. Recent revisions of the standard can run at faster speeds (1MHz, known as fast mode plus, and 3.4MHz, known as high speed mode, and 5MHz, known as ultra fast mode). I²C protocol is a sufficiently simple protocol so that a MCU can “simulate” a dedicated I²C peripheral if it does not provide one: this technique is called bit-banging and it is commonly used in really low-cost 8-bit architectures, which sometimes do not provide a dedicated I²C interface to reduce pin-count and/or IC cost.

14.1.1 The I²C Protocol In the I²C protocol all transactions are always initiated and completed by the master. This is one of the few rules of this communication protocol to keep in mind while programming (and, especially, debugging) I²C devices. All messages exchanged over the I²C bus are broken up into two types of frame: an address frame, where the master indicates to which slave the message is being sent, and one or more data frames, which are 8-bit data messages passed from master to slave or vice versa. Data is placed on the SDA line after SCL goes low, and it is sampled after the SCL line goes high. The time between clock edges and data read/write is defined by devices on the bus and it vary from chip to chip. As said before, both SDA and SCL are bidirectional lines, connected to a positive supply voltage via a current-source or pull-up resistors (see Figure 1). When the bus is free, both lines are HIGH. The output stages of devices connected to the bus must have an open-drain or open-collector to perform the wired-AND function. The bus capacitance limits the number of interfaces connected to the bus. For a single master application, the master’s SCL output can be a push-pull driver design if there are no devices on the bus that would stretch the clock (more about this later). We are now going to analyze the fundamental steps of an I²C communication. ⁷This constitutes one of the most practical limits of the I²C protocol. In fact, IC manufacturers rarely dedicate enough pins to configure the full slave address used on a given board (no more than three pins are dedicated to this feature, if you are lucky, giving only eight choices of slave addresses). When designing a board with several I²C devices, pay attention to their address and in case of collision you will need to use two or more I²C peripherals to drive them. ⁸There exist ICs communicating only at lower-speeds, but nowadays are uncommon.

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Figure 2: The structure of a base I²C message

14.1.1.1 START and STOP Condition All transactions begin with a START and are terminated by a STOP (see Figure 2). A HIGH to LOW transition on the SDA line while SCL is HIGH defines a START condition. A LOW to HIGH transition on the SDA line while SCL is HIGH defines a STOP condition. START and STOP conditions are always generated by the master. The bus is considered to be busy after the START condition. The bus is considered to be free again a certain time after the STOP condition. The bus stays busy if a repeated START (also called RESTART condition) is generated instead of a STOP condition (more about this soon). In this case, the START and RESTART conditions are functionally identical. 14.1.1.2 Byte Format Every word transmitted on the SDA line must be eight bits long, and this also includes the address frame as we will see in a while. The number of bytes that can be transmitted per transfer is unrestricted. Each byte must be followed by an Acknowledge (ACK) bit. Data is transferred with the Most Significant Bit (MSB) first (see Figure 2). If a slave cannot receive or transmit another complete byte of data until it has performed some other function, for example servicing an internal interrupt, it can hold the clock line SCL LOW to force the master into a wait state. Data transfer then continues when the slave is ready for another byte of data and releases clock line SCL. 14.1.1.3 Address Frame The address frame is always first in any new communication sequence. For a 7-bit address, the address is clocked out most significant bit (MSB) first, followed by a R/W bit indicating whether this is a read (1) or write (0) operation (see Figure 2).

Figure 3: The message structure in case if 10-bit addressing is used

In a 10-bit addressing system (see Figure 3), two frames are required to transmit the slave address. The first frame will consist of the code 1111 0XXD2 where XX are the two MSB bits of the 10-bit slave

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address and D is the R/W bit as described above. The first frame ACK bit will be asserted by all slaves matching the first two bits of the address. As with a normal 7-bit transfer, another transfer begins immediately, and this transfer contains bits [7:0] of the address. At this point, the addressed slave should respond with an ACK bit. If it doesn’t, the failure mode is the same as a 7-bit system. Note that 10-bit address devices can coexist with 7-bit address devices, since the leading 11110 part of the address is not a part of any valid 7-bit addresses. 14.1.1.4 Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK) The ACK takes place after every byte. The ACK bit allows the receiver to signal the transmitter⁹ that the byte was successfully received and another byte may be sent. The master generates all clock pulses over the SCL line, including the ACK ninth clock pulse. The ACK signal is defined as follows: the transmitter releases the SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse so that the receiver can pull the SDA line LOW and it remains stable LOW during the HIGH period of this clock pulse. When SDA remains HIGH during this ninth clock pulse, this is defined as the Not Acknowledge (NACK) signal. The master can then generate either a STOP condition to abort the transfer, or a RESTART condition to start a new transfer. There are five conditions leading to the generation of a NACK: 1. No receiver is present on the bus with the transmitted address so there is no device to respond with an acknowledge. 2. The receiver is unable to receive or transmit because it is performing some real-time function and is not ready to start communication with the master. 3. During the transfer, the receiver gets data or commands that it does not understand. 4. During the transfer, the receiver cannot receive any more data bytes. 5. A master-receiver must signal the end of the transfer to the slave transmitter.

The effectiveness of the ACK/NACK bit is due to the open-drain nature of the I²C protocol. Open-drain means that both master and slave involved in a transaction can pull the corresponding signal line LOW, but cannot drive it HIGH. If one between the transmitter and receiver releases a line, it is automatically pulled HIGH by the corresponding resistor if the other does not pull it LOW. The open-drain nature of the I²C protocol also ensures that can be no bus contention where one device is trying to drive the line HIGH while another tries to pull it LOW, eliminating the potential for damage to the drivers or excessive power dissipation in the system.

⁹Please, take note that here we are generically talking about receiver and transmitter because ACK/NACK bit can be set by both the master and the slave.

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14.1.1.5 Data Frames After the address frame has been sent, data can begin being transmitted. The master will simply continue generating clock pulses on SCL at a regular interval, and the data will be placed on SDA by either the master or the slave, depending on whether the R/W bit indicated a read or write operation. Usually, the first or the first two bytes contains the address of the slave register to write to/read from. For example, for I²C EEPROMs the first two bytes following the address frame represent the address of the memory location involved in the transaction. Depending on the R/W bit, the successive bytes are filled by the master (if the R/W bit is set to 1) or the slave (if R/W bit is 0). The number of data frames is arbitrary, and most slave devices will auto-increment the internal register, meaning that subsequent reads or writes will come from the next register in line. This mode is also called sequential or burst mode (see Figure 4) and it is a way to speed up transfer speed.

Figure 4: A transmission in burst mode where multiple bytes are exchanged in one transaction

14.1.1.6 Combined Transactions The I²C protocol essentially has a simple communication pattern: • a master sends on the bus the address of the slave device involved in the transaction; • the R/W bit, which is the LSB bit in the slave address byte, establishes the direction of data flow (from master to slave - W - or from slave to master - R) • a number of bytes are sent, each one interleaved with an ACK bit, by one of the two peers according to the transfer direction, until a STOP condition occurs. This communication schema has a great pitfall: if we want to ask something specific to the slave device we need to use two separated transactions. Let us consider this example. Suppose we have an I²C EEPROM. Usually this kind of devices has a number of addressable memory locations (a 64Kbits EEPROM is addressable in the range 0 - 0x1FFF¹⁰). To retrieve the content of a memory location, the master should perform the following steps: • start a transaction in write mode (last bit of the slave address set to 0) by sending the slave address on the I²C bus so that the EEPROM begins sampling the messages over the bus; ¹⁰That values come from the fact that 64Kbits are equal to 65536 bits, but every memory location is 8-bit wide, so 65536/8 = 8196 = 0x2000. Since the memory locations starts from 0, then the last one has the 0x1FFF address.

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• send two bytes representing the memory location we want to read; • end a transaction by sending a STOP condition; • start a new transaction in read mode (last bit of the slave address set to 1) by sending the slave address on the I²C bus; • read n-bytes (usually one if reading the memory in random mode, more than one if reading it in sequential mode) sent by the slave device and then ending the transaction with a STOP condition.

Figure 5: The structure of a combined transaction

To support this common communication schema, the I²C protocol defines the combined transactions, where the direction of data flow is inverted (usually from slave to master, or vice versa) after a number of bytes have been transmitted. Figure 5 schematizes this way to communicate with slave devices. The master starts sending the slave address in write mode (note the W in red-bold in Figure 5) and then sends the addresses of registers we want to read. Then a new START condition is sent, without terminating the transaction: this additional START condition is also called repeated START condition (or RESTART). The master sends again the slave address but this time the transaction is started in read mode (note the R in bold in Figure 5). The slave now transmits the content of wanted registers, and the master acknowledges every byte sent. The master ends the transaction by issuing a NACK (this is really important, as we will see next) and a STOP condition. 14.1.1.7 Clock Stretching Sometimes, the master data rate will exceed the slave ability to provide that data. This happens because the data isn’t ready yet (for example, the slave hasn’t completed an analog-to-digital conversion) or because a previous operation hasn’t yet completed (say, an EEPROM which hasn’t completed writing to non-volatile memory yet and needs to finish that before it can service other requests). In this case, some slave devices will execute what is referred to as clock stretching. In clock stretching the slave pauses a transaction by holding the SCL line LOW. The transaction cannot continue until the line is released HIGH again. Clock stretching is optional and most slave devices do not include an SCL driver so they are unable to stretch the clock (mainly to simplify the hardware layout of the I²C interface). As we will discover later, an STM32 MCU configured in I²C slave mode can optionally implement the clock stretching mode.

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14.1.2 Availability of I²C Peripherals in STM32 MCUs Depending on the family type and package used, STM32 microcontrollers can provide up to four independent I²C peripherals. Table 1 summarizes the availability of I²C peripherals in STM32 MCUs equipping all sixteen Nucleo boards we are considering in this book.

Table 1: Effective availability of I²C peripherals in MCUs equipping all sixteen Nucleo boards

For every I²C peripheral, and a given STM32 MCU, Table 1 shows the pins corresponding to SDA and SCL lines. Moreover, darker rows show alternate pins that can be used during the layout of the board. For example, given the STM32F401RE MCU, we can see that I2C1 peripheral is mapped to PB7 and PB6, but PB9 and PB8 can be also used as alternate pins. Note that the I2C1 peripheral uses

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the same I/O pins in all STM32 MCUs with LQFP-64 package. This is a paramount example of the pin-to-pin compatibility offered by STM32 microcontrollers. We are now ready to see how-to use the CubeHAL APIs to program this peripheral.

14.2 HAL_I2C Module To program the I²C peripheral, the CubeHAL defines the C struct I2C_HandleTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { I2C_TypeDef I2C_InitTypeDef uint8_t uint16_t __IO uint16_t DMA_HandleTypeDef DMA_HandleTypeDef HAL_LockTypeDef __IO HAL_I2C_StateTypeDef __IO HAL_I2C_ModeTypeDef __IO uint32_t } I2C_HandleTypeDef;

*Instance; Init; *pBuffPtr; XferSize; XferCount; *hdmatx; *hdmarx; Lock; State; Mode; ErrorCode;

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /*

I²C registers base address I²C communication parameters Pointer to I²C transfer buffer I²C transfer size I²C transfer counter I²C Tx DMA handle parameters I²C Rx DMA handle parameters I²C locking object I²C communication state I²C communication mode I²C Error code

*/ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */ */

Let us analyze the most important fields of this C struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the I²C descriptor we are going to use. For example, I2C1 is the descriptor of the first I²C peripheral. • Init: is an instance of the C struct I2C_InitTypeDef used to configure the peripheral. We will study it more in depth in a while. • pBuffPtr: pointer to the internal buffer used to temporarily store data transferred to and from the I²C peripheral. This is used when the I²C works in interrupt mode and should be not modified from the user code. • hdmatx, hdmarx: pointer to instances of the DMA_HandleTypeDef struct used when the I²C peripheral works in DMA mode. The setup of the I²C peripheral is performed by using an instance of the C struct I2C_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way:

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I²C typedef struct { uint32_t ClockSpeed; uint32_t DutyCycle; uint32_t OwnAddress1; uint32_t OwnAddress2; uint32_t AddressingMode; uint32_t DualAddressMode; uint32_t GeneralCallMode; uint32_t NoStretchMode; } I2C_InitTypeDef;

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /*

Specifies the clock frequency */ Specifies the I²C fast mode duty cycle. */ Specifies the first device own address. */ Specifies the second device own address if dual addressing mode is selected */ Specifies if 7-bit or 10-bit addressing mode is selected. */ Specifies if dual addressing mode is selected. */ Specifies if general call mode is selected. */ Specifies if nostretch mode is selected. */

These are the functions of the most relevant fields of this C struct. • ClockSpeed: this field specifies the speed of the I²C interface and it should correspond to bus speeds defined in the I²C specifications (standard mode, fast mode, and so on). However, the exact value of this field is also a function of the DutyCycle one, as we will see next. The maximum value for this field is, for the majority of STM32 microcontrollers, 400000 (400kHz), meaning that STM32 MCUs can support up to the fast mode. STM32F0/F3/F7/L0/L4 MCUs constitute an exception to this rule (see Table 1), and they support also the fast mode plus (1MHz). In these other MCUs, ClockSpeed field is replaced with another one called Timing. The configuration value for the Timing field is computed differently, and we will not cover it here. ST provides a dedicated application note (AN4235¹¹) that explains how to compute the exact value for this field according to the wanted I²C bus speed. However, CubeMX is able to generate the right configuration value for you.

Table 2: Characteristics of the SDA and SCL bus lines for standard, fast, and fast-mode plus I²C-bus devices

• DutyCycle: this field, which is available only in those MCU not supporting the fast mode plus communication speed, specifies the ratio between tLOW and tHIGH of the I²C SCL line. It can assume the values I2C_DUTYCYCLE_2 and I2C_DUTYCYCLE_16_9 to indicate a duty cycle equal to 2:1 and 16:9. By choosing a given clock duty we can “prescale” the peripheral clock to achieve the wanted I²C clock speed. To better understand the role of this configuration parameter, we need to review some fundamental concepts of the I²C bus. In Chapter 11 we have seen that the duty cycle is the percentage of one period of time (for example, 10μs) in ¹¹http://bit.ly/2bxBoP1

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• • •

which a signal is active. For every I²C bus speed, the I²C specification precisely defines the minimum tLOW and tHIGH values. Table 2, extracted from the UM10204 by NXP¹², shows tLOW and tHIGH values for the given communication speed (values have been highlighted in yellow in Table 2). The ratio of these two values is the duty cycle, which is independent of the communication speed. For example, a 100kHz period corresponds to 10μs, but tHIGH + tLOW from the Table 2 is less than 10μs (4μs+4.7μs=8.7μs). Thus, the ratio of the actual values can vary as long as the tLOW and tHIGH minimum timings are met (4.7μs and 4μs respectively). The point of these ratios is to illustrate that I²C timing constraints are different between I²C modes. They aren’t mandatory ratios that STM32 I²C peripherals need to keep. For example, tHIGH = 4s and tLOW = 6s would be a 0.67 ratio, which is still compatible with timings of the standard mode (100kHz) (because tHIGH = 4s and tLOW > 4.7s, and their sum is equal to 10μs). The I²C peripherals in STM32 MCUs define the following duty cycles (ratios). For standard mode the ratio is fixed to 1:1. This means that tLOW = tHIGH = 5s. For fast mode we can use two ratios: 2:1 or 16:9. 2:1 ratio means that 4μs (=400kHz) are obtained with tLOW = 2.66s and tHIGH = 1.33s and both the values are higher than the one reported in Table 2 (0.6μs and 1.3μs). A 16:9 ratio means that 4μs are obtained with tLOW = 2.56s and tHIGH = 1.44s and both the values are still higher than the one reported in Table 2. When to use a 2:1 ratio instead of the 16:9 one and vice versa? It depends on the peripheral clock (PCLK1) frequency. A 2:1 ratio means that 400MHz are achieved by dividing the clock source by three (1+2). This means that the PCLK1 must be a multiple of 1.2MHz (400kHz * 3). Using a 16:9 ratio means that we are dividing the PCLK1 by 25. That means we can obtain the maximum I²C bus frequency when the PCLK1 is a multiple of 10MHz (400kHz * 25). So, the right selection of the duty cycles depends on the effective speed of the APB1 bus, and the wanted (maximum) I²C SCL frequency. It is important to underline that, even if the SCL frequency is lower than 400kHz (for example, using a ratio equal to 16:9 while having a PCLK1 frequency of 8MHz we can reach a maximum communication speed equal to 360kHz) we still satisfy the requirements of the I²C fast mode specification (400kHz are an upper limit). OwnAddress1, OwnAddress2: the I²C peripheral in STM32 MCUs can be used to develop both master and slave I²C devices. When developing I²C slave devices, the OwnAddress1 field allows to specify the I²C slave address: the peripheral automatically detects the given address on the I²C bus, and it automatically triggers all the related events (for example, it can generate the corresponding interrupt so that the firmware code can start a new transaction on the bus). I²C peripheral supports 7- or 10-bit addressing, as well as the 7-bit dual addressing mode: in this case we can specify two distinct 7-bit slave addresses, so that the device is able to answer to requests sent to both addresses. AddressingMode: this field can assume the values I2C_ADDRESSINGMODE_7BIT or I2C_ADDRESSINGMODE_10BIT to specify 7- or 10-bit addressing mode respectively. DualAddressMode: this field can assume the values I2C_DUALADDRESS_ENABLE or I2C_DUALADDRESS_DISABLE to enable/disable the 7-bit dual addressing mode. GeneralCallMode: the General Call is a sort of broadcast addressing in the I²C protocol. A special I²C slave address, 0x0000 000, is used to send a message to all devices on the same bus.

¹²http://bit.ly/29URmka

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General call is an optional feature and, by setting this field to the I2C_GENERALCALL_ENABLE value, the I²C peripheral will generate events when the general call address is matched. We will not treat this mode in this book. • NoStretchMode: this field, which can assume the values I2C_NOSTRETCH_ENABLE or I2C_NOSTRETCH_DISABLE is used to disable/enable the optional clock stretching mode (take note that by setting it to I2C_NOSTRETCH_ENABLE you disable the clock stretching mode). For more information about this optional I²C mode, refer to UM10204 by NXP¹³ and to the reference manual for your MCU. As usual, to configure the I²C peripheral we use the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Init(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c);

which accepts a pointer to an instance of the I2C_HandleTypeDef seen before.

14.2.1 Using the I²C Peripheral in Master Mode We are now going to analyze the main routines provided by the CubeHAL to use the I²C peripheral in master mode. To perform a transaction over the I²C bus in write mode, the CubeHAL provides the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

where: • hi2c: it is the pointer to an instance of the struct I2C_HandleTypeDef seen before, which identifies the I²C peripheral; • DevAddress: it is the address of the slave device, which can be 7- or 10-bits long depending on the specific IC; • pData: it is the pointer to an array, with a length equal to the Size parameter, containing the sequence of bytes we are going to transmit; • Timeout: represents the maximum time, expressed in milliseconds, we are willing to wait for the transmit completion. If the transmission does not complete in the specified timeout time, the function aborts and returns the HAL_TIMEOUT value; otherwise it returns the HAL_OK value if no other errors occur. Moreover, we can pass a timeout equal to HAL_MAX_DELAY (0xFFFF FFFF) to wait indefinitely for the transmit completion. To perform a transaction in read mode we can use, instead, the following function: ¹³http://bit.ly/29URmka

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Master_Receive(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

Both the previous functions perform the transaction in polling mode. For interrupt based transactions, we can use the functions: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit_IT(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size); \ HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Master_Receive_IT(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size);

These functions work in the same way of other routines seen in previous chapters (for example, those one related to UART transmission in interrupt mode). To use them correctly, we need to enable the corresponding ISR and to place a call to the HAL_I2C_EV_IRQHandler() routine, which in turn calls the HAL_I2C_MasterTxCpltCallback(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c) to signal the completion of the transfer in write mode, or the HAL_I2C_MasterRxCpltCallback(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c) to signal the end of a transfer in read mode. Except for STM32F0 and STM32L0 families, the I²C peripheral in all STM32 MCUs uses a separated interrupt to signal error conditions (take a look to the vector table related to your MCU). For this reason, in the corresponding ISR we need to call the HAL_I2C_ER_IRQHandler(), which in turn calls the HAL_I2C_ErrorCallback(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c) in case of an error. There exist ten different callbacks invoked by the CubeHAL. The Table 3 lists all of them, together with the ISR that invokes the callback. Table 3: CubeHAL available callbacks when an I²C peripheral works in interrupt or DMA mode

Callback

Calling ISR

Description

HAL_I2C_MasterTxCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_MasterRxCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_SlaveTxCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_SlaveRxCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_MemTxCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

Signals that the transfer from master to slave is completed (peripheral working in master mode). Signals that the transfer from slave to master is completed (peripheral working in master mode). Signals that the transfer from slave to master is completed (peripheral working in slave mode). Signals that the transfer from master to slave is completed (peripheral working in slave mode). Signals that the transfer from master to an external memory is completed (this is called only when HAL_I2C_Mem_xxx() routines are used and the peripheral works in master mode).

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Table 3: CubeHAL available callbacks when an I²C peripheral works in interrupt or DMA mode

Callback

Calling ISR

Description

HAL_I2C_MemRxCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_AddrCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_ListenCpltCallback()

I2Cx_EV_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_ErrorCallback()

I2Cx_ER_IRQHandler()

HAL_I2C_AbortCpltCallback()

I2Cx_ER_IRQHandler()

Signals that the transfer from an external memory to the master is completed (this is called only when HAL_I2C_Mem_xxx() routines are used and the peripheral works in master mode). Signals that the master has placed the peripheral slave address on the bus (peripheral working in slave mode). Signals that the listen mode is completed (this happens when a STOP condition is issued and the peripheral works in slave mode - more about this later). Signals that an error condition is occurred (peripheral working both in master and slave mode). Signals that a STOP condition has been raised and the I²C transaction has been aborted (peripheral working both in master and slave mode).

Finally, the functions: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit_DMA(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c,uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Master_Receive_DMA(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size);

allow to perform I²C transactions using DMA. To make complete and full working examples we need an external device able to interact through the I²C bus, since Nucleo boards do not provide such peripherals. For this reason we will use an external EEPROM memory: the 24LCxx. This is a really popular family of serial EEPROMs, which are become a sort of standard in electronics industry. They are cheap (cost usually few tens of cents), they are produced in several packages (ranging from “old” THT P-DIP packages, up to modern and compact WLCP ones), they provide a data retention for more than 200 years and individual pages can be erased more 1 million of times. Moreover, a lot of silicon manufacturers have their own compatible versions (ST also provides its own set of 24LCxx compatible EEPROMs). These memories have the same popularity of 555 timers, and I bet that they will survive for a lot of years to technology innovation.

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Figure 6: The pinout of a 24LCxx EEPROM with a PDIP-8 package

Our examples will be based on the 24LC64 model, which is a 64Kbits EEPROM (this means that the memory is able to store 8Kb or, if you prefer, 8192 bytes). The pinout of the PDIP-8 version is shown in Figure 6. A0, A1 and A2 are used to set the LSB bits of the I²C address, as shown in Figure 7: if one of those pins is tied to the ground, then the corresponding bit is set to 0; if tied to VDD, then the bit is set to 1. If all three pins are tied to the ground, then the I²C address corresponds to 0xA0.

Figure 7: How the 24LCxx I²C address is composed.

WP pin is the write protection pin: if tied to the ground, we can write inside individual memory cells. On the contrary, if connected to VDD, write operations have no effects. Since I2C1 peripheral is mapped to the same pins in all Nucleo boards, Figure 8 shows the right way to connect a 24LCxx EEPROM to the Arduino connector in all sixteen Nucleo boards.

Read Carefully STM32F1 microcontrollers do not provide the ability to pull-up SDA and SCL lines. Their GPIOs must be configured as open-drain. So, you have to add two additional resistors to pull-up I²C lines. Something between 4K and 10K is a proven value.

As said before, a 64Kbits EEPROM has 8192 addresses, ranging from 0x0000 up to 0x1FFF. An individual byte write is performed by sending over the I²C bus the EEPROM address, the upper half of the memory address followed by the lower half, and the value to store in that cell, closing the transaction with a STOP condition.

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Figure 8: How to connect a Nucleo to a 24LCxx EEPROM

Assuming we want to store the value 0x4C inside the memory location 0x320, then Figure 9 shows the right transaction sequence. The address 0x320 is split in two parts: the upper part, equal to 0x3 is transmitted first, and the lower part equal to 0x20 is sent right after. Then the data to store is sent. We can also send multiple bytes in the same transaction: an internal address counter automatically increments at every byte sent. This allows us to reduce the transaction time and increase the total throughput. The ACK bit set by the I²C EEPROM after the last sent byte does not means that data has been effectively stored inside the memory. Sent data is stored in a temporarily buffer, since EEPROM location memories are erased page-by-page and not individually. The whole page (which is composed by 32 bytes) is refreshed at every write operation, and the transferred bytes are stored only at the end of this operation. During the erase time, every command sent to the EEPROM will be ignored. To detect when a write operation has been completed, we need to use the acknowledge polling. This involves the master sending a START condition followed by slave address plus the control byte for a write command (R/W bit set to 0). If the device is still busy with the write cycle, then no ACK will be returned. If no ACK is returned, the START bit and control byte must be resent. If the cycle is complete, the device will return the ACK and the master can then proceed with the next read or write command.

Figure 9: How to perform a write operation with a 24LCxx EEPROM

Read operations are initiated in the same way as write operations, with the exception that the R/W bit of the control byte is set to 1. There are three basic types of read operations: current address read, random read and sequential read. In this book we will focus our attention on the random read mode only, leaving to the reader the responsibility to deepen the other modes. Random read operations allow the master to access any memory location in a random manner. To perform this type of read operation, the memory address must be sent first. This is accomplished by

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sending the memory address to the 24LCxx as part of a write operation (R/W bit set to ‘0’). Once the memory address is sent, the master generates a RESTART condition (repeating START ) following the ACK¹⁴. This terminates the write operation, but not before the internal address counter is set. The master then issues the slave address again, but with the R/W bit set to a 1 this time. The 24LCxx will then issue an ACK and transmit the 8-bit data word. The master will not acknowledge the transfer and generates a STOP condition, which causes the EEPROM to discontinue transmission (see Figure 10). After a random read command, the internal address counter will point to the address location following the one that was just read.

Figure 10: How to perform a random read operation with a 24LCxx EEPROM

We are finally ready to arrange a complete example. We will create two simple functions, named Read_From_24LCxx() and Write_To_24LCxx() that allows to write/read data from a 24LCxx memory, using the CubeHAL. We will then test these routines by simply storing a string inside the EEPROM, and then reading it back: if the original string is equal to the one read from the EEPROM, then the Nucleo LD2 LED starts blinking. Filename: src/main-ex1.c 14 15 16

int main(void) { const char wmsg[] = "We love STM32!"; char rmsg[20];

17

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

18 19 20

MX_I2C1_Init();

21 22

Write_To_24LCxx(&hi2c1, 0xA0, 0x1AAA, (uint8_t*)wmsg, strlen(wmsg)+1); Read_From_24LCxx(&hi2c1, 0xA0, 0x1AAA, (uint8_t*)rmsg, strlen(wmsg)+1);

23 24 25

if(strcmp(wmsg, rmsg) == 0) { while(1) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin); HAL_Delay(100); } }

26 27 28 29 30 31 32

while(1);

33 34

}

¹⁴The 24LCxx EEPROM memories are designed so that they work in the same way even if we end the transaction by issuing a STOP condition, and then we immediately start a new one in read mode. This degree of flexibility we will allow us to build the first example of this chapter, as we will see in a while.

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35 36 37 38

/* I2C1 init function */ static void MX_I2C1_Init(void) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

39

/* Peripheral clock enable */ __HAL_RCC_I2C1_CLK_ENABLE();

40 41 42

hi2c1.Instance = I2C1; hi2c1.Init.ClockSpeed = 100000; hi2c1.Init.DutyCycle = I2C_DUTYCYCLE_2; hi2c1.Init.OwnAddress1 = 0x0; hi2c1.Init.AddressingMode = I2C_ADDRESSINGMODE_7BIT; hi2c1.Init.DualAddressMode = I2C_DUALADDRESS_DISABLE; hi2c1.Init.OwnAddress2 = 0; hi2c1.Init.GeneralCallMode = I2C_GENERALCALL_DISABLE; hi2c1.Init.NoStretchMode = I2C_NOSTRETCH_DISABLE;

43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = GPIO_PIN_8|GPIO_PIN_9; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_AF_OD; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_PULLUP; GPIO_InitStruct.Speed = GPIO_SPEED_FREQ_VERY_HIGH; GPIO_InitStruct.Alternate = GPIO_AF4_I2C1; HAL_GPIO_Init(GPIOB, &GPIO_InitStruct);

53 54 55 56 57 58 59

HAL_I2C_Init(&hi2c1);

60 61

}

Let us analyze the above fragment of code starting from the MX_I2C1_Init() routine. It starts enabling the I2C1 peripheral clock, so that we can program its registers. Then we set the bus speed (100kHz in our case - the duty cycle setting is ignored in this case, because the duty cycle is fixed to 1:1 when the bus runs at speeds lower or equal to 100kHz). We then configure PB8 and PB9 pins so that they act as SCL and SDA lines respectively. The main() routine is really simple: it stores the string "We love STM32!" at the 0x1AAA memory location; the string is then read back from the EEPROM and compared with the original one. We need to explain just why we are storing and reading a buffer with a length equal to strlen(wmsg)+1. This because the C strlen() routines gives back the length of the string skipping the string terminator char ('\0'). Without storing this char, and then reading it back from the EEPROM, the strcmp() at line 26 wouldn’t be able to compute the exact length of the string.

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Filename: src/main-ex1.c 63 64 65 66

HAL_StatusTypeDef Read_From_24LCxx(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint16_t \ MemAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t len) { HAL_StatusTypeDef returnValue; uint8_t addr[2];

67

/* We compute the MSB and LSB parts of the memory address */ addr[0] = (uint8_t) ((MemAddress & 0xFF00) >> 8); addr[1] = (uint8_t) (MemAddress & 0xFF);

68 69 70 71

/* First we send the memory location address where start reading data */ returnValue = HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit(hi2c, DevAddress, addr, 2, HAL_MAX_DELAY); if(returnValue != HAL_OK) return returnValue;

72 73 74 75 76

/* Next we can retrieve the data from EEPROM */ returnValue = HAL_I2C_Master_Receive(hi2c, DevAddress, pData, len, HAL_MAX_DELAY);

77 78 79

return returnValue;

80 81

}

82 83 84 85 86

HAL_StatusTypeDef Write_To_24LCxx(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint16_t M\ emAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t len) { HAL_StatusTypeDef returnValue; uint8_t *data;

87 88 89 90

/* First we allocate a temporary buffer to store the destination memory * address and the data to store */ data = (uint8_t*)malloc(sizeof(uint8_t)*(len+2));

91 92 93 94

/* We compute the MSB and LSB parts of the memory address */ data[0] = (uint8_t) ((MemAddress & 0xFF00) >> 8); data[1] = (uint8_t) (MemAddress & 0xFF);

95 96 97

/* And copy the content of the pData array in the temporary buffer */ memcpy(data+2, pData, len);

98 99 100 101 102

/* We are now ready to transfer the buffer over the I2C bus */ returnValue = HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit(hi2c, DevAddress, data, len + 2, HAL_MAX_DELAY); if(returnValue != HAL_OK) return returnValue;

103 104

free(data);

105 106

/* We wait until the EEPROM effectively stores data in memory */

452

I²C while(HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit(hi2c, DevAddress, 0, 0, HAL_MAX_DELAY) != HAL_OK);

107 108

return HAL_OK;

109 110

}

We can now focus our attention on the two routines to use the 24LCxx EEPROM. Both of them are designed to accept: • • • •

the I²C slave address of the EEPROM memory (DevAddress); the memory address where start storing/reading data (MemAddress); the pointer to the memory buffer used to exchange data with the EEPROM (pData); the amount of data to store/read (len);

The Read_From_24LCxx() function starts computing the two halves of the memory address (MSB and LSB part). It then sends the two parts over the I²C bus using the HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit() routine (line 72). As said before, the 24LCxx memory is designed so that it sets the internal address counter to the passed address. We can so start a new transaction in read mode to retrieve the amount of data from the EEPROM (line 77). The Write_To_24LCxx() functions does a similar thing, but in a different way. It must adhere to the 24LCxx protocol described in Figure 9, which slightly differs from the one in Figure 8 . This means that we cannot use two separated transactions for the memory address and the data to store, but we have to perform a unique I²C transaction. For this reason we use a temporary and dynamic buffer (line 88), which contains the two halves of the memory address plus the data to store in the EEPROM. We can so perform a transaction over the I²C bus (line 98) and then wait until the EEPROM completes the memory transfer (line 105). 14.2.1.1 I/O MEM Operations The protocol used by the 24LCxx EEPROM is indeed common to all I²C devices that have memoryaddressable registers to read to and to write from. For example, a lot of I²C sensors, like the HTS221 by ST, adopt the same protocol. For this reason, ST engineers have already implemented specific routines inside the CubeHAL that do the same job of Read_From_24LCxx() and Write_To_24LCxx() better and faster. The functions:

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Mem_Write(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint16_t MemAddress, uint16_t MemAddSize, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Mem_Read(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint16_t MemAddress, uint16_t MemAddSize, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

allow to store and retrieve data from memory-addressable I²C devices, with just one notably difference: the HAL_I2C_Mem_Write() function is not designed to wait for the write-cycle completion, as we have done in the previous example at line 105. But, even for this operation the HAL provides a dedicated and more portable routine: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_IsDeviceReady(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint32_t Trials, uint32_t Timeout);

This function accepts a maximum number of Trials before returning back an error condition, but if we pass to the function the HAL_MAX_DELAY as Timeout value, then we can pass 1 to the Trials argument. When the polled I²C device is ready the function returns HAL_OK. Otherwise it returns the HAL_BUSY value. So, the main() function seen before can be rearranged in the following way: 14 15 16

int main(void) { char wmsg[] ="We love STM32!"; char rmsg[20];

17 18 19

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

20 21

MX_I2C1_Init();

22 23 24 25

HAL_I2C_Mem_Write(&hi2c1, 0xA0, 0x1AAA, I2C_MEMADD_SIZE_16BIT, (uint8_t*)wmsg, strlen(wmsg)+1, HAL_MAX_DELAY); while(HAL_I2C_IsDeviceReady(&hi2c1, 0xA0, 1, HAL_MAX_DELAY) != HAL_OK);

26 27 28

HAL_I2C_Mem_Read(&hi2c1, 0xA0, 0x1AAA, I2C_MEMADD_SIZE_16BIT, (uint8_t*)rmsg, strlen(wmsg)+1, HAL_MAX_DELAY);

29 30 31 32 33 34 35

if(strcmp(wmsg, rmsg) == 0) { while(1) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin); HAL_Delay(100); } }

454

I²C 36

while(1);

37 38

}

The above APIs works in polling mode, but the CubeHAL provides also corresponding routines to perform transactions in interrupt and DMA mode. As usual, these other APIs have a similar function signature, with just one thing to note: the callback functions used to signal the end of transfers are the HAL_I2C_MemTxCpltCallback() and HAL_I2C_MemRxCpltCallback(), as reported in Table 3. 14.2.1.2 Combined Transactions The transmission sequence of a read operation in a 24LCxx EEPROM memory is a combined transaction. A RESTART condition is used before inverting the direction of the I²C transmission (from write to read). In the first example we were able to use two separated transactions inside the Read_From_24LCxx() because 24LCxx EEPROMs are designed to work in the same way. This is possible thanks to the internal address counter: the first transaction sets the address counter to the wanted location; the second one, performed in read mode, retrieves the data from the EEPROM starting from that location. However, this not only reduces the maximum throughput that may be reached but, more important, often lead to not portable code: there exists several I²C devices that strictly adhere to the I²C protocol and implement combined transactions according to the specification using a RESTART condition (so they do not tolerate a STOP condition in the middle). The CubeHAL provides two dedicated routines to handle combined transaction or, as they are called in the Cube HAL, sequential transmissions: HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size,uint32_t XferOptions); HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint16_t DevAddress, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t XferOptions);

Compared to the other routines seen before, the only relevant parameter to highlight here is XferOptions. It can assume one of the values reported in Table 4 and it is used to drive the generation of START/RESTART/STOP conditions in a single transaction. Both functions work in this way. Let us assume that we want to read n-bytes from the 24LCxx EEPROM. According to the I²C protocol, we must execute the following operations (refer to Figure 10): 1. we have to begin a new transaction in write mode issuing a START condition followed by the slave address; 2. we then transfer two bytes containing MSB and LSB parts of the memory address; 3. we so issue a RESTART condition and transmit the slave device address with the last bit set to 1 to indicate a read transaction. 4. the slave device starts sending data byte-by-byte until we end the transaction by issuing a NACK or a STOP condition.

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I²C

Table 4: Values for the XferOptions parameter to drive the generation of STAR/RESTART/STOP conditions

Transfer option

Description

I2C_FIRST_FRAME

This option allows to generate just the START condition, without generating the final STOP condition at the end of transmission. This option allows to generate a RESTART before transmitting data if the direction changes (that is we call HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT() after HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT() or vice versa), or it allows to manage only the new data to transfer if no direction changes and without a final STOP condition in both cases. This option allows to generate a RESTART before transmitting data if the direction changes (that is we call HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT() after HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT() or vice versa), or it allows to manage only the transfer of new data if no direction changes and with a final STOP condition in both cases. No sequential usage. Both the routine work in the same way of HAL_I2C_Master_Transmit_IT() and HAL_I2C_Master_Receive_IT() functions.

I2C_NEXT_FRAME

I2C_LAST_FRAME

I2C_FIRST_AND_LAST_FRAME

Using sequential transmission routines we can proceed in the following way: 1. we invoke the HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT() routine by passing the slave address and the two bytes forming the memory location address; we invoke the function by passing the value I2C_FIRST_FRAME, so that it generates a START condition without issuing a STOP condition after the two bytes have been sent; 2. we so call the HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT() routine by passing the slave address, the pointer to the buffer used to store read bytes, the amount of bytes to read from the EEPROM and the value I2C_LAST_FRAME, so that the function generates a RESTART condition and terminates the transaction at the end of transfer by issuing a STOP condition. At the time of writing this chapter, sequential transmission routines exist only in interrupt mode version. We do not analyze a usage example here, because we will use them extensively (together with the ones used to develop I²C slave applications) in the next paragraph. Read Carefully At the time of writing this chapter, latest releases of the CubeHAL for F1 and L0 families do not provide sequential transmission routines. I think that ST is actively working on this, and next releases of the HAL should introduce them. For the same reason, owners of the Nucleo-F103RB and Nucleo-L0XX boards will not be able to execute the examples related to the usage of the I²C peripheral in slave mode.

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14.2.1.3 A Note About the Clock Configuration in STM32F0/L0/L4 families In STM32F0/L0 families it is possible to select different clock sources for the I2C1 peripheral. This because in those families the I2C1 peripheral is able to work even in some low-power modes, allowing to wake-up the MCU when the I²C works in slave mode and the configured slave address is placed on the bus. Refer to the Clock view in CubeMX for more about this. In STM32L4 MCUs it is possible to select the clock source for all I²C peripherals.

14.2.2 Using the I²C Peripheral in Slave Mode Nowadays there are a lot of System-on-Board (SoB) modules on the marked. These are usually small PCBs already populated with several ICs and specialized in doing something relevant. GPRS and GPS modules or multi-sensors boards are examples of SoB modules. These modules then are soldered to the main board, thanks to the fact that they expose solderable pads on their sides also know as “castellated vias” or “castellations”. Figure 11 shows the INEMO-M1 module by ST, which is an integrated and programmable module with an STM32F103 and two highly-integrated MEMS sensors (a 6-axis digital e-compass and a 3-axis digital gyroscope).

Figure 11: The INEMO-M1 module by ST

The MCU on these boards usually comes pre-programmed with a firmware, which is specialized in doing a well-established task. The host board also contains another programmable IC, maybe another MCU or something similar. The main board interacts with the SoB using a well-known communication protocol, which usually are the UART, the CAN bus, the SPI or the I²C bus. For this reason, it is quite common to program STM32 devices to make they working in I²C slave mode. The CubeHAL provides all the necessary glue to develop I²C slave applications easily. The slave routines are identical to the one used to program I²C peripherals in master mode. For example, the following routines are used to transmit/receive data in interrupt mode when the I²C peripheral is used in slave mode:

457

I²C HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Slave_Transmit_IT(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_I2C_Slave_Receive_IT(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size);

In the same way, the callback routines invoked at the end of data transmission/reception are the following ones: void HAL_I2C_SlaveTxCpltCallback(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c); void HAL_I2C_SlaveRxCpltCallback(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c);

We are now going to analyze a complete example that shows how to develop I²C slave applications using the CubeHAL. We will realize a sort of digital temperature sensor with an I²C interface really similar to the majority of digital temperature sensors on the marked (for example, the popular TMP275 by TI and the HT221 by ST). This “sensor” will provide just three registers: • a WHO_AM_I register, used by master code to check that the I²C interface works correctly; this register returns the fixed value 0xBC. • two temperature-related registers, named TEMP_OUT_INT and TEMP_OUT_FRAC, which contains the integer and fractional part of the acquired temperature; for example, if the detected temperature is equal to 27.34°C, then the TEMP_OUT_INT register will contain the value 27 and the TEMP_OUT_FRAC the value 34.

Figure 12: The I²C protocol used to read internal register of our slave device

Our sensor will be designed to answer to a really simple protocol, based on combined transactions, which is shown in Figure 12. As you can see, the only notably difference with the protocol used by 24LCxx EEPROMs, when accessing to memory in random read mode, is the size of the memory register, which is just one byte in this case. The example provides both a “slave” and a “master” implementation: the macro SLAVE_BOARD, defined at project level, drives the compilation of the two parts. The example requires two Nucleo boards¹⁵.

¹⁵Unfortunately, when I started designing this example I thought that it were possible to use just one board, connecting the pins associated with an I²C peripheral to those ones of another I²C peripheral (for example, I2C1 pins directly connected to the I2C3 pins). But, after a lot of struggling, I reached to the conclusion that I²C peripherals in an STM32 are not “truly asynchronous” and it is not possible to use two I²C peripherals concurrently. So, to run this examples you will need two Nucleo boards, or just one Nucleo and another development kit: in this case, you need to rearrange the master part accordingly.

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Filename: src/main-ex2.c 15

volatile uint8_t transferDirection, transferRequested;

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

#define #define #define #define #define #define #define

TEMP_OUT_INT_REGISTER TEMP_OUT_FRAC_REGISTER WHO_AM_I_REGISTER WHO_AM_I_VALUE TRANSFER_DIR_WRITE TRANSFER_DIR_READ I2C_SLAVE_ADDR

0x0 0x1 0xF 0xBC 0x1 0x0 0x33

24 25 26 27 28 29

int main(void) { char uartBuf[20]; uint8_t i2cBuf[2]; float ftemp; int8_t t_frac, t_int;

30 31 32

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

33 34

MX_I2C1_Init();

35 36 37 38

#ifdef SLAVE_BOARD uint16_t rawValue; uint32_t lastConversion;

39 40 41

MX_ADC1_Init(); HAL_ADC_Start(&hadc1);

42 43 44 45 46 47

while(1) { HAL_I2C_EnableListen_IT(&hi2c1); while(!transferRequested) { if(HAL_GetTick() - lastConversion > 1000L) { HAL_ADC_PollForConversion(&hadc1, HAL_MAX_DELAY);

48 49 50 51

rawValue = HAL_ADC_GetValue(&hadc1); ftemp = ((float)rawValue) / 4095 * 3300; ftemp = ((ftemp - 760.0) / 2.5) + 25;

52 53 54

t_int = ftemp; t_frac = (ftemp - t_int)*100;

55 56 57 58

sprintf(uartBuf, "Temperature: %f\r\n", ftemp); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)uartBuf, strlen(uartBuf), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

459

I²C sprintf(uartBuf, "t_int: %d - t_frac: %d\r\n", t_frac, t_int); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)uartBuf, strlen(uartBuf), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

59 60 61

lastConversion = HAL_GetTick();

62

}

63

}

64 65

transferRequested = 0;

66 67

if(transferDirection == TRANSFER_DIR_WRITE) { /* Master is sending register address */ HAL_I2C_Slave_Sequential_Receive_IT(&hi2c1, i2cBuf, 1, I2C_FIRST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_LISTEN);

68 69 70 71 72

switch(i2cBuf[0]) { case WHO_AM_I_REGISTER: i2cBuf[0] = WHO_AM_I_VALUE; break; case TEMP_OUT_INT_REGISTER: i2cBuf[0] = t_int; break; case TEMP_OUT_FRAC_REGISTER: i2cBuf[0] = t_frac; break; default: i2cBuf[0] = 0xFF; }

73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

HAL_I2C_Slave_Sequential_Transmit_IT(&hi2c1, i2cBuf, 1, I2C_LAST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

87 88

}

89 90

}

The most relevant part of the main() function starts at line 44. The HAL_I2C_EnableListen_IT() routine enables all the I²C peripheral-related interrupts. This means that a new interrupt will fire when the master places the slave device address (which is defined by the macro I2C_SLAVE_ADDR). The HAL_I2C_EV_IRQHandler() routines so will automatically call the HAL_I2C_AddrCallback() function, that we will analyze later. The main() function then starts performing an A/D conversion of the internal temperature sensor every second, and it splits the acquired temperature (stored in the ftemp variable) in two 8-bit integers, t_int and t_frac: these represent the integer and fractional parts of the temperature. The main function temporarily stops the A/D conversion as soon as transferRequested variable becomes equal to 1: this global variable is set by the HAL_I2C_AddrCallback() function, together

I²C

460

with the transferDirection one, which contains the transfer direction (read/write) of the I²C transaction. If the master is starting a new transaction in write mode, then it means that it is transferring the register address. The HAL_I2C_Slave_Sequential_Receive_IT() function is then invoked at line 70: this will cause that the register address is received from the master. Since the function works in interrupt mode, we need a way to wait until the transfer is completed. The HAL_I2C_GetState() returns the internal status of the HAL, which is equal to HAL_I2C_STATE_BUSY_RX_LISTEN until the transfer finishes. When this happens, the status goes back to HAL_I2C_STATE_LISTEN and we can proceed by transferring to the master the content of the wanted register. This is performed at line 87, where the function HAL_I2C_Slave_Sequential_Transmit_IT() is called: the function inverts the transfer direction, and sends to the master the content of the wanted register. The tricky part is represented by the line 88. Here we do a busy spin until the I²C peripheral state is equal to HAL_I2C_STATE_READY. Why we do not check the peripheral status against the HAL_I2C_STATE_LISTEN state, as we have performed at line 71? To understand this aspect we need to remember an important thing of combined transactions. When a transaction inverts the transfer direction, the master starts acknowledging every byte sent. Remember that only the master knows how long a transaction lasts, and it decides when to stop the transaction. In combined transactions, a master ends the transfer from the slave to the master by issuing a NACK, which causes the slave to issue a STOP condition. From the I²C peripheral point of view, a STOP condition causes the peripheral to exit from listen mode (technically speaking, it generates an abort condition - if you implement the HAL_I2C_AbortCpltCallback() callback, you can track when this happens), and that is the reason why we need to check against the HAL_I2C_STATE_READY state and to place again the peripheral in listen mode at line 44. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 92 93 94 95 96

#else //Master board i2cBuf[0] = WHO_AM_I_REGISTER; HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT(&hi2c1, I2C_SLAVE_ADDR, i2cBuf, 1, I2C_FIRST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

97 98 99 100

HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT(&hi2c1, I2C_SLAVE_ADDR, i2cBuf, 1, I2C_LAST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

101 102 103

sprintf(uartBuf, "WHO AM I: %x\r\n", i2cBuf[0]); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) uartBuf, strlen(uartBuf), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

104 105 106 107 108 109

i2cBuf[0] = TEMP_OUT_INT_REGISTER; HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT(&hi2c1, I2C_SLAVE_ADDR, i2cBuf, 1, I2C_FIRST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

I²C

461

HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT(&hi2c1, I2C_SLAVE_ADDR, (uint8_t*)&t_int, 1, I2C_LAST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

110 111 112 113

i2cBuf[0] = TEMP_OUT_FRAC_REGISTER; HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT(&hi2c1, I2C_SLAVE_ADDR, i2cBuf, 1, I2C_FIRST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

114 115 116 117 118

HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT(&hi2c1, I2C_SLAVE_ADDR, (uint8_t*)&t_frac, 1, I2C_LAST_FRAME); while (HAL_I2C_GetState(&hi2c1) != HAL_I2C_STATE_READY);

119 120 121 122

ftemp = ((float)t_frac)/100.0; ftemp += (float)t_int;

123 124 125

sprintf(uartBuf, "Temperature: %f\r\n", ftemp); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*) uartBuf, strlen(uartBuf), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

126 127 128 129

#endif

130

while (1);

131 132

}

Finally, it is important to underline that the implementation of the “slave part” is still not sufficiently robust. In fact, we should handle all the possible wrong cases that may happen. For example, the master may shutdown the connection just in the middle of the two transactions. This would complicate a lot the example, and it is left to exercise to the reader. The “master part” of the example starts at line 92. The code is really straightforward. Here we use the HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Transmit_IT() function to start a combined transaction and the HAL_I2C_Master_Sequential_Receive_IT() to retrieve the content of the wanted register from the slave. The integer and fractional part of the temperature are then combined again in a float, and the acquired temperature is printed on the UART2. Filename: src/main-ex2.c 134 135 136

void I2C1_EV_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_I2C_EV_IRQHandler(&hi2c1); }

137 138 139 140 141

void I2C1_ER_IRQHandler(void) { HAL_I2C_ER_IRQHandler(&hi2c1); }

462

I²C 142 143 144

void HAL_I2C_AddrCallback(I2C_HandleTypeDef *hi2c, uint8_t TransferDirection, uint16_t Add\ rMatchCode) { UNUSED(AddrMatchCode);

145

if(hi2c->Instance == I2C1) { transferRequested = 1; transferDirection = TransferDirection; }

146 147 148 149 150

}

The last part we need to analyze is represented by ISR handlers. The ISR I2C1_EV_IRQHandler() invokes the HAL_I2C_EV_IRQHandler(), as said before. This causes that the HAL_I2C_AddrCallback() function is called every time the master transmit the slave address on the bus. When invoked, the callback will receive the pointer to the I2C_HandleTypeDef representing the specific I²C descriptor, the direction of the transfer (TransferDirection) and the matched I²C address (AddrMatchCode): this is required because an STM32 I²C peripheral working in slave mode can answer to two different addresses, and so we have a way to write conditional code depending on the I²C address issued by the master.

14.3 Using CubeMX to Configure the I²C Peripheral As usual, CubeMX reduces to the minimum the effort needed to configure the I²C peripheral. Once the peripheral is enabled in the IP tree pane (from the Pinout view), we can configure all settings from the Configuration view, as shown in Figure 13.

Figure 13: The CubeMX configuration view to setup the I²C peripheral

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Read Carefully By default, when enabling the I2C1 peripheral in STM32 MCUs with LQFP-64 packages, CubeMX enables as default peripheral I/Os PB7 and PB6 pins (SDA and SCL respectively). These aren’t the pins latched to the Arduino connector on the Nucleo, but you need to select the two alternative pins PB9 and PB8 by clicking on them and then selecting the corresponding function from the drop-down menu, as shown in the following picture.

Figure 14: How to select the right I2C1 pins in a Nucleo-64 board

15. SPI In the previous chapter we have analyzed one of the two most widespread communication standards that rule the “market” of intra-boards communication systems: the I²C protocol. Now it is time to analyze the other player: the SPI protocol. All STM32 microcontrollers provide at least one SPI interface, which allows to develop both master and slave applications. The CubeHAL implements all the necessary stuff to program such peripherals easily. This chapter gives a quick overview of the HAL_SPI module after, as usual, a brief introduction to the SPI specification.

15.1 Introduction to the SPI Specification The Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) is a specification about serial, synchronous and full-duplex communications between a master controller (which is usually implemented with an MCU or something with programmable functionalities) and several slave devices. As we will see next, the nature of the SPI interface allows full duplex as well as half duplex communications over the same bus. SPI specification is a de facto standard, and it was defined by Motorola¹ in late ‘70, and it is still largely adopted as communication protocol for many digital ICs. Different from the I²C protocol, the SPI specification does not force a given message protocol over its bus, but it is limited to bus signaling giving to slave devices total freedom about the structure of exchanged messages.

Figure 1: The structure of a typical SPI bus ¹Motorola was a company that has been split in several sub-companies over the years. The semiconductor division of Motorola flowed into ON Semiconductor, which is still one of the largest semiconductors company in the world.

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A typical SPI bus is formed by four signals, as shown in Figure 1, even if it is possible to drive some SPI devices with just three I/Os (in this case we talk about 3-wire SPI ): • SCK: this signal I/O is used to generate the clock to synchronize data transfer over the SPI bus. It is generated by the master device, and this means that in an SPI bus every transfer is always started by the master. Different from the I²C specification, the SPI is intrinsically faster and the SPI clock speed is usually several MHz. Nowadays is quite common to find SPI devices able to exchange data at a rate up to 100MHz. Moreover, the SPI protocol allows to devices with different communication speeds to coexist over the same bus. • MOSI: the name of this signal I/O stands for Master Output Slave Input, and it is used to send data from the master device to a slave one. Different from the I²C bus, where just one wire is used to exchange data both the ways, the SPI protocol defines two distinct lines to exchange data between master and slaves. • MISO: it stands for Master Input Slave Output and it corresponds to the I/O line used to send data from a slave device to the master. • SSn: it stands for Slave Select and in a typical SPI bus there exist ‘n’ separated lines used to address the specific SPI devices involved in a transaction. Different from the I²C protocol, the SPI does not use slave addresses to select devices, but it demands this operation to a physical line that is asserted LOW to perform a selection. In a typical SPI bus only one slave device can be active at same time by asserting low its SS line. This is the reason why devices with different communication speed can coexist on the same bus². Having two separated data communication lines, MOSI and MISO, the SPI intrinsically allows fullduplex communications, since a slave device is able to send data to the master while it receives new one from it. In a one-to-one SPI bus (just one master and one slave), the SS signal can be omitted (the corresponding slave’s I/O is tied to the ground), and MISO/MOSI lines are fused in a single line called Slave In/Slave Out (SISO). In this case we can talk about 2-wire SPI, even if it is essentially a 3-wire bus. ²For the sake of completeness, we have to say that this is not the exact reason why it is possible to have devices with different communication speeds on the same bus. The main reason is due to the fact that slave I/Os are implemented with tri-state I/Os, that is they are placed in high-impedance state (disconnected) when the SS line is not asserted LOW.

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Figure 2: How data is exchanged over a SPI bus in a full-duplex transmission

Every transaction over the bus is started by enabling the SCK line according the maximum slave frequency. Once the clock line starts generating the signal, the master asserts the SS line LOW and data transmission can begin. Transmissions normally involve two registers of a given word size³, one in the master and one in the slave. Data is usually shifted out with the most-significant bit first, while shifting a new least-significant bit into the same register. At the same time, data from the slave is shifted into the least-significant bit register. After the register bits have been shifted out and in, the master and slave have exchanged data. If more data needs to be exchanged, the shift registers are reloaded and the process repeats. Transmission may continue for any number of clock cycles. When complete, the master stops toggling the clock signal, and typically deselects the slave. Figure 2 shows the way data is transferred in a full-duplex transmission, while Figure 3 shows the way it is typically exchanged in a half-duplex connection.

Figure 3: How data is exchanged over a SPI bus in a half-duplex transmission ³8-bit data transmissions are the rule, but some slave devices support even 16-bit ones.

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15.1.1 Clock Polarity and Phase In addition to setting the bus clock frequency, the master and slaves must also agree on the clock polarity and phase with respect to the data exchanged over MOSI and MISO lines. SPI Specification by Motorola⁴ names these two settings as CPOL and CPHA respectively, and most silicon vendors have adopted that convention. The combinations of polarity and phase are often referred to as SPI bus modes which are commonly numbered according Table 1. The most common mode are mode 0 and mode 3, but the majority of slave devices support at least a couple of bus modes. Table 1: SPI bus modes according CPOL and CPHA configuration

Mode

CPOL

CPHA

0 1 2 3

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

The timing diagram is shown in Figure 4, and it is further described below: • At CPOL=0 the base value of the clock is zero, i.e. the active state is 1 and idle state is 0. – For CPHA=0, data is captured on the SCK rising edge (LOW → HIGH transition) and data is output on a falling edge (HIGH → LOW clock transition). – For CPHA=1, data is captured on the SCK falling edge and data is output on a rising edge. • At CPOL=1 the base value of the clock is one (inversion of CPOL=0), i.e. the active state is 0 and idle state is 1. – For CPHA=0, data is captured on SCK falling edge and data is output on a rising edge. – For CPHA=1, data is captured on SCK rising edge and data is output on a falling edge. That is, CPHA=0 means sampling on the first clock edge, while CPHA=1 means sampling on the second clock edge, regardless of whether that clock edge is rising or falling. Note that with CPHA=0, the data must be stable for a half cycle before the first clock cycle. ⁴http://bit.ly/2cc3T3S

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Figure 4: The SPI timing diagram according CPOL and CPHA settings

15.1.2 Slave Select Signal Management As said before, the SPI slave devices do not have an address that identify them on the bus, but they start exchanging data with the master as long as the Slave Select (SS) signal is LOW. STM32 microcontrollers provide two distinct modes to handle the SS signal, which is called NSS in the ST documentation. Let us analyze them. • NSS software mode: The SS signal is driven by the firmware and any free GPIO can be used to drive an IC when the MCU works in master mode, or to detect when another master is starting a transfer if the MCU works in slave mode. • NSS hardware mode: a specific MCU I/O is used to drive the SS signal, and it is internally managed by the SPI peripheral. Two configurations are possible depending on the NSS output configuration: – NSS output enabled: this configuration is used only when the device operates in master mode. The NSS signal is driven LOW when the master starts the communication and is kept LOW until the SPI is disabled. It is important to remark that this mode is suitable when there is just one SPI slave device on the bus and its SS I/O is connected to the NSS signal. This configuration does not allow multi-master mode. – NSS output disabled: this configuration allows multi-master capability for devices operating in master mode. For devices set as slave, the NSS pin acts as a classical NSS input: the slave is selected when NSS is LOW and deselected when NSS HIGH.

15.1.3 SPI TI Mode SPI peripherals in STM32 microcontrollers support the TI Mode when working in master mode and when the NSS signal is configured to work in hardware. In TI mode the clock polarity and phase are forced to conform to the Texas Instruments protocol requirements whatever the values set. NSS management is also specific to the TI protocol, which makes the configuration of NSS management transparent for the user. In TI mode, in fact, the NSS signal “pulses” at the end of every transmitted

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byte (it goes from LOW to HIGH from the beginning of the LSB bit and goes from HIGH to LOW at the starting of the MSB bit forming the next transferred byte). For more information about this communication mode, refer to the reference manual for the MCU you are considering.

Table 2: Effective availability of SPI peripherals in MCUs equipping all sixteen Nucleo boards

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15.1.4 Availability of SPI Peripherals in STM32 MCUs Depending on the family type and package used, STM32 microcontrollers can provide up to six independent SPI peripherals. Table 2 summarizes the availability of SPI peripherals in STM32 MCUs equipping all sixteen Nucleo boards we are considering in this book. For every SPI peripheral, and a given STM32 MCU, Table 2 shows the pins corresponding to MOSI, MISO and SCK lines. Moreover, darker rows show alternate pins that can be used during the layout of the board. For example, given the STM32F401RE MCU, we can see that SPI1 peripheral is mapped to PA7, PA6 and PA5, but PB5, PB5 and PB3 can be also used as alternate pins. Note that the SPI1 peripheral uses the same I/O pins in all STM32 MCUs with LQFP-64 package. This is another clear example of the pin-to-pin compatibility offered by STM32 microcontrollers. We are now ready to see how-to use the CubeHAL APIs to program this peripheral.

15.2 HAL_SPI Module To program the SPI peripheral, the HAL defines the C struct SPI_HandleTypeDef, which is defined in the following way⁵: typedef struct __SPI_HandleTypeDef { SPI_TypeDef *Instance; SPI_InitTypeDef Init; uint8_t *pTxBuffPtr; uint16_t TxXferSize; __IO uint16_t TxXferCount; uint8_t *pRxBuffPtr; uint16_t RxXferSize; __IO uint16_t RxXferCount; DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdmatx; DMA_HandleTypeDef *hdmarx; HAL_LockTypeDef Lock; __IO HAL_SPI_StateTypeDef State; __IO uint32_t ErrorCode; } SPI_HandleTypeDef;

/* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /* /*

SPI registers base address */ SPI communication parameters */ Pointer to SPI Tx transfer Buffer */ SPI Tx Transfer size */ SPI Tx Transfer Counter */ Pointer to SPI Rx transfer Buffer */ SPI Rx Transfer size */ SPI Rx Transfer Counter */ SPI Tx DMA Handle parameters */ SPI Rx DMA Handle parameters */ Locking object */ SPI communication state */ SPI Error code */

Let us analyze the most important fields of this struct. • Instance: is the pointer to the SPI descriptor we are going to use. For example, SPI1 is the descriptor of the first SPI peripheral. ⁵Some fields have been omitted for simplicity. Refer to the CubeHAL source code for the exact definition of the HandleTypeDef struct.

SPI_-

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• Init: is an instance of the C struct SPI_InitTypeDef used to configure the peripheral. We will study it more in depth in a while. • pTxBuffPtr, pRxBuffPtr: pointer to the internal buffers used to temporarily store data transferred to and from the SPI peripheral. This is used when the SPI works in interrupt mode and should be not modified from the user code. • hdmatx, hdmarx: pointer to instances of the DMA_HandleTypeDef struct used when the SPI peripheral works in DMA mode. The setup of the SPI peripheral is performed by using an instance of the C struct SPI_InitTypeDef, which is defined in the following way: typedef struct { uint32_t Mode; uint32_t Direction; uint32_t DataSize; uint32_t CLKPolarity; uint32_t CLKPhase; uint32_t NSS;

/* /* /* /* /* /*

uint32_t BaudRatePrescaler; /* uint32_t FirstBit; uint32_t TIMode; uint32_t CRCCalculation; uint32_t CRCPolynomial; } SPI_InitTypeDef;

/* /* /* /*

Specifies the SPI operating mode. */ Specifies the SPI bidirectional mode state. */ Specifies the SPI data size. */ Specifies the serial clock steady state. */ Specifies the clock active edge for the bit capture. */ Specifies whether the NSS signal is managed by hardware (NSS pin) or by software */ Specifies the Baud Rate prescaler value which will be used to configure the SCK clock. */ Specifies whether data transfers start from MSB or LSB bit. */ Specifies if the TI mode is enabled or not. */ Specifies if the CRC calculation is enabled or not. */ Specifies the polynomial used for the CRC calculation. */

• Mode: this parameter sets the SPI in master or slave mode. It can assume the values SPI_MODE_MASTER and SPI_MODE_SLAVE. • Direction: it specifies whatever the slave peripheral works in 4-wire (two separated lines for input/output) or 3-wire (just one line for I/O). It can assume the value SPI_DIRECTION_2LINES to configure a full-duplex 4-wire mode; the value SPI_DIRECTION_2LINES_RXONLY to setup a half-duplex 4-wire mode; the value SPI_DIRECTION_1LINE to configure a half-duplex 3-wire mode. • DataSize: configures the size of the transferred data over the SPI bus, and it can assume the values SPI_DATASIZE_8BIT and SPI_DATASIZE_16BIT. • CLKPolarity: it configures the SCK CPOL setting and it can assume the values SPI_POLARITY_LOW (which corresponds to CPOL=0) and SPI_POLARITY_HIGH (which corresponds to CPOL=1). • CLKPhase this related field sets the clock phase, and it can assume the values SPI_PHASE_1EDGE (which corresponds to CPHA=0) and SPI_PHASE_2EDGE (which corresponds to CPHA=1).

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• NSS: this field handles the behaviour of the NSS I/O. It can assume the values SPI_NSS_SOFT to configure NSS signal in software mode; the values SPI_NSS_HARD_INPUT and SPI_NSS_HARD_OUTPUT to configure the NSS signal in input and output hardware mode respectively. • BaudRatePrescaler: it sets the prescaler of the APB clock and it establishes the maximum SCK clock speed. It can assume the values SPI_BAUDRATEPRESCALER_2, SPI_BAUDRATEPRESCALER_4, …, SPI_BAUDRATEPRESCALER_256 (all two’s powers from 2¹ up to 2⁸). • FirstBit: specifies the data transmission ordering, and it can assume the values SPI_FIRSTBIT_MSB and SPI_FIRSTBIT_LSB. • TIMode: it is used to enable/disable the TI mode, and it can assume the values SPI_TIMODE_DISABLE and SPI_TIMODE_ENABLE. • CRCCalculation and CRCPolynomial: the SPI peripheral in all STM32 microcontrollers supports the CRC generation in hardware. A CRC value can be transmitted as last byte in Tx mode, or automatic CRC error checking can be performed for last received byte. The CRC value is calculated using an odd programmable polynomial on each bit. The calculation is processed on the sampling clock edge defined by the CPHA and CPOL configurations. The calculated CRC value is checked automatically at the end of the data block as well as for transfer managed by CPU or by the DMA. When a mismatch is detected between the CRC calculated internally on the received data and the CRC sent by the transmitter, an error condition is set. The CRC feature is not available when the SPI is driven in DMA circular mode. For more information about this option, refer to the reference manual for the STM32 MCU you are considering. As usual, to configure the SPI peripheral we use the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_Init(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi);

which accepts a pointer to an instance of the SPI_HandleTypeDef seen before.

15.2.1 Exchanging Messages Using SPI Peripheral Once the SPI peripheral is configured, we can start exchanging data with slave devices. Since the SPI specification does not forces a given communication protocol, there is no difference among the CubeHAL routines when using the SPI peripheral in slave or master mode. The only difference resides in the peripheral configuration, setting the Mode parameter of the SPI_InitTypeDef structure accordingly. As usual, the CubeHAL provides three ways to communicate over a SPI bus: polling, interrupt and DMA mode. To send an amount of bytes to a slave device in polling mode, we use the function:

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HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_Transmit(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

The function signature is almost identical to other communication routines seen so far (for example, those used for the UART manipulation), so we will not describe its parameters here. This function can be used if the SPI peripheral is configured to work both in SPI_DIRECTION_1LINE or SPI_DIRECTION_2LINES modes. To receive an amount of bytes in polling mode, we use the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_Receive(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

This function can be used in all three Direction modes. If the slave device supports the full-duplex mode, then we can use the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_TransmitReceive(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi, uint8_t *pTxData, uint8_t *pRxData, uint16_t Size, uint32_t Timeout);

which allows to transmit a given amount of bytes while receiving the same quantity simultaneously. Clearly it works only when the SPI Direction is set to SPI_DIRECTION_2LINES. To exchange data over the SPI in interrupt mode, the CubeHAL provides the functions: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_Transmit_IT(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_Receive_IT(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi, uint8_t *pData, uint16_t Size); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_TransmitReceive_IT(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi, uint8_t *pTxData, uint8_t *pRxData, uint16_t Size);

The CubeHAL routine to exchange data over the SPI in DMA mode are identical to the three one before, except for the fact that they end in _DMA. Once using interrupt- and DMA-based routines, we must be prepared to be notified when the transmission is ended, since it is performed asynchronously. This means that we need to enable the corresponding interrupt at NVIC level and to call the function HAL_SPI_IRQHandler() from the ISR. There exist six different callbacks we can implement, as reported in Table 3.

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Table 3: CubeHAL available callbacks when an SPI peripheral works in interrupt or DMA mode

Callback

Description

HAL_SPI_TxCpltCallback() HAL_SPI_RxCpltCallback() HAL_SPI_TxRxCpltCallback()

Signals that a given amount of bytes have been transmitted Signals that a given amount of bytes have been received Signals that a given amount of bytes have been transmitted and received Signals that the DMA SPI half transmit process is complete Signals that the DMA SPI half receive process is complete Signals that the DMA SPI half transmit and receive process is complete

HAL_SPI_TxHalfCpltCallback() HAL_SPI_RxHalfCpltCallback() HAL_SPI_TxRxHalfCpltCallback()

When the SPI peripheral is configured in DMA circular mode, we can use the following routines to pause/resume/abort a DMA circular transaction: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_DMAPause(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_DMAResume(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi); HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_SPI_DMAStop(SPI_HandleTypeDef *hspi);

When the SPI works in DMA circular mode, the following restriction apply: • the DMA circular mode cannot be used when the SPI is accessed exclusively in receive mode; • the CRC feature is not managed when the DMA circular mode is enabled • when the SPI DMA pause/stop features are used, we must use the function HAL_SPI_DMAPause()/ HAL_SPI_DMAStop() only under the SPI callbacks. In this chapter we will not analyze any concrete example. A subsequent chapter will use the SPI peripheral to program a hardwired TCP/IP embedded Ethernet controller, which will allows us to build Internet-based applications with Nucleo boards.

15.2.2 Maximum Transmission Frequency Reachable using the CubeHAL The SCK frequency is derived from the PCLK frequency using a programmable prescaler. This prescaler ranges from 2¹ up to 2⁸. However, as said several other times before, the CubeHAL adds an unavoidable overhead when driving peripherals. And this also applies to the SPI one. In fact, using the CubeHAL it is not possible to reach all supported SPI frequencies with the different SPI modes. ST engineers have clearly documented this in the CubeHAL. If you open the stm32XXxx_hal_spi.c file, you can see (about at line 60) two tables that report the maximum reachable transmission frequency given the direction mode (half-duplex or full-duplex) and the way to program and use the peripheral (polling, interrupt and DMA). For example, in an STM32F4 MCU we can reach the a SCK frequency equal to fP CLK /8 if the SPI peripherals works in slave mode and we program it using CubeHAL in interrupt mode.

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15.3 Using CubeMX to Configure SPI Peripheral To use CubeMX in order to enable the wanted SPI peripheral, we have to proceed in the following order. First, we need to select the wanted communication mode from the IP tree view, as shown in Figure 5. Next, we need to specify the behaviour of the NSS signal in the same configuration view. Once these two parameters are set, we can proceed by configuring other SPI settings in the CubeMX Configuration view.

Figure 5: How to select the SPI communication mode in CubeMX

III Advanced topics

16. Power Management Energy efficiency is one of the trend topics in the electronics industry. Even if you are not designing a battery-powered device, probably you have to address power-related requirements anyway. A welldesigned device, from the power point of view, not only consumes less energy, but it also allows to simplify and minimize its power-section, reducing the overall dimension of the PCB, the BOM and the power dissipation. Often we think that the power management of an electronic board is all related to its powering stage. In the last two decades, power-conversion has been the hot topic. The research and development made by IC vendors did generate a lot of integrated devices able to boost the overall power efficiency in a lot of applications fields, ranging from low-power solutions to high-load power conversion units able to supply thousands of amperes. Instead, as embedded developers, we have great responsibility in ensuring that our firmware can minimize the energy consumption of devices we make. Modern microcontrollers provide to developers a lot of tools to minimize the energy used. CortexM cores aren’t an exception, and they provide an “abstract” power management model that is rearranged by silicon manufacturers to create their own power management scheme. This is exactly the case of STM32 MCUs: even if power management is addressed in all STM32-series, it reaches a very sophisticated implementation in STM32L families, which provide to developers a scalable power model to precisely tune-up the energy needed. This allows to design electronic devices able to run even for years while powered by a coin-cell battery. In this chapter we will give a quick look to the way power management is implemented in STM32 MCUs, analyzing the STM32F-series and the STM32L-series separately. We will start examining which features are provided by the Cortex-M core and then we will discover how ST engineers have specialized them to provide up to eleven different power modes in the recent STM32L4-series.

16.1 Power Management in Cortex-M Based MCUs Before we study the features provided by Cortex-M based microcontrollers to programmatically select the power mode of the MCU, it is best to do some considerations about the power consumption sources in a digital device. First of all, the complexity of the device itself impacts on the energy consumed. The more peripherals and features our board provides, the more power is needed. Moreover, some peripherals are intrinsically energy-intensive. For example, TFT displays consume a lot of power if compared with other parts of the electronic board. Finally, a low-power design needs a careful selection of all components in the BOM. For example, in applications where the Real-Time Clock (RTC)

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is maintained active at all conditions¹, including sleep, shutdown and VBAT modes, the current consumption of the LSE becomes more critical in overall system-level application design. Focusing our attention exclusively on the MCU, the first aspect that affects the power consumption is its running frequency: the faster goes the CPU, the higher it consumes. And this a law written in the stone that all firmware developers must know: even if the MCU we are using is able to run up to 200MHz, if we do not need all that speed then we can save a lot of energy by simply reducing the clock frequency. And this is one of the main reasons why STM32 microcontrollers have a complex clock distribution tree. Another implication of this aspect is that the more peripherals are actively running, the more power the MCU eats. This means that a well-designed firmware always immediately disables a peripheral that becomes unnecessary. For example, if we need an I²C EEPROM only during the bootstrap process (because it stores some configuration parameters that we retain in RAM during the firmware life-cycle), then we have to disable the I²C peripheral once finished². This is the reason why STM32 MCUs offer the ability to selectively disable every peripheral, gating its clock source, by calling the __HAL__RCC__CLK_DISABLE(), where is the specific peripheral (for example, the __HAL_RCC_DMA1_CLK_DISABLE() allows to gate the clock of the DMA1, while the __HAL_RCC_DMA1_CLK_ENABLE() to enable it). When talking about microcontrollers, it is best to talk about energy efficiency instead of just their power consumption. While the power consumption of a device talks just about how many mA or µA it uses, the energy efficiency measures “how much work” it can do with a limited amount of energy, for example, in the form of DMIPS/mW or CoreMark/mW. We can so discover that for an STM32L4 MCU the best energy compromise is reached when it runs in Low-Power RUN (LPRUN) mode, as shown in Figure 8. Finally, the design itself of the MCU and its peripherals impact on the overall power consumption. This is the reason why STM32L microcontrollers are expressly designed to provide the best-in class power consumption while providing the best performances according the specific sub-family. For example, some of the communication peripherals in an STM32L4 MCU (the LPUART is one of these) allow exchanging data in DMA mode while the MCU is in STOP2 mode³.

16.2 How Cortex-M MCUs Handle Run and Sleep Modes When a Cortex-M based microcontroller resets, its power mode is set to the run⁴ one. In this mode the energy needed is certainly established by the whole MCU design, but mainly from the running ¹As we will discover next, in some really “deep” sleep modes the MCU can be woken up only by few peripherals, which always include the RTC. ²The I²C peripheral consumes up to 720µA in an “old” STM32F103 running at its maximum clock speed. This might seem not that much for a device powered from the mains, but it has a dramatic impact on a battery-powered device. ³In this mode, the core of an STM32L4 MCU consumes about 1.1µA. ⁴Official ARM documentation talks about active mode, which is opposed to the sleep one used to indicate a non-running core. However, since this book is all about STM32 microcontrollers, and since the power scheme of a Cortex-M MCU is left to the specific vendor implementation, we will use in this book the term run mode, which is what ST uses to indicate a CPU actively running.

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frequency and the number of active peripherals. Here it is important to remark that also the flash and the SRAM memories are “peripherals” external to the Cortex-M core. Moreover, the adoption of advanced flash prefetch technologies, like the ARTTM Accelerator, impact on the overall power consumption too. In this mode the developer can change the way the MCU consumes energy by regulating the clock speed and by disabling the unneeded peripherals. This may seem obviously, but it is important to remark that this is the best power optimization we can do in a lot of real situations. As we will see later in this chapter, STM32L MCUs structure the run mode in several sub-modes, offering more control on the power consumption while guaranteeing the majority of functionalities and the best CPU performances. If we know that we do not need to process anything for a given period of time, then Cortex-M cores allow us to put them in sleep mode without doing busy-waits. In this mode the core is halted and it can be woken up only by “external events” coming from the EXTI controller (for example, a pushbutton connected to a GPIO). Again, STM32L MCUs expand this mode offering up to eight different sub-modes, as we will see next. It is important to underline that the Cortex-M core enters in sleep mode on “a voluntary basis”: two distinct ARM instructions, that we are going to see in while, halts the CPU while leaving some of its event lines active. By triggering these lines, the CPU resumes the execution in a given wake-up time, which depends on the effective sleep level and the Cortex-M core type (M0, M3, and so on). The wake-up latency can be expressed in term of CPU cycles for “lightweight” sleep modes, and in µs for deep sleep modes. This means that the deeper is the sleep mode, the longer is the wake-up time. Developers need to decide which sleep mode should be used for their specific applications: the energy and time consumed entering and then exiting a deep low power state may outweigh any potential power saving gains. In a wearable device energy efficiency is the most important factor, while in some industrial control applications the wake-up latency can be really critical. There are also different approaches to designing low power systems. Nowadays a lot of embedded systems are designed to be interrupt driven. This means that the system stays in sleep mode when there are no requests to be processed. When an interrupt request arrives, the processor wakes up and processes it, and goes back into sleep mode when the work is done. Alternatively, if the data processing request is periodic and has a constant duration, and if the data processing latency is not an issue, you could run the system at the slowest possibly clock speed to reduce the power. There is no clear answer to which approach is better, as the choice will be dependent on the data processing requirements of the application, the microcontroller being used, and other factors like the type of power source available.

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Figure 1: How a firmware could potentially manage clock speed and power modes during its activity

The Figure 1 shows a possible strategy for the minimization of power consumption. During the microcontroller booting process, the MCU runs at its maximum speed to allow a fast completion of all initialization activities. When all peripherals are configured, the clock speed is lowered and the MCU enters in sleep modes. In this period, the MCU is woken-up by interrupts that can be processed at lower CPU speeds. When CPU-intensive operations need to be carried out, the clock speed can be increased up to the maximum, and then decreased again once finished. So, when to go into sleep mode? As said before, it is up to us to decide the right time to place the MCU in one of the possible sleep modes. If we know that the MCU is waiting for asynchronous events notified with interrupts, then it could be the right time to go into sleep mode instead of doing busy-wait. Let us consider the classical blinking LED application we have seen several times in this book. ... while(1) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin); HAL_Delay(500); }

This apparently innocent code has a dramatic impact on the power consumption of our device. Even if we do not have too much to do during those 500ms, we waste a lot of power checking the value of the global SysTick tick count to see if that time has been elapsed. Instead, we can rearrange that code to stay in sleep mode for the most of the time, and we can set up a timer that wakes up the MCU after 100ms. Letting other software components decide when to place the MCU in sleep mode could represent another approach. As we will discover in a following chapter, a Real-Time Operating System may be programmed to automatically put the MCU in sleep mode when there is nothing to do⁵. ⁵We will discover in that chapter that one possible strategy consists in placing the MCU in sleep mode when the idle thread is scheduled. The idle thread is that thread executed by an RTOS when all other threads are “un-runnable”. This clearly means that the MCU has nothing relevant to do, and it can be placed in sleep mode safely.

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16.2.1 Entering/exiting sleep modes As said in the previous paragraph, the CPU enters in sleep mode exclusively on a voluntary basis, by using specific ARM assembly instructions. This means that, as programmers, we have all the responsibility of the power consumption of devices we make⁶. Cortex-M based MCUs offer two instructions to place the MCU in sleep mode: WFI and WFE. The Wait For Interrupt (WFI) instruction is also called the un-conditional sleep instruction. When the CPU executes that instruction it immediately halts the core execution. The CPU will be resumed only by an interrupt request, depending on the interrupt priority and the effective sleep level (more about this later), or in case of debug events. If an interrupt is pending while the MCU executes the WFI instruction, it enters in sleep mode and wakes up again immediately. The Wait For Event (WFE) is the other instruction that allows to place the MCU in sleep mode. It differs from the WFI due to the fact that it checks the status of a particular event register⁷ before it halts the core: if this register is set, the WFE clears it and does not halt the CPU, continuing the program execution (this allows us to manage the pending event, if needed). Otherwise, it halts the MCU until this event register is set again. But what is exactly the difference between an event and an interrupt? Events are a source of confusion in the STM32 world (also in the Cortex-M world in general). They appear like something intangible, compared to the interrupts that we have learned to handle in Chapter 7. Before we clarify what events are, we need to better explain the role of the EXTI controller in an STM32 MCU. The Extended Interrupts and Events Controller (EXTI) is the hardware component internal to the MCU that manages the external and internal asynchronous interrupts/events and generates the event request to the CPU/NVIC controller and a wake-up request to the Power Controller (see Figure 2). The EXTI allows the management of several event lines, which can wake up the MCU from some sleep modes (not all events can wake up MCU). The lines are either configurable or direct and hence hardwired inside the MCU: • The lines are configurable: the active edge can be chosen independently, and a status flag indicates the source of the interrupt. The configurable lines are used by the I/Os external interrupts, and by few peripherals (more about this soon). • The lines are direct and hardwired: they are used by some peripherals to generate a wakeup from stop event or interrupt. The status flag is provided by the peripheral itself. For example, the RTC can be used to generate an event to wake up the MCU. ⁶Clearly, we are talking about the power consumption of the MCU core and all integrated peripherals. The power consumption of the overall board is determined by other things that we will not address here. ⁷This register is internal to the core and not accessible to the user.

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Figure 2: How events can be used to wake-up the core

This controller also allows to emulate events or interrupts by software, multiplexed with the corresponding hardware event line, by writing to the dedicated register. Another important aspect to clarify about EXTI and NVIC controllers is that each line can be masked independently for an interrupt or an event generation. For example, in Chapter 6 we have seen that a GPIO can be configured to work in GPIO_MODE_EVT_* mode, which is different from the GPIO_MODE_IT_* mode: in the first case, when an I/O is triggered it will not generate an IRQ request, but it will set the event flag. This will cause the MCU to wake up if it has entered a low-power mode using the WFE instruction. So the WFE instruction checks that no event is pending, and for this reason it is also called the conditional sleep instruction. This event register can be set by: • exception entrance and exit; • when SEV-On-Pend feature is enabled, the event register can be set when an interrupt pending status is changed from 0 to 1 (more about this soon); • a peripheral sets its dedicated event line (this is peripheral-specific); • execution of the SEV (Send Event) instruction; • debug event (e.g., halting request). In Chapter 7 we have seen that in Cortex-M3/4/7 cores we can temporarily mask the execution of those interrupts having a priority lower than a value set in the BASEPRI register. However, these interrupts are still enabled and marked as pending if they fires. We can configure the MCU to set the event register in case of pending interrupts, by setting the SCR->SEVONPEND bit. As the name suggest, this register will cause to “set the event register if interrupts are pending”. This means that,

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if the processor was placed in sleep mode by the WFE instruction, the CPU is immediately awakened and we can eventually process pending interrupts. Instead, the WFI instruction would never wake up the core. The Cube HAL provides two convenient functions, HAL_PWR_EnableSEVOnPend() and HAL_PWR_DisableSEVOnPend(), to perform this setting. If, instead, interrupts are masked by setting the PRIMASK register, a pending interrupt can wake up the processor, regardless for the sleep instruction used (WFI or WFE): this characteristic allows some parts of the MCU to be turned OFF by software by gating its clock, and the software can turn it back on after waking up before executing the ISR. So, to recap, the WFI and WFE have the same following behaviour: • wake up on interrupt/exception requests that are enabled and with higher priority than current level⁸; • can be woken up by debug events; • can be used to produce both sleep and deep sleep modes (more about this soon). Instead, the WFI and WFE differ for the following reasons: • execution of WFE does not enter sleep mode if the internal event register is set, while the execution of WFI always results in sleep; • new pending of a disabled or masked interrupt can wake up the processor from WFE if SEVONPEND is set; • WFE can be woken up by en external event; • WFI can be woken up by an enabled interrupt when PRIMASK is set. 16.2.1.1 Sleep-On-Exit The Sleep-On-Exit feature is useful for interrupt-driven applications where all operations (apart from the initialization stage) are performed inside interrupt handlers. This is a programmable feature, and can be enabled or disabled setting a bit of the SCB->SCR register. When enabled, the CortexM core automatically enters sleep mode (with the same behavior of WFI instruction) when exiting from an exception/interrupt handler. The Sleep-On-Exit feature should be enabled at the end of the initialization stage. Otherwise, if an interrupt event happens during the initialization stage while the Sleep-On-Exit feature is already enabled, the processor will enter sleep even if the initialization stage was not yet completed. The CubeHAL provides two convenient routines to enable/disable this mode: HAL_PWR_EnableSleepOnExit() and HAL_PWR_DisableSleepOnExit(). ⁸Disabling interrupt on a priority basis is only applicable to Cortex-M3/4/7 based MCUs.

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16.2.2 Sleep Modes in Cortex-M Based MCUs So far, we have talked broadly about sleep mode. This mainly because the power management scheme defined by ARM is further specialized by chip vendors, like ST does with its products. CortexM based microcontrollers architecturally support two sleep modes: normal sleep and deep sleep. As we will discover later in this chapter, STM32F microcontrollers calls them sleep and stop modes and add a third even deeper mode called standby. The STM32L-series further specializes these two “main” operative modes in several sub-modes. Both sleep and deep sleep modes are reached using the WFI and WFE instructions seen before. The only difference is that the deep sleep mode is achieved by setting the SLEEPDEEP bit to 1 in the PWR>SCR register. However, we do not need to deal with these details since the CubeHAL is designed to abstract them. Usually STM32 microcontrollers are designed so that in sleep mode only the CPU clock is turned OFF, while there are no effects on other clocks or analog clock sources (this means that all enabled peripherals remain active). In stop mode, instead, all peripherals belonging to the 1.8V (or 1.2V for more recent STM32 MCUs) domain clock are turned OFF, while the VDD domain is left ON⁹, except for HSI and HSE oscillator that are turned OFF. In standby mode both the 1.8V domain and the VDD domain are turned OFF. However, in the next paragraph we will deepen these topics.

16.3 Power Management in STM32F Microcontrollers The concepts illustrated so far are common to all STM32 microcontrollers. However, the STM32 portfolio is divided in two main branches: STM32F and STM32L series. The second one is addressed to low-power applications, and it provides a lot of more operative modes to minimize the power consumption. We will start by analyzing how to manage power modes in STM32F microcontrollers. However, it is important to underline that, as often happens for the other features offered by this large portfolio, some STM32 families, and even some certain part numbers, offer specific peculiarities that differ from the way the power management is handled in the majority of STM32 microcontrollers. For this reason, always keep on hand the reference manual for the MCU you are considering.

16.3.1 Power Sources Figure 3 shows the power sources of an STM32F microcontroller¹⁰. As said before, even if we are used to supply the MCU by just one power source (more about this in a following chapter), the MCU ⁹As we will discover next, STM32 microcontroller can be powered by a variable voltage source ranging from 2.0V to 3.6V (some of them allow to be powered even down to 1.7V). This voltage source is also called VDD domain and all components inside the MCU powered from this source are said to be part of the VDD domain. However, the internal MCU core and some other peripherals are powered by a dedicated 1.8V (or even 1.0V in low power STM32L MCUs) internal voltage regulator. This defines the 1.8V domain. The low-voltage internal regulator can be independently turned OFF. More about this later. ¹⁰It is important to remark that the diagram in Figure 3 is just a scheme. Some STM32F MCUs, especially those providing a TFT-LCD controller or other communication interfaces like the Ethernet, introduce other power source domains. However, the concepts illustrated here remain valid.

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has an internal power distribution network that defines several voltage domains used to power those peripherals that share the same powering characteristics. For example, the VDDA domain includes those analog peripherals that need a separated (better filtered) power source, fed through the VDDA pins.

Figure 3: The power sources in an STM32F microcontroller

The VDD and VDD18 domains are the most relevant one. The VDD domain is supplied by an external power source, while the VDD18 domain is supplied by a voltage regulator internal to the MCU. This regulator can be configured to work in low-power mode, as we will see next. To retain the content of the backup registers¹¹ and supply the RTC function when VDD is turned OFF, VBAT pin can be connected to an optional standby voltage supplied by a battery or by another source. The VBAT pin powers the RTC unit, the LSE oscillator and one or two pins used to wake up the MCU from deep sleep modes, allowing the RTC to operate even when the main power supply is turned OFF. For this reason, the VBAT power source is said to power the RTC domain. The switch to the VBAT supply is controlled by the Power Down Reset (PDR) embedded in the reset block. ¹¹Backup registers are a dedicated memory area, with a typical size of 4Kb, that is powered by a different power source usually connected to a battery or a super-capacitor. This is used to store volatile data that remains valid even when the MCU is powered OFF, either if the whole device is turned OFF or the MCU is placed in standby mode.

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16.3.2 Power Modes In the first part of this chapter, we have seen that a Cortex-M MCU provides three main power modes: run, sleep and deep sleep. Now it is the right time to see how ST engineers have rearranged them in STM32F MCUs. Table 1 summarizes these modes and shows the three main functions provided by the HAL to place the MCU in the corresponding power mode. We will analyze them more in depth later.

Table 1: The three power modes supported by STM32F MCUs

16.3.2.1 Run Mode By default, and after power-on or a system reset, STM32F MCUs are placed in run mode, which is a fully active mode that consumes much power even when performing minor tasks. Consumptions of both the run and the sleep modes depend on the operating frequency¹². The Figure 4¹³ shows the power consumption levels of some of the most recent STM32F4 MCUs. In run mode, the main regulator supplies full power to the 1.8-1.2V domain (CPU core, memories and digital peripherals). In this mode, the regulator output voltage (around 1.8-1.2V depending on the particular STM32F MCU) can be scaled by software to different voltage values (more about this soon). Some recent STM32F4 MCUs provide two run modes: • Normal mode: the CPU and core logic operate at maximum frequency at a given voltage scaling (scale 1, scale 2 or scale 3). • Over-drive mode: this mode allows the CPU and the core logic to operate at a higher frequency than the normal mode for the voltage scaling scale 1 and scale 2. More about this mode later. ¹²Don’t forget that in sleep mode only the CPU clock is turned OFF, while other peripherals remain active. So, the speed of the HCLK clock source still continues to affect the overall power consumption. ¹³The figure is taken from the ST AN4365(http://bit.ly/1XzmF2o) application note.

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Figure 4: The power consumption of some STM32F4 MCU

16.3.2.1.1 Dynamic Voltage Scaling in STM32F4/F7 MCUs

The power used by a DC circuit is given by the current drawn and the voltage of the circuit. This means that we can reduce the power needed by the circuit by reducing the voltage. STM32F4/F7 provides a smart powering technology named Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) distinctive of STM32L-series. The idea behind DVS is that many embedded systems do not always require the system’s full processing capabilities, because not all subsystems are always active. When this is the case, the system can remain in the active mode without the processor running at its maximum operating frequency. The voltage supplied to the processor can be then decreased when a lower frequency is sufficient. With such power management, we reduce the power drawn battery by monitoring the processor input voltage in response to the system’s performance requirements. That consists in scaling the STM32F4 regulator output voltage that supplies the 1.2V domain (core, memories and digital peripherals) when we lower the clock frequency based on processing needs. STM32F4/F7 offer three voltages scales (scale 1, scale 2 and scale 3). The maximum achievable core frequency for a given voltage scale is determined by the specific STM32 MCU. For example, the STM32F401 provides only two voltage scales, scale 2 and scale 3, that allow to run the core up to 84MHz and 60MHz respectively. To control the voltage scaling, the CubeHAL provides the function: HAL_StatusTypeDef HAL_PWREx_ControlVoltageScaling(uint32_t VoltageScaling);

which accepts the symbolic constants PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE1, PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE2 and PWR_REGULATOR_VOLTAGE_SCALE3. The voltage scale can be changed only if the source clock for the System Clock Multiplexer is the HSI or HSE. So, to increase/reduce the voltage scale you can follow this procedure:

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• • • •

488

Set the HSI or HSE as system clock frequency using the HAL_RCC_ClockConfig(). Call the HAL_RCC_OscConfig() to configure the PLL. Call HAL_PWREx_ConfigVoltageScaling() API to adjust the voltage scale. Set the new system clock frequency using the HAL_RCC_ClockConfig().

For more information about this topic, refer to the AN4365¹⁴. 16.3.2.1.2 Over/Under-Drive Mode in STM32F4/F7 MCUs

Some MCUs from the STM32F4 family and all STM32F7 ones provide two or even several subrunning modes. These modes are called over-drive and under-drive. The first one consists in increasing the core frequency with a sort of “overclocking”. It is recommended to enter overdrive mode when the application is not running critical tasks and when the system clock source is either HSI or HSE. These features are useful when we want to temporarily increase/decrease the MCU clock speed without reconfiguring the clock tree, which usually introduces a nonnegligible overhead. The HAL provides two convenient functions, HAL_PWREx_EnableOverDrive() and HAL_PWREx_DisableOverDrive() to perform this operation. The under-drive mode is the opposite of the over-drive one and consists in lowering the CPU frequency and by disabling some peripherals. In this mode it is possible to place the internal voltage regulator in low-power mode. In some STM32F4/F7 MCUs the under-drive mode is available even in stop mode. 16.3.2.2 Sleep Mode The sleep mode is entered by executing the WFI or WFE instruction. In the sleep mode, all I/O pins keep the same state as in the run mode. However, we should not care to deal with assembly instructions, since the CubeHAL provides the function: void HAL_PWR_EnterSLEEPMode(uint32_t Regulator, uint8_t SLEEPEntry);

The first parameter, Regulator, is meaningless in sleep mode for all STM32F-series, and it is left for compatibility with STM32L-series. The second parameter, SLEEPEntry, can assume the values PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFI or PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFE: as the names suggest, the former performs a WFI instruction and the latter a WFE. If you take a look to the HAL_PWR_EnterSLEEPMode() function you discover that, if we pass the parameter PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFE, it executes two WFE instructions consecutively. This causes that the HAL_PWR_EnterSLEEPMode() enters in the sleep mode in the same way as it would be called with the parameter PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFI (calling WFE twice causes that if the event register is set, then it is cleared by the first WFE instruction, and the second one place the MCU in sleep mode). I do not know why ST has adopted this approach. If you want full control over the way the MCU is placed in low-power modes, than you have to rearrange the content of that function at your need. Clearly, the MCU will exit from sleep mode following the exit condition of the WFE instruction. ¹⁴http://bit.ly/1XzmF2o

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If the WFI instruction is used to enter in sleep mode, any peripheral interrupt acknowledged by the nested vectored interrupt controller (NVIC) can wake up the device from sleep mode. If the WFE instruction is used to enter sleep mode, the MCU exits sleep mode as soon as an event occurs. The wakeup event can be generated either by: • enabling an interrupt in the peripheral control register but not in the NVIC, and enabling the SEVONPEND bit in the System Control Registe - When the MCU resumes from WFE, the peripheral interrupt pending bit and the peripheral NVIC IRQ channel pending bit (in the NVIC interrupt clear pending register) have to be cleared; • or configuring an external or internal EXTI line in event mode - When the CPU resumes from WFE, it is not necessary to clear the peripheral interrupt pending bit or the NVIC IRQ channel pending bit as the pending bit corresponding to the event line is not set. This mode offers the lowest wakeup time as no time is wasted in interrupt entry/exit. 16.3.2.3 Stop Mode The stop mode is based on the Cortex-M deep sleep mode combined with peripheral clock gating. In stop mode all clocks in the 1.8V domain are stopped, the PLL, the HSI and the HSE oscillators are disabled. SRAM and register contents are preserved. In the stop mode, all I/O pins keep the same state as in the run mode. The voltage regulator can be configured either in normal or low-power mode. To place the MCU in stop mode the HAL provides the function: void HAL_PWR_EnterSTOPMode(uint32_t Regulator, uint8_t STOPEntry);

where the Regulator parameter accepts the value PWR_MAINREGULATOR_ON to leave the internal voltage regulator ON, or the value PWR_LOWPOWERREGULATOR_ON to place it in low-power mode. The parameter STOPEntry can assume the values PWR_STOPENTRY_WFI or PWR_STOPENTRY_WFE. To enter stop mode, all EXTI-line pending bits, all peripherals interrupt pending bits and RTC Alarm flag must be reset. Otherwise, the stop mode entry procedure is ignored and program execution continues. If the application needs to disable the external high-speed oscillator (HSE) before entering stop mode, the system clock source must be first switched to HSI and then clear the HSEON bit. Otherwise, if before entering stop mode the HSEON bit is kept at 1, the security system (CSS) feature must be enabled to detect any external oscillator (external clock) failure and avoid a malfunction when entering stop mode. Any EXTI-line configured in interrupt or event mode forces the CPU to exit from stop mode, according if it entered in low-power mode using the WFI or WFE instruction. Since both HSE and PLL are disabled before entering in stop mode, when exiting from this low-power mode the MCU source clock is set to the HSI. This means that our code shall reconfigure the clock tree according to wanted SYSCLK speed.

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16.3.2.4 Standby Mode The standby mode allows to achieve the lowest power consumption. It is based on the Cortex-M deep sleep mode, with the voltage regulator disabled. The 1.8-1.2V domain is consequently powered OFF. PLL multiplexer, HSI and HSE oscillators are also switched OFF. SRAM and register contents are lost except for registers in the standby circuitry. To place the MCU in standby mode the HAL provides the function: void HAL_PWR_EnterSTANDBYMode(void);

The microcontroller exits the standby mode when an external reset (NRST pin), an IWDG reset, a rising edge on one of the enabled WKUPx pins or an RTC event occurs. All registers are reset after wakeup from standby except for Power Control/Status Register (PWR->CSR). After waking up from standby mode, program execution restarts in the same way as after a reset (boot pin sampling, option bytes loading, reset vector is fetched, etc.). Using the macro: __HAL_PWR_GET_FLAG(PWR_FLAG_SB);

we can check if the MCU is resetting due to an exit from standby mode. Since both HSE and PLL are disabled before entering in stop mode, when exiting from this low-power mode the MCU source clock is set to the HSI. This means that our code shall reconfigure the clock tree according to wanted SYSCLK speed. Read Carefully Some STM32 MCUs have a hardware bug that prevents entering or exiting from standby mode. Particular conditions must be met before we enter in this mode. Consult the errata sheet for your MCU for more about this (if applicable).

16.3.2.5 Low-Power Modes Example The following example, designed to run on a Nucleo-F030R8¹⁵ shows the way low-power modes work.

¹⁵For other Nucleo boards refer to the book examples.

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Filename: src/main-ex1.c 14 15

int main(void) { char msg[20];

16 17 18

HAL_Init(); Nucleo_BSP_Init();

19 20 21

/* Before we can access to every register of the PWR peripheral we must enable it */ __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

while (1) { if(__HAL_PWR_GET_FLAG(PWR_FLAG_SB)) { /* If standby flag set in PWR->CSR, then the reset is generated from * the exit of the standby mode */ sprintf(msg, "RESET after STANDBY mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY); /* We have to explicitly clear the flag */ __HAL_PWR_CLEAR_FLAG(PWR_FLAG_WU|PWR_FLAG_SB); }

32 33 34 35 36 37 38

sprintf(msg, "MCU in run mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY); while(HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_13) == GPIO_PIN_SET) { HAL_GPIO_TogglePin(LD2_GPIO_Port, LD2_Pin); HAL_Delay(100); }

39 40

HAL_Delay(200);

41 42 43

sprintf(msg, "Entering in SLEEP mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

44 45

SleepMode();

46 47 48

sprintf(msg, "Exiting from SLEEP mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

49 50 51

while(HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_13) == GPIO_PIN_SET); HAL_Delay(200);

52 53 54

sprintf(msg, "Entering in STOP mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

55 56 57

StopMode();

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sprintf(msg, "Exiting from STOP mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

58 59 60

while(HAL_GPIO_ReadPin(GPIOC, GPIO_PIN_13) == GPIO_PIN_SET); HAL_Delay(200);

61 62 63

sprintf(msg, "Entering in STANDBY mode\r\n"); HAL_UART_Transmit(&huart2, (uint8_t*)msg, strlen(msg), HAL_MAX_DELAY);

64 65 66

StandbyMode();

67 68

while(1); //Never arrives here, since MCU is reset when exiting from STANDBY

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}

70 71

}

72 73 74 75 76

void SleepMode(void) { GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStruct;

77 78 79

/* Disable all GPIOs to reduce power */ MX_GPIO_Deinit();

80 81 82 83 84 85 86

/* Configure User push-button as external interrupt generator */ __HAL_RCC_GPIOC_CLK_ENABLE(); GPIO_InitStruct.Pin = B1_Pin; GPIO_InitStruct.Mode = GPIO_MODE_IT_RISING; GPIO_InitStruct.Pull = GPIO_NOPULL; HAL_GPIO_Init(B1_GPIO_Port, &GPIO_InitStruct);

87 88

HAL_UART_DeInit(&huart2);

89 90 91 92

/* Suspend Tick increment to prevent wakeup by Systick interrupt. Otherwise the Systick interrupt will wake up the device within 1ms (HAL time base) */ HAL_SuspendTick();

93 94 95 96

__HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE(); /* Request to enter SLEEP mode */ HAL_PWR_EnterSLEEPMode(0, PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFI);

97 98 99

/* Resume Tick interrupt if disabled prior to sleep mode entry*/ HAL_ResumeTick();

100 101 102

/* Reinitialize GPIOs */ MX_GPIO_Init();

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103

/* Reinitialize UART2 */

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The macro __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE() at line 21 enables the PWR peripheral: before we can perform any operation related to power management, we need to enable the PWR peripheral, even if we are simply checking if the standby flag is set inside the PWR->CSR register. This is a source of a lot of headaches in novice users struggling with power management. Lines [24:31] check if the standby flag is set: if so, it means that the MCU was reset after exiting from standby mode. Lines [33:38] represent the run mode: the LD2 LED blinks until we press the Nucleo USER button connected to the PC13 pin. The remaining lines of code in the main() just cycle through the three low-power modes at every pressure of the USER button. Lines [74:106] define the SleepMode() function, used to place the MCU in sleep mode. All GPIOs are configured as analog, to reduce current consumption on non-used IOs (especially those pins that may be source of leaks). The corresponding peripheral clock is turned OFF, except for the GPIOC peripheral: the PC13 GPIO is used to resume from low-power modes. The same apply for the UART2 interface and the SysTick timer, which is halted to prevent the MCU from exiting low-power mode after 1ms. The call to the HAL_PWR_EnterSLEEPMode() function at line 96 places the MCU in sleep mode, until it wakes up when the USER button is pressed (the MCU wakes up because we configure the corresponding IRQ that causes the WFI instruction exiting from the low-power mode). The StopMode() function, not shown here, is almost identical to the SleepMode() one, except for the fact that it calls the function HAL_PWR_EnterSTOPMode() to place the MCU in stop mode. Filename: src/main-ex1.c 140 141

void StandbyMode(void) { MX_GPIO_Deinit();

142

/* This procedure come from the STM32F030 Errata sheet*/ __HAL_RCC_PWR_CLK_ENABLE();

143 144 145

HAL_PWR_DisableWakeUpPin(PWR_WAKEUP_PIN1);

146 147

/* Clear PWR wake up Flag */ __HAL_PWR_CLEAR_FLAG(PWR_FLAG_WU);

148 149 150

/* Enable WKUP pin */ HAL_PWR_EnableWakeUpPin(PWR_WAKEUP_PIN1);

151 152 153

/* Enter STANDBY mode */ HAL_PWR_EnterSTANDBYMode();

154 155 156

}

Finally, lines [144:160] define the StandbyMode() function. Here we follow the procedure described in the STM32F30 errata sheet, since that MCU is affected by a hardware bug that prevents the CPU

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from entering in standby mode: we have to disable the PWR_WAKEUP_PIN1 pin firstly, then to clear the wake up flag in the PWR->CSR peripheral and to re-enable the wake up pin, which in an STM32F030 MCU coincides with the PA0 pin. STM32 MCUs usually have two wake up pins, named PWR_WAKEUP_PIN1 and PWR_WAKEUP_PIN2. For a lot of STM32 MCUs with LQFP64 package the second wake-up pin coincides with PC13, which is connected to the USER button in all Nucleo boards (except for the Nucleo-F302 where it is connected to PB13 pin). However, we cannot use the PWR_WAKEUP_PIN2 in our example, because that pin is pulled high by a resistor on the PCB. When we configure wake up pins in conjunction with the standby mode, we are not using the corresponding GPIO peripheral, which would allow us to configure the pin input mode, because it is powered down before entering in standby mode: the wake up pins are directly handled by the PWR peripheral, which resets the MCU if one of the two pins goes high. So, in the example we use the PWR_WAKEUP_PIN1 pin, which corresponds to the PA0 pin in an STM32F030 MCU.

Figure 5: How to measure the MCU power consumption in a Nucleo board

Nucleo boards allow to measure the current consumption of the MCU using the IDD pin header. Before you start measurements, you should establish the connection with the board as shown in Figure 5 by removing the IDD jumper and connect the ammeter cables. Ensure that the ammeter is set to the mA scale. In this way you can see the power consumption for every power mode.

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16.3.3 An Important Warning for STM32F1 Microcontrollers During the development of the examples for the FreeRTOS tickless mode in the related chapter, I have encountered a nasty behaviour of the STM32F103 MCU when entering in stop mode using the HAL_PWR_EnterSTOPMode() routine from the CubeF1 HAL. In particular, the problem encountered is related to the exit from the this low-power mode when the MCU enters it using the WFI instruction. In that specific scenario, the MCU does enter in stop mode correctly, but when it is woken up from an interrupt it immediately generates an Hard Fault exception. I have reached to the conclusion that ST developers do not follow what ARM suggests when entering low-power modes in Cortex-M3 processors, as reported here¹⁶. Modifying the HAL routine in this way fixed the issue: 1 2 3 4

void HAL_PWR_EnterSTOPMode(uint32_t Regulator, uint8_t STOPEntry) { /* Check the parameters */ assert_param(IS_PWR_REGULATOR(Regulator)); assert_param(IS_PWR_STOP_ENTRY(STOPEntry));

5 6 7 8

/* Clear PDDS bit in PWR register to specify entering in STOP mode when CPU enter in Dee\ psleep */ CLEAR_BIT(PWR->CR, PWR_CR_PDDS);

9 10 11 12

/* Select the voltage regulator mode by setting LPDS bit in PWR register according to Re\ gulator parameter value */ MODIFY_REG(PWR->CR, PWR_CR_LPDS, Regulator);

13 14 15

/* Set SLEEPDEEP bit of Cortex System Control Register */ SET_BIT(SCB->SCR, ((uint32_t)SCB_SCR_SLEEPDEEP_Msk));

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

/* Select Stop mode entry --------------------------------------------------*/ if(STOPEntry == PWR_STOPENTRY_WFI) { /* Request Wait For Interrupt */ __DSB(); //Added by me __WFI(); __ISB(); //Added by me } else { /* Request Wait For Event */ __SEV(); PWR_OverloadWfe(); /* WFE redefine locally */ PWR_OverloadWfe(); /* WFE redefine locally */

¹⁶http://bit.ly/1rVwDBf

Power Management } /* Reset SLEEPDEEP bit of Cortex System Control Register */ CLEAR_BIT(SCB->SCR, ((uint32_t)SCB_SCR_SLEEPDEEP_Msk));

31 32 33 34

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}

The change simply consists in adding two memory barrier instructions, one before and one after the WFI instruction, as shown at lines X and Y. I have asked a question regarding this issue on the official ST forum¹⁷, but I have not still received an answer at the time of writing this chapter, and I suspect that I will not receive anything.

16.4 Power Management in STM32L Microcontrollers The STM32L-series is a quite extensive portfolio of MCUs tailored for low-power applications. It is divided in three main families: L0, L1 and the more recent L4. These microcontrollers provide more power modes than the STM32F ones, offering the ability to precisely tune the energy consumed by the CPU core and integrated peripherals. Moreover, they provide specific low-power peripherals (like the LPUART or the LPTIM timers). All these features make STM32L MCUs suitable for batterypowered devices. In this part of the chapter we will analyze the most relevant power management-related characteristics offered by STM32L MCUs, focusing our attention mainly on the STM32L4 family.

16.4.1 Power Sources Figure 6 shows the power sources of an STM32L4 microcontroller. As you can see, to allow a precise tuning of the power consumed by peripherals, these MCUs provide more voltage domains compared to the STM32F ones. ¹⁷http://bit.ly/1rVx4LN

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Figure 6: The power sources in an STM32L4 microcontroller

Even in these families, the VDD domain is the most relevant one. It is used to supply other voltage domains, like the VDDIO1 domain, which is used to power the most of MCU pins, and the internal voltage regulator used to supply the VCORE domain. This can be programmed by software to two different power ranges (scale 1, scale 2 and so on) in order to optimize the consumption depending on the maximum operating frequency of the system (thanks to the voltage scaling technology seen before). It is interestingly to remark that for those MCU providing the GPIOG peripheral (that is, those MCU coming with package with high pin count), the VDDIO2 domain is used to supply the GPIOG peripheral independently. This domain, together with the USB domain, can be selectively enabled/disabled by dedicated functions provided by the HAL (HAL_PWREx_EnableVddIO2(), HAL_PWREx_EnableVddUSB(), etc.). To retain the content of the backup registers and supply the RTC function when VDD is turned OFF, VBAT pin can be connected to an optional standby voltage supplied by a battery or by another source. The VBAT pin powers the RTC unit, the LSE oscillator and one or two pins used to wake up the MCU from deep sleep modes, allowing the RTC to operate even when the main power supply is turned OFF. For this reason, the VBAT power source is said to power the RTC domain. The switch to the VBAT supply is controlled by the PDR. The VLCD pin is provided to control the contrast of the LCD.

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16.4.2 Power Modes Apart from a dedicated design that allows to reduce the power consumption of each component of the MCU, STM32L MCU provide to the user up to eleven different power modes, as shown in Figure 7. For the first three power modes, consumption values per MHz are an average between the power consumption value when the CPU runs instructions from the flash and from the SRAM¹⁸. The first three power modes are based on the Cortex-M run mode, while the next four modes are based on the sleep one. Finally, all other low-power modes rely in the Cortex-M deep sleep mode. Table 2 summarizes nine power modes and shows the functions provided by the HAL to place the MCU in the corresponding power mode. We will analyze them more in depth later.

Figure 7: The eleven power modes supported by STM32L4 microcontrollers

16.4.2.1 Run Modes By default, and after power-on or a system reset, STM32L MCUs are placed in run mode. The default clock source is set to the MSI, a power-optimized clock source that we have encountered in Chapter 10. STM32L microcontrollers offer to developers more fine-tune capabilities, which allow to reduce the power consumption in this mode. If we do not need too much computing power, then we can leave the MSI as the main clock source, avoiding the powering consumption introduced by the PLL multiplexer. By reducing the clock speed down to 24-26MHz, we can configure the Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) scale 2 that decreases the VCORE domain down to 1.0V in more recent STM32L4 ¹⁸The power consumption values reported in Figure 7 refer to the STM32L476 series.

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MCUs. This mode is also called run range 2 and the overall power consumption can further decreased by disabling the flash memory. As said before, the flash in STM32L MCU and in some recent STM32F4 MCU (like the STM32F446) can be disabled even in the run mode. The CubeHAL function HAL_FLASHEx_EnableRunPowerDown() automatically performs this operation for us, while the HAL_FLASHEx_DisableRunPowerDown() routine enables again the flash memory. The only required condition is that this function, and all those other routines used when the flash is OFF (interrupt vector included) are placed in SRAM, otherwise a Bus Fault occurs as soon as the flash is powered down. This can be easily performed creating a custom linker script, as we will see in a following chapter. For this reason, ST engineers have collected these routines in a separated file named stm32f4xx_hal_flash_ramfunc.c.

Table 2: Nine of the eleven power modes supported by STM32L MCUs

To further reduce the energy consumption when the system is in run mode, the internal voltage regulator can be configured in low-power mode. In this mode, the system frequency should not exceed 2 MHz. The HAL_PWREx_EnableLowPowerRunMode() function performs this operation automatically for us. In this mode we can eventually disable the flash memory, to further reduce the overall power consumption. The low-power run mode represents the best compromise in STM32L MCUs from the energy

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efficiency point of view, as shown in Figure 8¹⁹. As you can see, enabling the ART accelerator increases performance but also reduces the dynamic consumption. Best consumption is most often reached when the Instruction Cache is ON, Data Cache is ON and Prefetch Buffer is OFF, as this configuration reduces the number of flash memory accesses. The small flash dynamic consumption allows a small consumption each time the firmware needs to access the flash memory. Consumptions from SRAM1 and SRAM2 are quite similar, but SRAM2 is much more power efficient than SRAM1, when not remapped at address 0, thanks to its 0-wait state access.

Figure 8: Power optimization vs frequency in STM32L4-series

16.4.2.2 Sleep Modes Sleep modes allow all peripherals to be used, providing the fastest wakeup time at the same time. In these modes, the CPU is stopped and each peripheral clock can be configured by software to be gated ON or OFF during the sleep and low-power sleep modes. These modes are entered by executing the assembler instructions WFI or WFE. To place the MCU in one of the two sleep modes, the CubeHAL provides the function: void HAL_PWR_EnterSLEEPMode(uint32_t Regulator, uint8_t SLEEPEntry);

The first parameter, Regulator, can accept the values PWR_MAINREGULATOR_ON and PWR_LOWPOWERREGULATOR_ON: the former places the MCU in sleep mode, the latter in low-power sleep mode. The second parameter, SLEEPEntry, can assume the values PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFI or PWR_SLEEPENTRY_WFE: as the names suggest, the first one performs a WFI instruction and the second one a WFE. ¹⁹The Figure 8 is taken from this ST official document(http://bit.ly/1WcHv8W). ST also provides a really useful application note, the AN4746(http://bit.ly/1Nkp8NI), about power consumption optimization in STM32L4 MCUs.

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Read Carefully Please, take note that for STM32L MCUs the system frequency should not exceed MSI range 1 value in this power mode. Please refer to product datasheet for more details on voltage regulator and peripherals operating conditions.

If the WFI instruction is used to enter in sleep mode, any peripheral interrupt acknowledged by the NVIC can wake up the device from sleep mode. If the WFE instruction is used to enter sleep mode, the MCU exits sleep mode as soon as an event occurs. The wakeup event can be generated either by: • enabling an interrupt in the peripheral control register but not in the NVIC, and enabling the SEVONPEND bit in the System Control Register - When the MCU resumes from WFE, the peripheral interrupt pending bit and the peripheral NVIC IRQ channel pending bit (in the NVIC interrupt clear pending register) have to be cleared; • or configuring an external or internal EXTI line in event mode - When the CPU resumes from WFE, it is not necessary to clear the peripheral interrupt pending bit or the NVIC IRQ channel pending bit as the pending bit corresponding to the event line is not set. After exiting the low-power sleep mode, the MCU is automatically placed in low-power run mode. 16.4.2.2.1 Batch Acquisition Mode

Batch Acquisition Mode (BAM) is an implicit and optimized mode for transferring data. Only the needed communication peripheral (e.g. the I²C one), one DMA and the SRAM are configured with clock enable in sleep mode. flash memory is put in power-down mode and the flash memory clock is gated OFF during sleep mode. The MCU can enter either sleep or low-power sleep mode. Take note that the I²C clock can be set at 16 MHz even in low-power sleep mode, allowing support for 1MHz fast-mode plus. The USART and LPUART clocks can also be based on the HSI oscillator. Typical applications of BAM are sensor hubs. 16.4.2.3 Stop Modes STM32L MCUs can provide up to 2 different stop modes, named stop1 and stop2. Stop modes are based on the Cortex-M deep sleep mode combined with the peripheral clock gating. The voltage regulator can be configured either in normal²⁰ or low-power mode. In stop1 mode, all clocks in the VCORE domain are stopped; the PLL, the MSI, the HSI16 and the HSE oscillators are disabled. Some peripherals with the wakeup capability (I²C, USART and LPUART) can switch ON the HSI16 to receive a frame, and switch OFF the HSI16 after receiving the frame if it is not a wakeup frame. In this ²⁰The HAL calls this mode stop0, and this achieved by calling the HAL_PWREx_EnterSTOP0Mode() function.

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case, the HSI16 clock is propagated only to the peripheral requesting it. SRAM1, SRAM2 and register contents are preserved. Several peripherals can be functional in stop1 mode: PVD, LCD controller, digital to analog converters, operational amplifiers, comparators, independent watchdog, LPTIM timers (if available), I²C, UART and LPUART. The stop2 differs from the stop1 mode by the fact that only the following peripherals are available: PVD, LCD controller, comparators, independent watchdog, LPTIM1, I2C3, and the LPUART. The BOR is always available in both in stop1 and stop2 modes. The consumption is increased when thresholds higher than VBOR0 are used. To place the MCU in stop mode the HAL provides the function: void HAL_PWREx_EnterSTOPxMode(uint8_t STOPEntry);

where the ‘x’ is equal to 0, 1 and 2 depending on the stop mode. The parameter STOPEntry can assume the values PWR_STOPENTRY_WFI or PWR_STOPENTRY_WFE. For compatibility with the other HALs, the HAL_PWR_EnterSTOPMode() is also available. To enter stop mode, all EXTI-line pending bits, all peripherals interrupt pending bits and RTC Alarm flag must be reset. Otherwise, the stop mode entry procedure is ignored and program execution continues. Stop1 mode can be entered from run mode and low-power run mode, while it is not possible to enter stop2 mode from the low-power run mode. Any EXTI-line configured in interrupt or event mode forces the CPU to exit from stop mode, according if it entered in low-power mode using the WFI or WFE instruction. Since both HSE and PLL are disabled before entering in stop mode, when exiting from this low-power mode the MCU source clock is set to the HSI. This means that our code shall reconfigure the clock tree according to wanted SYSCLK speed. 16.4.2.4 Standby Modes STM32L MCUs provide two standby modes, which are based on the Cortex-M deep sleep mode. The standby mode is the lowest power mode in which 32 Kbytes of SRAM2 can be retained, the automatic switch from VDD to VBAT is supported and the I/Os level can be configured by independent pull-up and pull-down circuitry. By default, the voltage regulators are in power down mode and the SRAMs and the peripherals registers are lost. The 128-byte backup registers are always retained. The ultra-low-power BOR is always ON to ensure a safe reset regardless of the VDD slope. To place the MCU in standby mode the HAL provides the function: void HAL_PWR_EnterSTANDBYMode(void);

If we want to retain 32 Kbytes of SRAM2, then we can call the function:

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void HAL_PWREx_EnableSRAM2ContentRetention(void);

before we call the HAL_PWR_EnterSTANDBYMode(); In STM32L microcontrollers each I/O can be configured with or without a pull-up or pull-down resistors, by calling the HAL function HAL_PWREx_EnablePullUpPullDownConfig(). This allows to control the inputs state of external components even during standby mode. For more information about this topic, refer to the reference manual of your MCU. The microcontroller exits the standby mode when an external reset (NRST pin), an IWDG reset, a rising edge on one of the enabled WKUPx pins or an RTC event occurs. All registers are reset after wakeup from standby except for Power Control/Status Register (PWR->CSR). After waking up from standby mode, program execution restarts in the same way as after a reset (boot pin sampling, option bytes loading, reset vector is fetched, etc.). Using the macro: __HAL_PWR_GET_FLAG(PWR_FLAG_SB);

we can check if the MCU is resetting due to an exit from standby mode. Since both HSE and PLL are disabled before entering in stop mode, when exiting from this low-power mode the MCU source clock is set to the HSI. This means that our code shall reconfigure the clock tree according to wanted SYSCLK speed. 16.4.2.5 Shutdown Mode The shutdown mode is the lowest power mode with only 30 nA at 1.8 V in STM32L4 MCUs. This mode is similar to the standby one but without any power monitoring: the BOR is disabled and the switch to VBAT is not supported in this mode. The LSI is not available, and consequently the independent watchdog is also not available. A Brown-Out Reset is generated when the device exits shutdown mode: all registers are reset except those in the backup domain, and a reset signal is generated on the pad. The 128-byte backup registers are retained in shutdown mode. When exiting shutdown mode, the wakeup clock is MSI at 4 MHz. To enter shutdown mode the HAL provides the function: void HAL_PWREx_EnterSHUTDOWNMode(void);

The microcontroller exits the shutdown mode when an external reset (NRST pin), a rising edge on one of the enabled WKUPx pins or an RTC event occurs. All registers are reset after wakeup from standby, including the Power Control/Status Register (PWR->CSR). After waking up from shutdown mode, program execution restarts in the same way as after a reset (boot pin sampling, option bytes loading, reset vector is fetched, etc.).

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16.4.3 Power Modes Transitions STM32L MCUs offer a lot of power modes. However, it is important to remark that it is not possible to reach every power mode starting from a given one, but the power mode transitions are limited. The Figure 9 shows the valid power mode transitions in an STM32L4 microcontroller. As you can see, from run mode, it is possible to access all low-power modes except the low-power sleep one. In order to go into low-power sleep mode, it is required to move first to low-power run mode and then to execute a WFI or WFE instruction while the regulator is the low-power one. On the other hand, when exiting low-power sleep mode, the STM32L4 is in low-power run mode. When the device is in low-power run mode, it is possible to go into all low-power modes except sleep and stop2 modes. Stop2 mode can only be entered from the run one. If the device enters in Stop1 mode from the low-power run one, it will exit in low-power run mode. If the device enters standby or shutdown from low-power run mode, it will exit in run mode.

Figure 9: The allowable power mode transitions in an STM32L4 MCU

16.4.4 Low-Power Peripherals Almost all STM32L MCUs provide dedicated low-power peripherals. Here you can find a brief introduction to them. 16.4.4.1 LPUART The Low-Power UART (LPUART) is an UART that allows bidirectional UART communications with limited power consumption. Only a 32.768 kHz LSE clock is required to allow UART communications up to 9600 baud/s. Higher baud rates can be reached when the LPUART is clocked by clock sources different from the LSE clock. Even when the microcontroller is in stop mode, the LPUART can wait for an incoming UART frame while having an extremely low-energy consumption. The LPUART includes all necessary hardware

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support to make asynchronous serial communications possible with minimum power consumption. It supports half-duplex single wire communications and modem operations (CTS/RTS). It also supports multiprocessor communications. DMA can be used for data transmission/reception even in stop 2 mode. To program the LPUART peripheral we use the same functions from the HAL_UART module. 16.4.4.2 LPTIM The Low-Power Timer (LPTIM) is a 16-bit timer that benefits from the ultimate developments in power consumption reduction. Thanks to its diversity of clock sources, the LPTIM is able to keep running whatever the selected power mode, different from standard STM32 timers that do not run during stop modes. Given its capability to run even with no internal clock source, the LPTIM can be used as a pulse counter which can be useful in some applications. Moreover, the LPTIM capability to wake up the system from low-power modes makes it suitable to realize timeout functions with extremely low-power consumption. In a following chapter about FreeRTOS, we will use the LPTIM timer as source timebase for tickless idle mode. The LPTIM introduces a flexible clock scheme that provides the needed functionalities and performances, while minimizing the power consumption. These are the relevant features of a LPTIM peripheral: • 16 bit upcounter • 3-bit prescaler with 8 possible dividing factor (1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128) • Selectable clock source – Internal clock sources: LSE, LSI, HSI16 or APB clock – External clock source over ULPTIM input (working with no LP oscillator running, used by pulse counter application) • 16 bit period register • 16 bit compare register • Continuous/one shot mode • Selectable software/hardware input trigger • Configurable output: Pulse, PWM • Configurable I/O polarity • Encoder mode To program an LPTIM timer we use the dedicated HAL_LPTIM module.

16.5 Power Supply Supervisors The majority of STM32 microcontrollers provide two power supply supervisors: BOR and PVD. The Brownout Reset (BOR) is a unit that keeps the microcontroller under reset until the supply voltage

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reaches the specified VBOR threshold. VBOR is configured through device option bytes. By default, BOR is OFF. The user can select between three to five programmable VBOR threshold levels. For full details about BOR characteristics, refer to the “Electrical characteristics” section in the device datasheet. STM32 devices that do not provide a BOR unit, usually have a similar unit named Power on Reset (POR)/Power Down Reset (PDR), which perform the same operation of the BOR unit but with a fixed and factory-configured voltage threshold. The power supply can be actively monitored by the firmware by using the Programmable Voltage Detector (PVD). The PVD allows to configure a voltage to monitor, and if this VDD is higher or lower than the given level, a corresponding bit in the Power Control/Status Register (PWR->CSR) is set. If properly configured, the MCU can generate a dedicated IRQ through the EXTI controller. To enable/disable the PVD in those MCUs with this features, the HAL provides the functions HAL_PWR_EnablePVD()/HAL_PWR_DisablePVD(), while to configure the voltage level it provides the function HAL_PWR_ConfigPVD(). For more information, refer to the HAL_PWREx module of the CubeHAL.

16.6 Debugging in Low-Power Modes By default, the debug connection is lost if the application puts the MCU in sleep, stop and standby modes while the debug features are used. This is due to the fact that the Cortex-M core is no longer clocked. However, by setting some configuration bits in the DBGMCU_CR register of the MCU debug component (DBGMCU), the software can be debugged even when using the low-power modes extensively. The CubeHAL provides convenient functions to enable/disable debug mode in low-power modes. The function HAL_DBGMCU_EnableDBGSleepMode() is used to enable debugging during sleep mode²¹; the functions HAL_DBGMCU_EnableDBGStopMode() and HAL_DBGMCU_EnableDBGStandbyMode() allow to use debug interface during stop and standby modes respectively. It is important to remark that, if we want to debug the MCU in low-power modes, we also have to leave ON the GPIO peripherals corresponding to SWDIO/SWO/SWCLK pins. In all Nucleo boards these pins coincide with PA13, PA14 and PB3. Please, take note that, before enabling MCU debugging in low-power modes, DBGMCU interface must be enabled by calling the __HAL_RCC_DBGMCU_CLK_ENABLE() macro.

16.7 Using the CubeMX Power Consumption Calculator It may be a nightmare to manually estimate the power consumption of a microcontroller, with several peripheral enabled and several transition states in its different power modes. Even if ²¹Debugging during the sleep mode is not available in STM32F0 microcontrollers and hence the corresponding HAL function is not provided by the HAL.

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MCU datasheets provide all necessary information, it is really hard to figure out the exact power consumption levels. CubeMX provides a convenient tool, named Power Consumption Calculator (PCC), which allows us to build a power sequence and to perform estimations of the MCU power consumption.

Figure 10: The Power Consumption Calculator main view

The Figure 10 shows the main PCC view. To use it we have to first select the Vdd Power Supply source, otherwise the tool does not allow us to create steps in the power sequence. The next optional step consists in selecting a battery used to power the MCU when the main power is absent. This is useful to evaluate the battery life. We can choose from a portfolio of well-known batteries, or eventually add a custom one. By clicking on the green ‘+’, we can add a step of the sequence. Here we can specify the power mode (run, sleep, etc), the memories configuration (flash enabled/disabled, ART enabled/disabled, and so on) and the power voltage level. From the same dialog we can also choose the CPU frequency, the duration of the step and the enabled peripherals. With this tool we can so figure out how much power is needed by the microcontroller. In L0, L1 and L4 MCUs is also possible to enable the Transition Checker, which allows to identify invalid transition states (for example, we cannot switch from the run mode to the low-power sleep one without passing from the low-power run mode). For more information about the PCC view refer to the UM1718²² from ST. ²²http://bit.ly/1WDpa5r

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16.8 A Case Study: Using Watchdog Timers With Low-Power Modes Both IWDG and WWDG timers cannot be stopped once started. The WWDG timer keeps counting until the stop mode, while the IWDG timer, being clocked by the LSI oscillator, works even in shutdown mode. This means that watchdog timers prevents the MCU from staying in low-power mode for a long time. If you need to use both watchdog timer and low-power modes in your application, then you need to follow this trick based on the fact that the content of the SRAM memory survives to successive resets (clearly, it does not survive to a power-on reset). So to keep track of a reset caused by a watchdog timer while staying in a low-power mode, you can use a variable that keeps track of this fact (for example, you set the content of an uint32_t variable to a special “key” value before entering in a low-power mode). Once the MCU resets, you can check the content of this variable, and you can avoid starting the watchdog timer if that variable is configured accordingly. However, we need a “safe” place to store this variable, otherwise it is likely to be overwritten by startup routines. So, the best thing to do is to reduce the size of the SRAM region inside the mem.ld file, and to place this sentinel variable at the end of the SRAM memory, where usually the main stack starts: volatile uint32_t *lpGuard = (0x20000000 + SRAM_SIZE);

For example, assuming an STM32F030R8 MCU with 8KB of SRAM, and assuming that we define the SRAM region in the mem.ld file in the following way: MEMORY { FLASH (rx) SRAM (xrw) }

: ORIGIN = 0x08000000, LENGTH = 64K : ORIGIN = 0x20000000, LENGTH = 8K - 4

we have that the macro SRAM_SIZE will be equal to 0x2000-4 = 0x1FFC. The content of the lpGuard variable will be so placed at the address 0x2000 1FFC I am aware of the fact that these concepts may look totally obscure. A lot of thing will be clarified once you read the next chapter about the memory layout of an STM32 application.

17. Memory layout Every time we compile our firmware using the GCC ARM tool-chain, a series of non-trivial things takes place. The compiler translates the C source code in the ARM assembly and organizes it to be flashed on a given STM32 MCU. Every microprocessor architecture defines an execution model that needs to be “matched” with the execution model of the C programming language. This means that several operations are performed during bootstrap, whose task is to prepare the execution environment for our application: the stack and heap creation, the initialization of data memory, the vector table initialization are just some of the activities performed during startup. Moreover, some STM32 microcontrollers provide additional memories, or allow to interface external ones using the FSMC controller, that can be assigned to specific tasks during the firmware lifecycle. This chapter aims to throw light to those questions that are common to a lot of STM32 developers. What does it happen when the MCU resets? Why providing the main() function is mandatory? And how long does it take to execute since the MCU resets? How to store variables in flash instead of SRAM? How to use the STM32 CCM memory?

17.1 The STM32 Memory Layout Model In Chapter 1 we have analyzed how STM32 MCUs organize the 4GB memory address space. Figure 4 from that chapter clearly shows how the first 0.5GB of memory are dedicated to the code area. In turn this area is subdivided in several sub-regions. The most important one, starting from 0x0800 0000 address, is dedicated to the mapping of the internal flash memory. Instead, the internal SRAM memory starts from the 0x2000 0000 address, and it is organized in several sub-regions dedicated to specific tasks that we will see in a while. Figure 1 shows the typical layout of flash and SRAM memories in an STM32 MCU¹. In Chapter 7 we learned that the initial bytes of flash memory are dedicated to the Main Stack Pointer (MSP) and the vector table². The MSP contains the address where the stack begins. The Cortex-M architecture gives maximum freedom of placing the stack in the SRAM memory as well as in other internal memories (for example, the CCM RAM available in some STM32 MCUs) or external ones (connected to the FSMC controller). This explains the need for the MSP. The flash memory can be also used to store read only data, also known as const data due to the fact that variables declared as const are automatically placed in this memory. Finally, the flash memory contains the assembly code generated from the C source code. ¹It is important to remark that this layout reflects just one of the possible memory configurations, and it changes in case we use an RTOS. However, the underlying concepts remain the same, and it is better to consider this memory organization here. ²Remember that, as we will see next, the Cortex-M architecture defines the 0x0000 0000 address as the memory location where starting to place MSP and vector table. This means that the flash starting address (0x0800 0000) is aliased to 0x0000 0000.

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Figure 1: The typical layout of flash and SRAM memories

The SRAM memory is also organized in several sub-regions. A variable-sized region starting from the end of SRAM and growing downwards (that is, its base address has the highest SRAM address) is dedicated to the stack. This happens because Cortex-M cores use a stack memory model called full-descending stack. The base stack pointer, also called Main Stack Pointer (MSP), is computed at compile time, and it is stored at 0x0800 0000 flash memory location. Once we call a function, a new stack frame is pushed on the stack. This means that the pointer to current stack frame (SP) is automatically decremented at every function call (for example, the ARM assembly push instruction automatically decrements it). The SRAM is also used to store variable data, and this region usually starts at beginning of SRAM (0x2000 0000). This region is in turn divided between initialized and un-initialized data. To understand the difference, let us consider this code fragment:

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... uint8_t var1 = 0xEF; uint8_t var2; ...

var1 and var2 are two global variables. var1 is an initialized variable (we fix its starting value at compile time), while the value var2 is un-initialized: it is up to the run-time to initialize it to zero. For the same reason, we have two .data sections: one stored in flash and one in RAM, as we will

see next. Finally, the SRAM memory could contain another growing region: the heap. It stores variables that are allocated dynamically during the execution of the firmware (by using the C malloc() routine or similar). This area can be in turn organized in several sub-regions, according to the allocator used (in the next chapter we will see how FreeRTOS provides several allocators to handle dynamic memory allocation). The heap grows upwards (that is, the base address is the lowest in its region) and it has a fixed maximum size. From the compiler point of view, these sections are traditionally named in a different way inside the application binary. For example, the section containing assembly code is named .text, .rodata is the one containing const variables and strings, while the section for initialized data is named .data. These names are also common to other computer architectures, like x86 and MIPS. Others are specific of “microcontrollers world”. For example, the .isr_vector section is the one designated to store the vector table in Cortex-M based MCUs³. Since every STM32 MCU has its own quantity of SRAM and flash, and since every program has a variable number of instructions and variables, the dimension and location in memory of these sections differ. Before we can see how to instruct the compiler to generate the binary file for the specific MCU, we have to understand all the steps and tools involved during the generation of object files.

17.1.1 Understanding Compilation and Linking Processes The process that goes from the compilation of the C source code to the generation of the final binary image to flash on our MCU involves several steps and tools provided by the GCC tool-chain. The Figure 2 tries to outline this process. All starts from the C source files. They usually contain the following program structures. ³However, we will see next that its name is just a convention.

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Memory layout

Figure 2: The compilation process from the source file to the final binary image

• Global variables: these can be in turn divided between un-initialized and initialized variables; a global variable can also defined as static, that is its visibility is limited to the current source file. • Local variables: these can be divided between simple local (also called automatic) variables and static local variables (that is those variables whose lifetime extends across the entire run of the program). • Const data: these can be in turn divided between const data types (e.g. const int c = 5) and string constants (e.g. "Hello World!"). • Routines: these constitute the program and they will be translated in assembly instructions. • External resources: these are both global variables (declared as extern) and routines defined in other source files. It will be a linker job to “link” the references to these symbols defined in other source files and to merge the sections coming from the corresponding binary files. Once a source file is compiled, the above program structures are mapped inside specific sections of the binary file. The Table 1 summarizes the most relevant ones.

513

Memory layout

Table 1: The mapping of program structures and binary file sections

Language structure

Binary file section

Memory region at run-time

Global un-initialized variables Global initialized variables Global static un-initialized variables Global static initialized variables Local variables Local static un-initialized variables Local static initialized variables Const data types Const strings Routines

.common .data .bss .data

Data (SRAM) Data (SRAM+Flash) Data (SRAM) Data (SRAM+Flash) Stack or Heap (SRAM) Data (SRAM) Data (SRAM+Flash) Code (Flash) Code (Flash) Code (Flash)

.bss .data .rodata .rodata.1 .text

For every source file (.c) composing our application, the compiler will generate a corresponding object file (.o), which contains the sections in Table 1⁴. An object file is a type of binary file that adheres to a well-known standard. There are a lot of standards for binary files around (PE, COFF, ELF, etc.). The one used by GCC ARM is the ELF32, an open standard really popular, due its usage in Linux-based Operating Systems, and it is widely supported even by other tools like OpenOCD and the ST-LINK Utility. File ending with .o⁵ are, however, a special type of object files. These are also known as relocatable files. This name comes from the fact that all the memory addresses contained in this type of file are relative to the same file, and starts from the 0x0000 0000 address. This means that also .text section will start from that address, and we know that this is in contrast with the starting address of flash memory (0x0800 0000) in an STM32 MCU⁶. Starting from a series of relocatable files (plus some other configuration files that we will see in a while), the linker will assemble their content to form one common object file that will represent our firmware to flash on the MCU. In this process, called linking, the linker will relocate all relative addresses to the actual memory addresses. This type of file is also known as absolute file, because all addresses are absolute and specific of the given STM32 MCU⁷. ⁴It is important to underline that an object file contains much more sections. The most of them are related to debugging, and contain relevant information like the original source code, all the symbols contained in the source file (even those that have been optimized by the compiler), and so on. However, for the purposes of this discussion, it is better to leave them out. ⁵Take in mind that, from the compiler point of view, the file extension is just a convention. ⁶Those of you that want to deepen this matter can take a look to the readelf tool provided in the GCC ARM tool-chain. ⁷Here, again, the story is more complex. First of all, the linker could assemble other pieces from several external statically linked libraries (those ending with .a). These library, also known as archive files, are nothing more than a merge of several relocatable files. During the linking process, only those program structures actually used in our application will be merged with the final firmware. Another important aspect to remark is that this process is essentially the same for every microprocessor platform (like the x86 and so on), and it is also called static linking. More powerful architectures face an advanced linking process, also known as dynamic linking, which postpones the linking when the program will be loaded in the OS process. This allows to dramatically reduce the size of executables, and to update the dependency libraries without recompiling the whole application. In dynamic linking libraries are called shared objects (or shared libraries, or DLL in Windows), and in modern Operating Systems it is possible to share the same .text section from these libraries among the processes that use them by using mmap() or similar system calls. This allows reducing as well the SRAM occupation of processes (think to the tons of system libraries that should be “replicated” among the several processes running on a modern PC).

514

Memory layout

How does the linker know where to place in memory the sections contained in the absolute file? It is thanks to linker scripts (those files ending with .ld) that we can arrange the content of the absolute file according to the actual memory layout. We have already seen a linker script in Chapter 4, when we have configured the mem.ld file to specify the right flash origin address. CubeMX also embeds the right linker script for our MCU inside the generated C project (it is contained inside the sub-folder SW4STM32). However, it is really hard to study the content of those scripts if we have not mastered several concepts before. So, it is better to start smoothly creating a bare bone STM32 application.

17.2 The Really Minimal STM32 Application The most of applications seen until now seem really simple. Instead, both from the memory organization point of view and from the operations performed when the MCU boots, they already execute a lot of operations under the hood. For this reason, we are going to build a really essential application. The first step is creating an empty project using Eclipse. Go to File->New->C Project menu. Choose the Empty project type and select the Cross ARM GCC tool-chain, as shown in Figure 3. Complete the project wizard.

Figure 3: The project settings to choose

Create now a new file named main.c and place the following code inside it⁸. ⁸This code is designed to work with the Nucleo-F401RE. Refer to the book examples for the other Nucleos.

Memory layout

Filename: src/main-ex1.c 1

typedef unsigned long uint32_t;

2 3 4 5 6

/* Memory and peripheral start addresses (common to all STM32 MCUs) */ #define FLASH_BASE 0x08000000 #define SRAM_BASE 0x20000000 #define PERIPH_BASE 0x40000000

7 8 9 10 11

/* Work out end of RAM address as initial stack pointer * (specific of a given STM32 MCU */ #define SRAM_SIZE 96*1024 // STM32F401RE has 96 KB of RAM #define SRAM_END (SRAM_BASE + SRAM_SIZE)

12 13 14 15 16

/* RCC peripheral addresses applicable to GPIOA * (specific of a given STM32 MCU */ #define RCC_BASE (PERIPH_BASE + 0x23800) #define RCC_APB1ENR ((uint32_t*)(RCC_BASE + 0x30))

17 18 19 20 21 22

/* GPIOA peripheral addresses * (specific of a given STM32 MCU */ #define GPIOA_BASE (PERIPH_BASE + 0x20000) #define GPIOA_MODER ((uint32_t*)(GPIOA_BASE + 0x00)) #define GPIOA_ODR ((uint32_t*)(GPIOA_BASE + 0x14))

23 24 25 26

/* User functions */ int main(void); void delay(uint32_t count);

27 28 29 30 31 32

/* Minimal vector table */ uint32_t *vector_table[] __attribute__((section(".isr_vector"))) = { (uint32_t *)SRAM_END, // initial stack pointer (uint32_t *)main // main as Reset_Handler };

33 34 35 36 37 38

int main() { /* Enable clock on GPIOA peripheral */ *RCC_APB1ENR = 0x1; /* Configure the PA5 as output pull-up */ *GPIOA_MODER |= 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1

39 40 41 42 43 44

while(1) { *GPIOA_ODR = 0x20; delay(200000); *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; delay(200000);

515

Memory layout }

45 46

516

}

47 48 49 50

void delay(uint32_t count) { while(count--); }

The first 21 lines contain just macros that define the most common STM32 peripheral addresses. Some are generic and some specific of the given MCU. At line 26 we are defining the vector table. Being “minimal”, it just contains two things: the address in SRAM of the MSP (remember that this it the first entry of the vector table and it must be placed at 0x0800 0000 address) and the pointer to the handler of the Reset exception. What exactly are we doing? In Chapter 7 we mentioned that when the MCU resets, the NVIC controller generates a Reset exception after few cycles. This means that its handler is the real entry point of our application, and the execution of the firmware starts from there. Here we are going to define the main() function as the handler of Reset exception. The GCC keyword __attribute__((section(".isr_vector"))) says to the compiler to place the vector_table array inside the section named .isr_vector, which in turn will be contained in the object file main.o. Finally the main() routine contains nothing more then the classical blinking application. Before we can compile the firmware, we need to specify a couple of project settings. Go in Project settings->C/C++ Build->Settings. In the Target Processor settings select the Cortex-M core that fits your MCU. Then go in the Cross ARM C Linker->General section and check the entry Do not use standard start files⁹ and uncheck the entry Remove unused sections, as shown in Figure 4. If you try to compile the application, you will see the following warning in the Eclipse console: warning: cannot find entry symbol _start; defaulting to 0000000000008000

What does it mean? GCC (or better, LD) is saying to us that it does not know which is the entry routine of our application (_start() - this entry point name is a convention in GCC) and it does not know at which absolute memory location to start placing the code. So, how can we address this? We need a linker script. ⁹Leaving that option unchecked causes that the initialization routines from libc are used. These are usually “less optimized”, since they need to deal with some advanced feature from libc related to the C++ programming language. So, usually the startup routines from ST are specific for this platform, allowing to save a lot of flash memory and to reduce the boot time.

517

Memory layout

Figure 4: The project settings to choose

Create a new file named ldscript.ld and place the following content inside it. Filename: src/ldscript.ld 1

/* memory layout for an STM32F401RE */

2 3 4 5 6 7

MEMORY { FLASH (rx) SRAM (xrw) }

: ORIGIN = 0x08000000, LENGTH = 512K : ORIGIN = 0x20000000, LENGTH = 96K

8 9

ENTRY(main)

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

/* output sections */ SECTIONS { /* program code into FLASH */ .text : ALIGN(4) {

Memory layout

518

*(.vector_table) /* Vector table */ *(.text) /* Program code */ KEEP(*(.vector_table)) } >FLASH

17 18 19 20 21

/* Initialized global and static variables (which we don't have any in this example) into SRAM */ .data : { *(.data) } >SRAM

22 23 24 25 26 27 28

}

Let us see the content of this file. Lines [3:7] contain the definition of the flash and SRAM memories. Each region can have several attributes (w=writable, r=readable, x=executable). We also specify their starting address and length (in the above example they are related to an STM32F401RE MCU). Line 9 specifies the main() function as the entry point of our application (overriding the default _start symbol)¹⁰. Lines [12:28] define the content of the .text and .data sections. The .text section will be composed first by the vector table and then by the program code. With the ALIGN(4) directive we are saying that the section is word (4 bytes) aligned, while the >FLASH directive specifies that the .text section will be placed inside the flash memory. The KEEP(*(.isr_vector)) says to LD to keep the vector table inside the final absolute file, otherwise the section could be “stripped” by other tools that perform optimizations on the final file. Finally, the .data section is also defined (even if does not contain nothing in this example), and it is placed inside the SRAM memory. Before we can compile the firmware we need to instruct Eclipse to include the linker script during compilation. Go in Project settings->C/C++ Build->Settings. In the Cross ARM C Linker>General section add the entry ”../ldscript.ld” to the Script files (-T) list. Now you can compile the firmware and flash your Nucleo. Congratulation: it is almost impossible to have a smaller STM32 application¹¹.

17.2.1 ELF Binary File Inspection An ELF binary file can be inspected using a series of tools provided by the GNU ARM tool-chain. objdump and readelf are the most common ones. Describing their usage is outside the scope of this book. However, it is strongly suggested to dedicate a couple of hours playing with their optional parameters to the command-line. Understanding how a binary file is made can dramatically improve the knowledge of what under the hood. For example, running objdump with the -h parameter shows the content of all sections contained in the firmware binary¹². ¹⁰The ENTRY() directive is meaningless in embedded applications, where the actual entry point corresponds to the handler of the Reset exception. However, it may be informative for debuggers and simulators, and for this reason you will find it in ST official LD linker scripts. ¹¹Ok, coding it in assembly will allow you to save additional space, but this book is not for masochists ;-D ¹²When you run the command, you will se much more sections all related to debug. Here you will not see them because the debug information has been “stripped” from the file using the arm-none-eabi-strip command.

Memory layout

519

# ~/STM32Toolchain/gcc-arm/bin/arm-none-eabi-objdump -h nucleo-f401RE.elf nucleo-f401RE.elf: file format elf32-littlearm Sections: Idx Name Size VMA LMA File off Algn 0 .text 00000008 08000000 08000000 00008000 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA 1 .text.main 00000040 08000008 08000008 00008008 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE 2 .text.delay 00000020 08000048 08000048 00008048 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE 3 .comment 00000070 00000000 00000000 0000b1d2 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY 4 .ARM.attributes 00000033 00000000 00000000 0000b242 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY

Looking to the above output we see several things regarding the sections contained in the binary file. Every section has a size, expressed in bytes. A section has also two addresses: the Virtual Memory Address (VMA) and the Load Memory Address (LMA). In embedded systems like the STM32 MCUs, the VMA is the address that the section will have when the firmware starts execution. The LMA is the address at which the section will be loaded. In most cases the two addresses will be the same. As we will discover in the next section, they differ for the .data region. Every section has several attributes that say to the loader (in our case, for example, the loader is GDB in conjunction with OpenOCD, or the ST-LINK Utility tool) what to do with the given section. Let us see what they mean: • CONTENTS: this attribute says to the loader that the section in the binary file contains data to load in the final LMA address. As we will see next, the .bss section does not have content in a binary file. • ALLOC: this says to allocate a corresponding space in the LMA memory (which could be both flash and SRAM memory). The dimension of the space allocated is given by the Size column. • LOAD: this indicates to load the data from the section contained in the binary file to the final LMA memory. • READONLY: this indicates that the content of the section is read-only. • CODE: this indicates that the content of the section is binary code. Another interesting thing to remark from the previous output is that the binary file contains a dedicated section for every callable contained in the source code (.text.main for the main() and .text.delay for delay()). We have to specify to the linker to merge all the .text sections in a whole common section, modifying the linker script in this way:

Memory layout

520

.text : ALIGN(4) { *(.isr_vector) /* Vector table */ *(.text) /* Program code */ *(.text*) /* Merge all .text.* sections inside the .text section */ KEEP(*(.isr_vector)) } >FLASH

As we will see later, the ability to have separated sections for every callable, allow us to selectively place some functions inside different memories (for example, the fast CCM memory in some STM32 MCUs). Finally, the File off column specifies the offset of the section inside the binary file, while the Algn column indicates the data align in memory, which is 4-bytes.

17.2.2 .data and .bss Sections Initialization Let us introduce a minor modification to the previous example. 36

volatile uint32_t dataVar = 0x3f;

37 38 39 40 41

int main() { /* enable clock on GPIOA and GPIOC peripherals */ *RCC_APB1ENR = 0x1 | 0x4; *GPIOA_MODER |= 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1

42

while(dataVar == 0x3f) { // This is always true *GPIOA_ODR = 0x20; delay(200000); *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; delay(200000); }

43 44 45 46 47 48 49

}

This time we use a global initialized variable, dataVar, to start the blinking loop. The variable has been declared volatile just to avoid that the compiler optimizes it (however, when compiling this example, disable all optimizations [-ON] in the project settings). Looking at the code, we can reach to the conclusion that it does the same thing of the previous example. However, if you try to flash your Nucleo, you will see that the LD2 LED does not blink. Why not? To understand what’s happening, we have to review some things from the C programming language. Consider the following code fragment:

521

Memory layout ... uint32_t globalVar = 0x3f; void foo() { volatile uint32_t localVar = 0x4f; while(localVar--); }

Here we have two variables: one defined at global scope, one locally. The localVar variable is initialized to the value 0x4f. When does this exactly happen? The initialization is executed when the foo() routine is invoked, as shown by the following assembly code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

void foo() { 0: b480 push {r7} 2: b083 sub sp, #12 4: af00 add r7, sp, #0 volatile uint32_t localVar = 0x4f; 6: 234f movs r3, #79 8: 607b str r3, [r7, #4]

;Save the current FP ;Allocate 12 bytes on the stack ;Save the new FP ;Place 0x4f in r3 ;Store r3 (that is 0x4f) in the 4-th byte

8 9

a: c: e: 10: 12: 14:

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

while(localVar--); bf00 nop 687b ldr 1e5a subs 607a str 2b00 cmp d1fa bne.n

r3, [r7, #4] r2, r3, #1 r2, [r7, #4] r3, #0 c

}

Lines [2:4] are the function prolog. Each routine is responsible of allocating its own stack frame, saving some CPU internal registers. This is also called calling convention, and the way this is performed is defined by a specific standard (in case of ARM based processors, it is defined by the ARM Architecture Procedure Call Standard (AAPCS)). We will not go into details of this matter here, because we will better analyze the ARM calling convention in a following chapter. The instructions we are interested in are those at lines [5:6]. Here we are storing the value 0x4f (which is 79 in base 10) inside the general-purpose register R3 and then moving its content inside the second word in the stack, which corresponds to the localVar variable ¹³. The remaining part of the assembly code contains the while(localVar--) and the function epilog (not shown here), which is responsible of restoring the state before going back to the caller function. ¹³It is important to clarify that the above assembly code is generated with all optimizations disabled.

522

Memory layout

So, the calling convention defines that local variables are automatically initialized upon function call. What about global variables? Since they are not involved in a calling process, they need to be initialized by some specific code when the MCU resets (remember that the SRAM is volatile, and its content is undefined after a reset). This means that we have to provide a specific initialization function. The following routine can be used to simply copy the content of the flash region containing the initialization values to the SRAM region dedicated to global initialized variables. void __initialize_data (unsigned int* flash_begin, unsigned int* data_begin, unsigned int* data_end) { unsigned int *p = data_begin; while (p < data_end) *p++ = *flash_begin++; }

Figure 3: The copy process of initialized data from the flash to the SRAM memory

Before we can use this routine, we need to define few other things. First of all, we need to instruct LD to store the initialization values for each variable contained in the .data section inside a specific region of the flash memory, which will correspond to the LMA memory address. Second, we need a way to pass to the __initialize_data() function the start and the end of .data section in SRAM (that we are going call _sdata and _edata respectively) and the starting location (that we are going to call _sidata) where initialization values are stored in the flash memory (it is important to stress that when we initialize a variable to a given value we need to store that value somewhere in the flash, and use it to initialize the SRAM location corresponding to the variable). The Figure 3 schematizes this process.

523

Memory layout

Once again, all these operations can be performed using the linker script, which we can modify in the following way: 25 26

/* Used by the startup to initialize data */ _sidata = LOADADDR(.data);

27 28 29 30 31

.data : ALIGN(4) { . = ALIGN(4); _sdata = .;

/* create a global symbol at data start */

32 33 34

*(.data) *(.data*)

35 36 37 38

. = ALIGN(4); _edata = .; } >SRAM AT>FLASH

/* define a global symbol at data end */

The instruction at line 26 defines the variable _sidata, which will contain the LMA address of the .data section (that is, the starting address of flash memory containing initialization values). Instructions at line [30:31] use a special operator: the “.” operator. It is named location counter and it is a counter that keeps track of the memory location reached during the generation of each section. The location counter independently counts location memory of every memory region (SRAM, flash and so on). For example, in the above code, it starts from 0x2000 0000 since the .data section is the first one loaded in SRAM. When the two instructions *(.data) and *(.data*) are performed, the location counter is incremented by the size of all .data sections contained in the file. With the instruction . = ALIGN(4); we are just forcing the location counter to be word aligned. So, to recap, _sdata will contain 0x2000 0000 and _edata will be equal to the size of .data section (in our example, .data section contains only one variable - dataVar- and hence its size is 0x2000 0004). Finally, the directive >SRAM AT>FLASH says to the link editor that the VMA address of the .data section is bound to the SRAM address space (so 0x2000 0000), but the LMA address (that is, where the initialization values are stored) is mapped inside the flash memory space. Thanks to this new memory layout configuration, we can now arrange the main.c file in the following way:

Memory layout

Filename: src/main-ex2.c 22 23 24

void _start (void); int main(void); void delay(uint32_t count);

25 26 27 28 29 30

/* Minimal vector table */ uint32_t *vector_table[] __attribute__((section(".isr_vector"))) = { (uint32_t *)SRAM_END, // initial stack pointer (uint32_t *)_start // main as Reset_Handler };

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

// Begin address for the initialisation values of the .data section. // defined in linker script extern uint32_t _sidata; // Begin address for the .data section; defined in linker script extern uint32_t _sdata; // End address for the .data section; defined in linker script extern uint32_t _edata;

39 40 41

volatile uint32_t dataVar = 0x3f;

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

inline void __initialize_data (uint32_t* flash_begin, uint32_t* data_begin, uint32_t* data_end) { uint32_t *p = data_begin; while (p < data_end) *p++ = *flash_begin++; }

50 51 52 53 54

void __attribute__ ((noreturn,weak)) _start (void) { __initialize_data(&_sidata, &_sdata, &_edata); main();

55

for(;;);

56 57

}

58 59

int main() {

60 61 62 63

/* enable clock on GPIOA and GPIOC peripherals */ *RCC_APB1ENR = 0x1 | 0x4; *GPIOA_MODER |= 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1

64 65

while(dataVar == 0x3f) {

524

Memory layout *GPIOA_ODR = 0x20; delay(200000); *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; delay(200000);

66 67 68 69

}

70 71

525

}

The entry point is now the _start() routine, which is used as handler for the Reset exception. When the MCU resets, it is automatically called, and in turn it calls the __initialize_data() function, passing the parameters _sidata, _sdata and _edata computed by the Linker during the linking process. _start() then calls the main() routine, which now works as expected. Using the objdump tool we can check how the sections are organized in the ELF file. # ~/STM32Toolchain/gcc-arm/bin/arm-none-eabi-objdump -h nucleo-f401RE.elf nucleo-f401RE.elf: file format elf32-littlearm Sections: Idx Name Size VMA LMA File off Algn 0 .text 000000c0 08000000 08000000 00008000 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE 1 .data 00000004 20000000 080000c0 00010000 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA 2 .comment 00000070 00000000 00000000 00010004 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY 3 .ARM.attributes 00000033 00000000 00000000 00010074 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY

As you can see, the tool confirms that the .data section has a size equal to 4 bytes, a VMA address equal to 0x2000 0000 and an LMA address equal to 0x0800 00c0 , which corresponds to the end of .text section. The same applies to the .bss section, which is reserved to uninitialized variables. According to the ANSI C standard, the content of this section must be initialized to 0. However, the .bss section does not have a corresponding flash region containing all zeros, but it is again up to the startup code to initialize this region. The following linker script fragment shows the definition of the .bss section¹⁴:

¹⁴Please, take note that the order of sections inside a linker scripts reflects their order in memory. If we have two sections, named A and B, both loaded in SRAM, if section A is defined before than B, then it will be placed in SRAM before then B.

526

Memory layout 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

/* Uninitialized data section */ .bss : ALIGN(4) { /* This is used by the startup in order to initialize the .bss section */ _sbss = .; /* define a global symbol at bss start */ *(.bss .bss*) *(COMMON)

32

. = ALIGN(4); _ebss = .; } >SRAM AT>SRAM

33 34 35

/* define a global symbol at bss end */

while the following routine, always invoked from the _start() one, is used to zero the .bss region in SRAM: void __initialize_bss (unsigned int* bss_begin, unsigned int* bss_end) { unsigned int *p = bss_begin; while (p < bss_end) *p++ = 0; }

Changing the main() routine in the following way allow us to check that all works correctly: Filename: src/main-ex3.c 76 77

volatile uint32_t dataVar = 0x3f; volatile uint32_t bssVar;

78 79

int main() {

80

/* enable clock on GPIOA and GPIOC peripherals */ *RCC_APB1ENR = 0x1 | 0x4; *GPIOA_MODER |= 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1

81 82 83 84

while(bssVar == 0) { *GPIOA_ODR = 0x20; delay(200000); *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; delay(200000); }

85 86 87 88 89 90 91

}

Once again, we can see how the .bss section is arranged by invoking the objdump tool on the final binary file

Memory layout

527

# ~/STM32Toolchain/gcc-arm/bin/arm-none-eabi-objdump -h nucleo-f401RE.elf nucleo-f401RE.elf: file format elf32-littlearm Sections: Idx Name Size VMA LMA File off Algn 0 .text 000000e8 08000000 08000000 00008000 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE 1 .data 00000004 20000000 080000e8 00010000 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, DATA 2 .bss 00000004 20000004 20000004 00010004 2**2 ALLOC 3 .comment 00000070 00000000 00000000 00010004 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY 4 .ARM.attributes 00000033 00000000 00000000 00010074 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY

The above output shows that the section has a size equal to four bytes, but it does not occupy room in the final binary file since the section has only the ALLOC attribute. 17.2.2.1 A Word About the COMMON Section In the previous linker script we have used the special directive *(COMMON) during the definition of the .bss section. This simply says to the LD to merge the content of the common section inside the .bss section. But what is exactly the common section? To better understand its role, we need to revise some little known features of the C language. Suppose that we have two source files, and both of them define two global initialized variables with the same name: File A.c int globalVar[3] = {0x1, 0x2, 0x3}; ...

File B.c int globalVar[3] = {0x1, 0x2, 0x3}; ...

When we try to generate the final application linking the two relocatable files (.o), we obtain the following error: B.o:(.data+0x0): multiple definition of 'globalVar' A.o:(.data+0x0): first defined here collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

The reason why this happens is evident: we are defining the same global variable in two different source files. But what if we declare the two symbols as un-initialized global variables? File A.c

Memory layout

528

int globalVar[3]; ...

File B.c int globalVar[6]; ...

If you try to generate the final binary file you will discover that the linker does not generate errors. Why do the linker complain about both symbol definitions? Because the C Standard says nothing to prohibit it. But if the language essentially allows to define multiple times a global un-initialized variable, how much memory will be allocated? (that is, globalVar will be an array containing 3 or 6 elements?). This aspect is leaved to compiler implementation. Recent GCC versions place all un-initialized global variables (not declared as static) inside a whole “common” section, and the amount of memory for a given symbol will assume the value of the greatest one (in our case, the array will have room for six elements of type int - that is, 12 bytes). So, to recap, static global un-initialized variables are local to a given relocatable, and hence go in its .bss section; global un-initialized variables are global to the whole application, and go inside the common section. The previous linker script places both types of global un-initialized variables inside the .bss section, that will be zeroed at run-time by the __initialize_bss() routine. This behavior can be overridden specifying the option -fno-common to the GCC command. GCC will allocate global un-initialized variables inside the .data section, initializing them to zero. This means that if we are declaring an un-initialized global array of 1000 elements, the .data section will contain one thousand times the value 0: this will waste a lot of flash memory. So, for embedded applications is better to avoid using that command line option.

17.2.3 .rodata Section A program usually makes usage of constant data. Strings and numeric constants are just two examples, but also large arrays of data can be initialized as constants (for example, a HTML file used to generate web pages can be converted in an array, using tools like the xxd UNIX command). Being immutable, constant data can be placed inside the internal flash memory (or inside external flash memories connected to the MCU through the Quad-SPI interface) to save SRAM space. This can be simply achieved defining the .rodata section inside the linker script:

Memory layout

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/* Constant data goes into flash */ .rodata : ALIGN(4) { *(.rodata) /* .rodata sections (constants) */ *(.rodata*) /* .rodata* sections (strings, etc.) */ } >FLASH

For example, considering this C code: Filename: src/main-ex4.c 76 77

const char msg[] = "Hello World!"; const float vals[] = {3.14, 0.43, 1.414};

78 79 80 81 82

int main() { /* enable clock on GPIOA and GPIOC peripherals */ *RCC_APB1ENR = 0x1 | 0x4; *GPIOA_MODER |= 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1

83

while(vals[0] >= 3.14) { *GPIOA_ODR = 0x20; delay(200000); *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; delay(200000); }

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}

we have that both the string msg and the array vals are placed inside the flash memory, as shown by the objdump tool: # ~/STM32Toolchain/gcc-arm/bin/arm-none-eabi-objdump -h nucleo-f401RE.elf nucleo-f401RE.elf: file format elf32-littlearm Sections: Idx Name Size VMA LMA File off Algn 0 .text 00000590 08000000 08000000 00008000 2**3 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, CODE 1 .rodata 00000024 08000590 08000590 00008590 2**2 CONTENTS, ALLOC, LOAD, READONLY, DATA 2 .comment 00000070 00000000 00000000 000085b4 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY 3 .ARM.attributes 00000033 00000000 00000000 00008624 2**0 CONTENTS, READONLY

Memory layout

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Pointers to Const Data Pay attention that declaring a string in this way: char *msg = "Hello World!"; ...

is completely different from declaring it in this other way: char msg[] = "Hello World!"; ...

In the first case we are declaring a pointer to a const array, which implies that a word will be allocated inside the .data section to store the location in flash memory of the string "Hello World!". In the second case, instead, we are correctly defining an array of chars. Remember that in C arrays are not pointers.

17.2.4 Stack and Heap Regions We have already seen in Figure 1 that heap and stack are two dynamic regions of the SRAM memory that grow in the opposite direction. The stack is a descendant structure, which grows from the end of SRAM up to the end of .bss section, or the end of the heap if used. The heap grows in the opposite direction. While the stack is a mandatory structure in C, the heap is used only if dynamic memory allocation is needed. In some application fields (like in automotive area) the dynamic allocation is not used, or at least is strongly suggested not to be used, because of the risk involved. A decent management of the heap introduces a lot of performance penalties, and it is the source of possible leaks and memory fragmentation. However, if your application needs to allocate dynamically some portions of the memory, you can consider to use the classical malloc()¹⁵ routine from the C library. Let us consider this following example: Filename: src/main-ex5.c 107 108 109 110

int main() { /* enable clock on GPIOA and GPIOC peripherals */ *RCC_APB1ENR = 0x1 | 0x4; *GPIOA_MODER |= 0x400; // Sets MODER[11:10] = 0x1

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char *heapMsg = (char*)malloc(sizeof(char)*strlen(msg)); strcpy(heapMsg, msg);

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¹⁵There are other better alternatives, however. We will explore them in the next chapter.

Memory layout while(strcmp(heapMsg, msg) == 0) { *GPIOA_ODR = 0x20; delay(200000); *GPIOA_ODR = 0x0; delay(200000); }

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}

The above code is really simple. heapMsg is a pointer to a memory region dynamically allocated by the malloc() function. We simply copy the content of the msg string and check if both strings are equal. If so, the LD2 LED starts blinking. If you try to compile the above code, you will see the following linking error: Invoking: Cross ARM C++ Linker arm-none-eabi-g++ ... ./src/ch10/main-ex5.o /../../../../arm-none-eabi/lib/armv7e-m/libg_nano.a(lib_a-sbrkr.o): In function `_sbrk_r': sbrkr.c:(.text._sbrk_r+0xc): undefined reference to `_sbrk' collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status

What’s happening? The malloc() function relies on the _sbrk() routine, which is a feature OS and architecture dependent. The newlib leaves to the user the responsibility of providing this function. The _sbrk() is a routine that accepts the amount of bytes to allocate inside the heap memory and returns the pointer to the start of this contiguous “chunk” of memory. The algorithm underlying the _sbrk() function is fairly simple: 1. First, it needs to check that there is suf