Woodworking - Workbenches
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Work Bench A design for holding the work by Tage Frid
There are many workbenches available on the market today. Aside from obvious reasons of economics, why make my bench? I can convince my students and myself easily enough, but to convince you I should explain the benefits of this design and how I arrived at these specifics. When I came to this country in 1948 I was given a tour of the school where I was to teach. I was guided to a large room and introduced to the teacher with whom I was to work. We talked for a while, or rather he did the talking because my vocabulary didn't go much beyond yes and no. By using arms and legs I finally conveyed to him that I wanted to see the woodshop. When I was told I was standing in it I just about passed out. In the room was a huge thickness planer I think Columbus' father must have brought over, and a few small power tools. I was really flabbergasted when I saw the student "workbenches." These were large tables for two persons with a vise in each end. Most of the time the students were holding down their work with one hand and working with the other. Some had taken much time to make special contraptions to hold their work so they could use both hands, which I'm sure was the Lord's intention when he designed us with two. (Of course the Japanese use their feet to secure their work, leaving both hands free.) After being in school for a few months I realized that the bench I wanted did not, to my knowledge, exist in this country. So I designed my first workbench, which was quite similar to the one I was taught on. Later we made one for each student. Since then we have been making workbenches every two or three years so that the students have their own when they graduate. I find it a good exercise in which they learn
how to set up the machines for mass production and work together as a production team. It takes us three days from rough lumber to have all the parts ready to fit and assemble, and to have the bench top glued up. This year each bench cost us about $100, half for wood and half for hardware. Over the years, having made the bench so many times and having had numerous people using and criticizing them, I have arrived at this design and these dimensions as best suited for a cabinetmaker. With its two vises and accessory side clamps there are five possibilities for holding the work—two in the right vise, one in the left vise, one between the bench dogs and one between the side clamps. Both vises are the type with only one screw and no guide pins to interfere with the work. A piece can be clamped all the way to the floor if necessary, and the vise can hold irregularly shaped objects. With only six bolts, the bench is easy to assemble and disassemble, and takes minimum storage space. The only glued parts are the bench top, the right vise and the leg sections. Everything else bolts together so that any damaged pieces are easy to replace. This bench is almost six feet long, but if you wish to lengthen the bench you can easily do so by extending the bench top at the center and the two leg crosspieces (#18 on the plan) the same amount. You can shorten it in the same way. I would advise keeping all dimensional changes in five-inch increments so that the distance between the bench dogs remains the same. The bench is designed as a right-handed bench but could be converted to a left-handed one by reversing the plans. If additional storage space is needed, I suggest attaching a piece of plywood between the
Vise closeup shows top spline construction. Dowel jig helps support long boards in other vise.
leg crosspieces and inserting two end pieces to form a large
it rough, and then final thickness-plane the whole top togeth-
storage compartment. If you wish you can add a piece behind the bench to hold gouges, chisels, screwdrivers, etc. But I find it more a bother than a help because if you are working on pieces larger than the bench top surface you have to remove the tools so that they don't interfere. If you are working on long boards or panels you can make a
er after it is glued. If a thickness planer isn't available, buy the lumber planed and align carefully during gluing. I suggest not using pieces wider than four inches in the top because of possible warpage problems. We use 8 / 4 stock for everything except pieces #18 and #8, which are 5/4 stock. For
simple device to support the weight of the board. Take a good heavy piece of wood (a 2x4 or 4x4 will do), and drill holes of at least 1/2-inch diameter in a straight line down the length of the piece about one inch apart. By clamping this into the
right vise and moving a dowel to the hole just under the work
the heavier pieces which finish 2-3/4 by 4 inches, we glue-up two pieces of 8 / 4 because in this area it is just about impossible to find properly dried lumber of that thickness. If necessary, you can bricklay or stack these pieces if you are short on lumber. We use Titebond yellow glue for all the
you can easily add support to a long piece. Before beginning, get your hardware. That way, if you wish to make a substitution or if something isn't readily available, you can make all your dimensional changes before any wood is cut. We could not find a 14-inch bolt so we make
our own by brazing a nut to the end of some 3/8-inch threaded rod which we have cut to the right length. We got bench screws and dogs at Woodcraft Supply in Woburn, Mass., but I understand Garrett Wade in New York and others also may have them. When choosing the wood, make sure you select a dense
hardwood and be sure the wood is properly dried. We use maple because it is extremely hard and durable and is the least expensive in this area (it takes about 60 board feet). When cutting up the stock be sure to cut the longest pieces first. Cut them all one inch longer than the final dimension. It is best to purchase rough lumber, joint and thickness-plane
Base parts are wedged and glued.
Many students have found it best to start assembly with the base, as it goes together very easily. Assembling the base first eliminates many pieces, making things less confusing when
the vise is to go together. If you wish, you may round over the edges of the base pieces and radius the ends of the feet. These details, along with your vise corners and handles, will give your bench a personal touch. Sand all pieces before gluing. Be sure to hammer evenly on both wedges and don't overhammer or the wood will split. After the wedges are in, check the sections for squareness. At this point you can remove the
clamps because the wedges will hold everything in place. Clean off all the excess glue while it is still wet and you will have little finishing work. After the glue dries, saw off the excess of the wedges and plane the tops even and flat. Clamp the base together to drill the hardware holes. In making the bench top, we use splines between the pieces
to make gluing up easier. It isn't a bad idea for strength either, because of all the hammering that will take place on the top surface. A spline should definitely be used between pieces #1 and #3 to help align the front piece flush with the rest of the top. We use a dado head to cut the grooves for the splines but it could be done with a shaper, a hand router or a
plough plane. The bench top is glued and planed before piece #3 with the bench dog slots is added. We use the dado head on the radial arm saw to cut the bench dog slots with a stop set to keep the spacing and the angle consistent. It could be done instead with a router, a saw and chisel, or a router plane. The top step of the slot is chiseled out by hand at the very end. Cap piece #2 is added afterwards and a brad is used
in each end to prevent the piece from sliding over the length during gluing. Don't use too much glue or it will be necessary to do a tedious clean-up inside each bench dog slot. After the front piece is attached, the top is cut in length and width. The tongues are made at each end with a shaper, circular saw, hand router or rabbet plane.
The lengthwise cut for the right-hand vise must be parallel to the front of the bench top, and the crosswise cut precisely square to it. This can be done on a band saw, or with a circular saw or hand saw. For making the groove for the right-hand vise to ride in, you can use a hand router or chisel it out. The accuracy of this groove is very important because it will determine how smoothly your vise works.
As mentioned previously, none of the end cap pieces is glued. For this reason it is essential that the holes for the bolts are drilled very accurately or the bolts will not go in square. Therefore I suggest drilling the holes in pieces #4, 5, and 7 on a drill press or with a doweling jig. At the same time, drill the hole for the vise in piece #7. After the holes are drilled, the
end cap pieces are clamped in place with filler #6 inserted. The holes are then continued into the bench top. The best way to do this is to use an extra-long drill bit, or a bit on an extension. If you don't wish to invest in the bit, you can cut a dado and let the bolt ride in that. The same procedure should be followed on piece #18. If you do use a dado and wish to
close up the groove, you can add a piece to conceal the bolt. However, this isn't necessary because the nut will nestle in the
At top, radial arm-saw jig helps cut out bench-dog slots of consistent spacing using dado blades. Student uses chisel to clean saw cuts made to shape bench-top corner for vise. Below, Piece 3 is planed to
align with Piece 1. Bottom photo shows vise.
SEE ERRATA AT END OF ARTICLE
shoulder of the right-angled hole, pulling the bolt in tight. In
our benches we insert the vise hardware brackets flush, but this certainly isn't crucial. Now comes the most difficult part of assembly—the right-hand vise. It is advisable to make the tongues on the pieces all slightly oversized and carefully fit them with their
grooves. It is essential that every part of the vise be completely square. We use finger joints in the corners but dovetails
would probably be faster if you are only making one bench. In gluing the vise pieces together it is helpful to cut a piece of plywood to the exact dimension of the inside rectangle of the vise. If you clamp the vise pieces around this piece, the vise will have to end up square. The plywood also provides an edge to clamp against on the open side.
The vise should be glued and fitted and all the holes drilled for the hardware before cover piece #14 is added. The hole for the vise is drilled in piece #11, and from there guided into piece #5, with #5 bolted in place. It might be necessary to chisel a little notch into the bench top to make room for the vise bracket, but such a notch is invisible. The bench is
flipped upside down for the fitting of the guides. The notches should be scribed off the runner pieces and carefully routed or chiseled out by hand. Countersink all the screws so that they
don't interfere with the vise travel. Piece #17 should be
screwed down first and then the other guides set in place. Take the time to make all of these fit right. Fitting the vise will drive you crazy at times, but be patient and worry about
one section at a time and eventually it will all fit just right. When the vise is working properly, piece #14 is added. It is set into pieces #11 and 12 so these pieces must be chiseled out. If you want to get a little fancy you can undercut the edges so that the effect is almost like one large dovetail. A complimentary angle is cut on the edges of #14 and the piece
is glued. You must glue only to the moving pans of the vise and not to any of the stationary parts of the bench top. Drill up from the bottom through the bench dog slots to locate the tops of the slots and finish chiseling them out. Piece #8 is screwed onto the back of the bench after it receives a groove to support the plywood for the tool trough. The plywood is screwed directly to the underside of the bench
top and is further supported by the filler pieces which secure the top to the legs. The filler pieces #24 stabilize the top and connect it to the base. The two corner blocks are screwed in from the bottom. Their only function is to make the trough easy to sweep out. Piece #23 is used to prevent direct clamping onto the work you are holding. A piece of plywood would function equally well here.
After the bench is completed, the top should be hand planed and belt sanded level. All the edges should be eased off slightly, or "broken," to minimize chipping out when something hits against an edge.
All of the places on the underside of the right-hand vise where wood is running against wood should be coated with melted paraffin thinned slightly with turpentine—say a
At top, plywood board is used to square three vise parts when gluing them together. Middle vertical board is bench-top end (Piece 5). After gluing, other parts of vise are fitted together with the vise in place on the top. Other photos show bottom and rear views of vise.
tablespoon or two to a block of paraffin. The paraffin is first melted in a can or pot, and the turpentine is added with the container removed from the heat source. The mixture is liberally painted on in its liquid state to protect the pieces and help them to function smoothly. No oil is used on any of these pieces. At completion, the rest of the bench and especially the work surface should be completely penetrated with raw
of 8/4 maple; 10 board feet of 5 / 4 maple; one piece of 1/2-in. Baltic birch plywood 8 x 60; two 1-1/4-in. diameter
linseed oil. This will take several hearty coats. At least once a year the bench top should be resurfaced. This is done by
bench screws, one 18-in. overall length, the other 13-3/4 long
scraping it down, releveling it, and again penetrating it with oil. Four small pieces should be added under the legs so that the bench rests on four points. The thickness of these pieces can serve as an adjustment for the final bench height.
with a swivel end; 1 pair 7-in. bench dogs with heavy spring, 1 x 5 / 8 knurled face, 7 / 8 x 5 / 8 shank (we used Ulmias); two 3 / 8 x 8 bolts; four 3 / 8 x 6 bolts; one 3 / 8 x 14 bolt (or threaded rod); two 3 / 8 x 5 lag screws.
Now your bench is completely finished and looks so
[Editor's note: Blueprints of this bench are available for $6.
beautiful you hate to use it. If you take good care of it, working on it and not into it, it should stay like that for years and years.
The prints do not give any additional information, but some readers may find the orthographic projections drawn to a scale of 1-1/2 and 3 inches to the foot convenient to work with. Send check to The Taunton Press, Box 355, Newtown, CT
[Author's note: Material for this bench includes 50 board feet
06470. Connecticut residents add 7% sales tax.]
BOTTOM VIEW (and sections)
SEE ERRATA AT END OF ARTICLE
ADDENDA, ERRATA, ETC. On the workbench drawings in the fall issue, in Piece 11 (p. 45) the hole for the bench screw should be 1-3/4 inches up from the bottom, not the 2 inches indicated. And the missing type on Piece 10 (p. 43) should read 1 - 3 / 4 i n c h e s . . . . The reversing third drum for the stroke Sander in the summer issue is no longer available as a stock item. George Mooradian says he'll make some up if he gets enough orders. Otherwise, he recommends his off-theshelf Model 1000 special extended shaft mandrel as a substitute. . . .
More bench business: In Fall '76, page 43: piece 3 should total 46 in. long, not 4 6 - 1 / 8 in.; the top of the
bench-dog slot in piece 3 is 1 - 3 / 1 6 in. wide, not 1 5 / 1 6 in., (the bottom of the slot is 1 5 / 1 6 in.); on piece 7 the dado is
7-3/8 in. long, not 7 in.; piece 5 is 16-3/8 in. long, not 16-5/8 in.; the
protruding tongue of piece 23 is 2-1/4 in., not 2 - 1 / 2 i n . ; bolts are shown as
hex-head but mislabeled as carriage bolts. On page 45, piece 12, the dado
slot is 1-1/4 in. wide, not 3/8 in. wide...
An Easy-to-Build Workbench
Bolted butt joints for rigid construction by Richard Starr
s a school woodshop teacher, I must often solve problems on the spur of the moment. That's how the design for my easy-to-build workbench came to me. A couple of kids wanted to build a bench as a gift for a neighboring preschool. The bench had to be quick and easy to construct, yet professional looking and, above all, absolutely rigid. When all the elements for a simple, bolt-together frame came together in my mind, I hit my palm to my brow. It seemed so obvious. I wondered why I hadn't thought of it before.
Designing the workbench
The workbench mainly consists of four legs and four stretchers held together with eight identical joints. The joints are easy to cut yet forgiving because they are fastened with common hex-head bolts available at any hardware store. The joint, equally effective in hardwood or cheap construction-grade lumber, is also perfect for many types of knockdown furniture. It's even solid enough for permanent installations, such as a built-in work counter. The first step in building the frame is to decide the dimensions
of the top. This decision should be based on the bench's intended use (a carving bench should have a narrower top than a cabinetmaker's assembly bench) and on the shop space you have available. The bench I built has a 42-in.-wide by 72-in.-long top, good for general woodworking tasks. From these dimensions, I calculated the size of the frame and the length of the stretchers, You can determine the length of each pair of stretchers by subtracting twice the thickness of a leg plus the amount the top will overhang at each end from the length and width of the benchtop. When deciding on the amount of overhang, keep in mind that it's a good idea to leave plenty of room on all sides, for mounting vises and for clamping things to the top. For example, I chose a 7-in. overhang and used 3-in.-thick by 3-in.-wide legs, so my end stretchers were 22 in. long and the side stretchers were 52 in. long. I made my stretchers from 2x6 stock. I used soft maple for my bench's legs, but you can use glued-up hardwood or construction-grade 4x4s. Cut the legs to a length that equals die height of the bench less the thickness of the top. I find that bench height is largely a matter of personal taste. I'm a six-
ends than that or you risk the force of the bolt splitting out the endgrain and ruining the stretcher.
Bore out the cross holes with a
-in -dia. bit, which will leave a
hole large enough to allow a box wrench to fit around the nut
during assembly. Next, the portion of the hole facing the end of the stretcher is squared up for the nut. I used a try square to mark out the pocket, as shown in the drawing. Then I chopped out the waste with a chisel. If you like, you can whittle or sand the edges
of the opening to give them an attractive chamfer. To locate the bolt holes in the ends of the stretchers, I made a thin-plywood (you could use cardboard) template cut to the same
dimensions as the cross section of a stretcher, in this case about in. by
in. The template is used to mark the center for each
-in.-dia. bolt hole, and then these holes are drilled through until
they intersect with the cross holes. A spade bit in a portable electric drill works fine in endgrain, although I prefer to use a modified auger bit in a hand brace. To modify the bit, I just filed the spurs off, and it chewed right through endgrain. I tried to drill accurately by checking that the bit was parallel to the face and edge of the stretcher, and stopping and rechecking frequently. Because the hole is much larger than the bolt, dead accuracy isn't necessary; as I've said, this joint is very forgiving.
If you plan to disassemble and assemble the bench often, you might want to add an alignment dowel on the end of each stretcher. This short, -in.-dia. dowel keeps the stretcher aligned during
assembly and mates to a slightly oversized hole in the leg. Next, mark and cut out the relief area on each stretcher end, leaving two l-in.-long contact areas. A -in.-deep relief is all you
need, but if you'd like to add a decorative touch, you can cut a fancy shape; just avoid cutting too near the cross hole or you'll risk
splitting the joint when you tighten the bolt. I cut out the relief area on a bandsaw, but you could use a sabersaw or chop out the waste by hand with a chisel.
Use the same template described above to mark the positions of footer, and I like a 34-in.-high bench whenever I'm sawing or planing wood; for small assembly work, though, I'd want the benchtop an inch or two higher. The workbenches in my school shop are 30 in. high, which is right for most adolescents, although younger woodworkers might do best with a 26-in.-high bench.
Making the stretcher joints
the bolt holes on the legs. Each pair of legs is laid out differently, so be sure to mark carefully. If you choose to countersink the bolt
heads, drill the countersunk holes first. A 1-in.-dia. hole matches the diameter of washers normally used with -in. bolts. Drill the bolt holes oversized— -in. holes for the -in. bolts-as you did on
the stretcher ends earlier. Assemble the bench frame by first bolting together the legs and end stretchers, and then joining them with the side stretchers. The
The function of a stretcher is to prevent the frame from racking and the bench from rocking, so it's imperative that each stretcher connection be rock solid. A joint held together with a single bolt
joints will seem loose and sloppy when first assembled; simply position and tighten them using two washers under each nut. You might
focuses pressure at the center of the joint, which doesn't adequate-
need to retighten the joints after they've settled for a few days.
ly prevent the joint from racking. Two bolts are better because they pull the stretcher against the leg closer to the edges, thus
Fitting the benchtop
keeping the joint square. But you need to buy twice as much hardware, plus it takes twice as long to knock down or assemble the bench. After trying several variations of the bolted stretcher joint, I
For my benchtop, I glued up some
finally came up with the version shown in the drawing. A single bolt is used for each joint, and an arched relief area is cut out on each end of the stretcher. As the joint is tightened, pressure is focused at the outer edges (like a two-bolt joint), effectively locking the stretcher square to the leg and preventing racking. To begin making the joints, crosscut the stretchers square and to length, and drill cross holes to provide the space for the nut and washers that are fitted to the end of each bolt. The center of each
cross hole is located where the bolt end will be when the joint is assembled. For my bench, I used 3-in.-sq. legs and -in.-long bolts with the heads countersunk . in. deep. This places the center of my cross holes at in. from the end of each stretcher. You should avoid locating the cross holes any closer to the stretcher
-in.-thick maple I had lying
around. An easier (although more expensive) alternative is to buy a length of ready-made butcher-block countertop, available from many building-supply stores, home centers and lumber dealers. Bolt the top to the frame through a batten glued to the inside faces of the end stretchers (see the drawing). Bore three -in.
holes in each batten, and then fasten the top with
-in. lag bolts
and washers. While the battens keep the top flat, the oversized holes allow the solid-wood top to move with changes in humidity.
If you want to add a shelf under your workbench, screw battens to the underside of some -in.-thick shelf boards; then drop the shelf in place, as shown.
Richard Starr is a teacher and author. Building this workbench is
the topic of the first show in his television series, Woodworking for Everyone, on PBS this fall.
The most versatile work-holding device ever bolted to a bench
by Benjamin Wild
M Emmerts are classics. Specialized vises, like this Emmert
No. 1, were designed
for busy patternmakers during the industrial boom years at the turn of the century. Vise jaws hold irregularly shaped workpieces (above) and swivel to improve access to the work (right).
ore than 20 years of woodworking and patternmaking taught me that the ideal vise is one that I can forget about while I'm working. I don't want to fight with a vise or spend much time setting it up. A vise should hold the work firmly, without marking it, and allow me to work in a comfortable position. I started my career as a patternmaker using the special vise that goes with the trade. Since then, I've tried every other type of vise on the market. No other vise comes as close to the perfect work-holding device as a patternmaker's vise. The patternmaker's vise was developed specifically to meet the demanding needs of a specialized job. A patternmaker turns out wooden models (such as plane bodies, gears or tablesaw tops) that are used, in turn, to create molds for casting parts in metal. The models often assume odd shapes and sizes and are difficult to hold—hence the development of a special vise. You don't have to be a patternmaker to appreciate this type of vise. It's better than other vises at holding the work firmly so that the woodworker and the tool have ready and easy access to virtually any part of the piece. I now teach woodworking, and I often see my students struggling with improperly held work. The result usually is inaccurate work or a botched job. The beauty of a patternmaker's vise is that it can hold a variety of different sizes and shapes in almost any position. The vise attaches to the front of the workbench like a conventional bench vise. But from this position, the vise can be rotated 360° or lifted 90°, so the jaws are parallel to the benchtop, all with the wood clamped firmly in the jaws. The jaws can be angled up to about 5° from side to side to hold tapered objects. An accessory tilt plate will pivot up to 30° perpendicular to the vise for more severely angled work or for gripping pieces angled in two planes. In addition to this versatility, the vise has two sets of jaws. In the
normal position, the jaws are the same as in any other woodwork-
ing vise. But rotate the vise 180°, and a pair of metalworking jaws, similar to a machinist's vise, are brought to the top (see the top photo on p. 80). The vise also has dogs built into both front and
back jaws to hold round, curved or odd shapes (see the top photo on p. 81). Or the front jaw dogs could be used with benchmounted dogs to grip objects beyond the capacity of the vise. For clamping simple square pieces of limited size, any conventional vise will suffice. But a patternmaker's vise is so versatile that even mundane jobs become easier. You'll soon find yourself ro-
tating and tilting your work for best access rather than twisting and turning your body to conform to the constraints of your bench and vise (see the bottom photo on the facing page). Once you've used a patternmaker's vise, you'll have a hard time going back to a conventional one. Fortunately, these vises are still available, from used Emmerts to newly manufactured imitators, at prices ranging from $250 to more than $1,500.
The Emmert vise
The Universal patternmaker's vise was first manufactured by Joseph F. Emmert in 1891. At that time, American factories were in full swing, creating a huge demand for the patterns necessary for casting the parts for all those wonderful cast-iron woodworking
machines, as well as other equipment, that we covet so much today. These patterns assumed almost any shape, often were quite large and had to be worked to exacting tolerances. Emmert vises have been in use for more than 100 years, and they are still the benchmark, even though the company has been out of business for some time. The original Emmerts came in two sizes, the No. 1 with jaws in. by 18 in. that opened 15 in. and weighed in at 87 lb. (see the
photos on the facing page). A smaller No. 2 vise had 5-in. by 14-in. jaws that opened 12 in. and weighed a mere 56 lb.
What happened to the Emmert Co.?
"If these things are so good, why doesn't everyone have one, and
why did the Emmert Co. go out of business?" you might ask. For the same reason that I'm no longer actively making patterns. Most
of the work that used to be done by patternmakers is done by welding, sent out of the country or done with computers and automated milling machines. And the materials are now plastics and ceramics worked to ever finer tolerances. Almost gone are the days of handworking patterns of clear mahogany, cherry and pine. The closing of the traditional patternmaker's shops, meant not only that the market for Emmert vises was dwindling, but also that
competition was increasing as thousands of used Emmerts hit the market. Some bad management decisions and new competitors also had a hand in the demise of the Emmert Co.
What's available today
Ever since the original Emmert Co. closed, woodworkers who have wanted the versatility of these fine tools have had limited options. But thanks to the rising demand for woodworking tools,
new sources have developed and old sources have come to light for patternmaker-style vises. American Machine & Tool Co. (AMT), Veritas Tools Inc. and The Kindt-Collins Co. all offer some version of a patternmaker's vise. All of these vises work much like the old Emmert. They all tilt, angle and spin. They all require about the same effort to install. They all have metalworking jaws on one side, and they all hold the work firmly. They all have built-in dogs to hold things between the
jaws or between the front jaw dogs and dogs set into the workbench. But there are differences. Choosing the right vise for you
Modern version uses alloy casting. Made by Veritas Tools, this Tucker vise uses a zincaluminum alloy instead of cast iron, making it strong and light. A quick-release feature can be operated by a foot pedal (above). The vise's cork-lined jaws protect delicate workpieces (left).
really depends on the type of woodworking that you do, how heavy your work is and how much money you're willing to spend.
The AMT vise
The AMT vise (American Machine & Tool Co., Fourth Ave. and Spring St., Royersford, PA 19468-2519; 800-435-8665) is a copy of the Emmert No. 2 vise. The specifications are almost identical: 5-in. by
-in. jaws that open 12 in. and an overall weight of 55 lb. for
the cast-iron and steel unit (see the photos at left). The primary differences between the two are that the machining is not as good on the AMT as it is on the original, the cast iron is a little softer and the -in.-dia. handle fits sloppily in its 1-in.-dia. hole. In spite of the rough casting, though, everything seems to work well enough. In addition to the standard pivot plate, AMT offers a set of soft jaws as an optional accessory ($20 for the pair). The soft jaws are 3-in. by 6-in., rubber-faced aluminum plates that magnetically attach to the face of the jaws to protect your work, as shown in the bottom photo at left. I found the soft jaws helpful, particularly for small work.
Although I'm used to working with the bigger No. 1 vise, I liked this little AMT vise and would be tempted to buy it if I knew I would never need the size and strength of the larger one. At $250, it's the most reasonable entry into owning a patternmaker's vise, unless you find a real bargain on a used Emmert, which usually sells for $350 and up depending on size and condition.
The Veritas Tool vise
Veritas Tool Inc. (12 East River St., Ogdensburg, NY 13669-1720; 800-667-2986) introduced the Tucker vise in 1991, exactly 100 years after Emmert patented his vise. With jaws that are 4 in. by
Co. vise 180°, and
13 in., the Tucker is only slightly smaller than the Emmert No. 2, but the 12-in. jaw capacity is the same (see the photos on p. 79). The Tucker operates much like an Emmert, but there are some differences and a few added features. The Tucker is much lighter than the Emmert, which gave me some concerns about its durability. But the zinc-aluminum alloy used to cast the Tucker is not only much lighter than cast iron, it's stronger and less brittle. The other readily noticeable difference is machining. The finish is a highly refined, smooth surface similar to
jaws for metalwork-
that found on the unmachined surfaces of machinist's tools. The Tucker vise has some advantages over the Emmert and, in
Vise handles metal,
too. Rotate this American Machine & Tool you'll have a pair of
ing (above). A set of
jaw inserts, which are lined with soft rubber
(right), prevents dings
in soft material.
my opinion, some disadvantages. It has a quick-release mechanism, so the front jaw can slide open or closed easily without having to turn the handle. In addition to a top release button, a foot pedal allows the spring-loaded jaw to be popped open when both hands are full (see the top photo on p. 79). The built-in dogs have a flat side and a round side to offer a variety of clamping surfaces. The jaws of the Tucker are cork-lined, which is great for protecting your work, but could be a pain if the cork lining gets damaged and needs to be scraped off. This is likely because even the metalworking jaws, which tend to get more abuse, are cork-lined. The directions are complete, and installation
is easier than it appears. The exploded view of the vise makes it look as complicated as the control panel of a Boeing 747. One thing I did discern from the mounting instruction's exploded drawing was that the Tucker has a lot more parts than the Emmert. Although I did not have a chance to use the vise for an extended period, I would be concerned that with so many parts, it might be easier for the vise to get out of alignment.
The big drawback to the Tucker vise is that the angle feature is not all that convenient to use. The other vises use a quick-acting cam lock to hold the vise at an angle. However, the Tucker requires a separate, large Allen wrench (provided) to make this ad-
justment. Because of the smaller size of the Tucker, when it's rotated 90° to the vertical position, the end of the vise is only about 2 in. above the bench. The end of the next smallest vise, the AMT, when in the same position, is 4 in. above the benchtop. This extra height raises small work up to a better working position. Also, the Tucker doesn't have a pivot plate, which is good for holding odd-shaped pieces. At $500, the Tucker might seem a little dear, but overall, this is a quality-machined product that works extremely well.
The Kindt-Collins vise
Although The Kindt-Collins Co. (12651 Elmwood Ave., Cleveland, OH 44111; 800-321-3170) master universal patternmaker's vise has been on the market for more than 20 years, it's been a relative secret. That may be because of its price: $1,555. Kindt-Collins continues to sell vises primarily to corporate patternmaker's shops and the government. The Kindt-Collins is an improvement over the old Emmert. The
angle and other adjustments work much more smoothly because all the working parts are machined and hand-fitted (see the photos at right). The surfaces of the large woodworking jaws (18 in. by 7 in.) are ground flat, and the metalworking jaws are ground, hardened and serrated. The tilt plate also is ground flat and fits perfectly into its groove in the back vise jaw, as shown in the bottom photo at right. The front jaw rides smoothly on a double-lead
Acme thread and opens a full 16 in. A nice paint job makes the vise look as good as it works. The Kindt-Collins vise has much thicker castings than the Emmert, so the Kindt-Collins can hold the heavy castings that patternmakers sometimes work on, but you'll probably have to bolt your bench to the floor. In fact, weighing in at about 170 lb., the
vise alone may tip over some workbenches. Although the extra heft makes the vise stronger, the increased bulk gets in the way when working near the jaws on smaller pieces. Because of its heavy-duty construction, the Kindt-Collins is obviously marketed to industry. The company must assume that these pros know what to do with this vise because it came without any mounting directions or hardware. The only other disadvantage of this vise is that it is about three times the price of the next
cheapest model. In spite of the heavy price, the Kindt-Collins vise represents a good value for the user who needs the ultimate in holding power.
An Emmert in the future? Along with these vises, I also had a chance to try out a new Emmert vise, as shown in the top photo on p. 78. That's right, a new
Emmert. Back in 1984, Bob Kinslow of Hagerstown, Md., acquired the rights to the Emmert name, as well as remaining inventories, patterns and some production machinery. He has been struggling ever since to combine these ingredients into a going concern and has managed to put together a few of the vises. But recent health problems have dealt his efforts a serious blow.
If Kinslow can get things up and running, he speculates the selling price for a No. 1 (the only size he'll be producing) will be about $675. Until then, if you want an Emmert, keep your eyes open at flea markets or used tool shops in your area. One thing is for sure: Anyone who still calls himself a patternmaker is not likely to be selling his vise.
Benjamin Wild worked as a patternmaker for 16 years. He is currently teaching construction trades for the City School District, Rochester, N.Y., and is the coordinator of the apprenticeship program for Rochester Carpenters Local 85.
Cadillac of vises. With a price tag of more than $1,500, the Kindt-Collins vise isn't for everyone. Machined, hand-fitted parts explain its ease of operation,
and the vise handles big, unwieldy objects (above). A tilt plate
that fits between the
jaws (left) allows the jaws to hold tapered stock firmly.
Low Assembly Bench Versatile platform puts your work at the right height by Bill Nyberg
I needed a bench that suited the way I really work, so I built a low platform that incorporates some features of a traditional full-sized bench.
A clamping machine My low platform bench is made for clamping (see the photos on the facing page). The edges overhang enough for clamps to get a good grip anywhere along the length of the bench. A 4-in.-wide space down the middle increases the clamping options. This platform bench has four tail vises made from Pony No. 53 double-pipe clamps, which can be used by themselves or in combination with a row of dogs on the centerline between the screws, as the drawing shows. Unlike most bench arrangements, with a single row of dogs along one edge, this one doesn’t twist or buckle the piece. I can use each vise singly or with the others because the pipes are pinned into the benchtops at each end with 1 ⁄4-in. by 2-in. roll pins. Without the pins, the pipes would slide through the bench when tightening one end. Rather than using traditional square bench dogs, I bored 3 ⁄4-in. holes for a variety of manufactured dog fixtures or shopmade dowel dogs (see the drawing).
lengthwise in the top face of the bottom section to accommodate the pipes. The tops are held to each beam with a single lag screw, which allows seasonal movement. To lock the tops into the base, I cut dadoes on the lower faces of the bottom sections to fit over the beams. Assembling the double-pipe clamps— The double-pipe clamps are sold with a
A low bench made for clamping This bench is 24 in. high, a convenient height for working on many projects. The benchtops are 421 ⁄2 in. long, which gives more than 4 ft. between the jaws. At about 70 lbs., the bench is light enough to move around yet heavy enough for stability.
Building the benchtops
y father learned woodworking in Sweden, and when he came to this country, he got a job building reproduction Early American furniture. The shop had been in operation since the late 1700s, and like those who worked before him, my father was assigned a huge bench with many drawers. He stored his tools and ate his lunch at the bench, but much of his actual work took place nearby on a low table he called “the platform.” When I inherited his big bench, I also found myself doing most of my work at a low platform improvised from sawhorses and planks. I have bad shoulders and the occasional sore back, so using a fullheight bench is difficult and unproductive.
The bench is made from eight straight, clear 8-ft. 2x4s that I had kept in the shop for a few months to dry. I jointed the edges and then ran each of the boards through the planer until the radiused corners were square. Building the legs and base according to the dimensions on the drawing is straightforward. The only point to note is the dovetail connecting the beams to the legs. Because of the orientation of the beams and legs, the dovetail is only 11 ⁄2 in. at its widest point, but it’s 31 ⁄2 in. from top to bottom. I tilted the tablesaw blade to cut the tails on the beam and cut the pins on the legs in the bandsaw. Almost any method would work to join the beam to the leg; my first version of the bench used a bolted slip joint. The pipes run through the tops—The tops are made in two sections and glued up with the pipes and vises in place. The upper sections are made of three boards and the lower section from two. I edgeglued them with alternating growth rings to eliminate cupping. I cut 7 ⁄8-in. grooves
Dowels align top during glue-up.
Leg braces are resawn 2x4s, about 11⁄16 in. by 33⁄8 in.
Photos: Aimé Fraser; drawings: Heather Lambert
tail stop and a screw head. I set aside the tail-stop ends and used only the screw heads. Threading on the vise at one end of the pipe will unscrew the vise at the other end. So I had a plumber cut the threads twice as long on one end of each of the four pipes. I threaded the first vise all the way onto the end with double-long threads so that it was twice as far on the pipe as it needed to go. By the time the
second vise was in place, the first one had unscrewed itself to the correct location. Keep ends flush when gluing—Before the pipes are installed in the grooves, I cut all the bench pieces to length. Once the tops are glued up, the pipes and vises are in the way, so it’s hard to trim up ends that aren’t flush. For flush ends, I aligned the pieces with dowel pins between top and
Bench dogs are hardwood dowels, 3⁄4 in. dia. and about 41⁄2 in. long, planed flat on one side.
Dog holes, 3⁄4 in., on 4 in. centers
A 1⁄4-in. bullet catch keeps the dog in place.
bottom. I applied the glue and clamped the top and bottom sections together with the dowels in place. After the glue was dry, I drilled for the roll pins from the bottom so they wouldn’t show. Bill Nyberg is director of ophthalmic photography at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. He works wood in his spare time.
Roll pins, ⁄4 in. by 2 in., keep pipe from turning.
Top assembly is dadoed 1 ⁄4 in. deep to fit over beam.
Lag screws, 3⁄8 in. by 5 in. through beam
Cut off one side of handle. When the vise is open, gravity will keep the remaining portion of the handle below the benchtop.
Alternating growth rings
MAKE CLAMPING EASY
Dado for pipe, 7⁄8 in. deep by 7⁄8 in. wide
Four No. 53 Pony clamps
Two vises that can be adjusted independently hold even irregular shapes securely. Roll pin Black iron or galvanized pipe, 1⁄2 in. ID by 57 in. long
Drill 11 ⁄8 in. holes in cheeks for loose fit on pipe.
Glue only bottom of dovetail to allow seasonal movement.
Counterbore for 1 ⁄4 in. by 2 in. bolts.
The open space at the center of the bench allows clamping pressure to be applied anywhere.
Rules of Thumb
BY M I C H A E L D U N B A R
Woodworking benches It is almost impossible to work wood without a workbench. It ranks as one of the most important fixtures in a shop. In fact, the more extensive your woodworking experience the more likely you are to have more than one bench. I have always had at least three benches in my chair-making school's shop—large and small joiner's benches and an assembly bench. Different types of woodworkers traditionally have had different styles of benches that vary according to the needs of their craft. For example, a joiner's bench is long and narrow with a vise
along the side (known as a side vise) and a vise at one end (known as a tail vise). Chair makers frequently work on a low platform called a framing bench because chair assembly is called framing. All good benches share features you will want to include in any bench you are making or acquiring. A bench must be sturdy. You frequently place a lot of weight on it. Woodworking, especially with hand tools, creates a lot of force. A bench that wobbles or racks under these forces is frustrating to work on because you waste a lot of energy moving the benchtop rather than working wood. Also, this type of movement is not good for the bench's joints. They wear more quickly, and you may need to replace the bench down the road. All the benches in my shop have 4x4 legs, and the stretchers are joined with 2-in.-deep mortiseand-tenon joints. The top is secured to 2x6 cleats that are mortised to sit on tenons cut into the top of the legs. We have reinforced all the multipleperson benches with cross bracing—both end to end and side to side. A bench should also be heavy. The forces exerted upon a bench can not only rack it but also make it slide around the shop. Chasing your bench while trying to work wood is very frustrating. A heavy bench is more likely to stay put. A thick top is one way to create weight. The top of my large joiner's bench (see the photo at left) is in.-thick beech, and all of our multiple-person benches (see the photo below) require four people to lift them safely. Storing some of your tools under the bench is another good way to add weight. I store my working
Low bench for handwork. Planing moldings, chopping mortises and jointing boards all require lots of upper-body strength. A low bench—the one in the photo is 31 in. high—allows the author to put a lot of muscle into his motions. High bench for machining. Benchtop machines come with their own horsepower, so the operator's strength is almost superfluous. Slipping battens under the plywood has raised the actual working height of the benchtop to almost 36 in. Adding height is easy; lowering it isn't.
Rules of Thumb
Get the height just right. To determine the proper workbench height, stand with your arm hanging
by your side. Bend your wrist so that your palm is facing down.
handplanes, about 20 of them, on a shelf that
spans the side stretchers.
You can also secure the bench to the floor to
keep it from moving. My small joiner's bench is
lagged to the wooden floor. If you have a concrete floor, you may need to drill holes in it and use lag shields. In this case, be sure to locate the bench in the most desirable location. Chair making requires a lot of shaping. When a An immovable beast. To keep his benches from racking, the author uses dovetailed student would pull the draw knife, the bench diagonal braces. Cleats screwed to the floor prevent the benches from moving. would follow. We corrected this by placing cleats against the legs and screwing them to the floor. And the cleats have another advantage. Although low—only mostly machined, benches are generally used for assembly. These benches tend to have higher working surfaces. However, a in. thick—they keep a lot of the shavings produced in the shop high bench makes working by hand very difficult. For example, from working their way under the bench, making clean up easier. when planing, you use muscles in your legs and back. On a high Your bench should be sized appropriately to your work. A benchtop has three important dimensions: length, width and bench, you are more limited to your arm and shoulder muscles. I height. If you work with long pieces of wood, you want a long do a lot of handwork, and for that reason, I prefer a low bench. bench. When I built my joiner's bench, I was doing a lot of house My large joiner's bench is only 31 in. high. restoration. As a result, I was making a lot of doors and interior To determine bench height, stand erect with your arm hanging and exterior trim. The 8-ft.-long top came in handy for this work.
by your side, and bend your wrist so your palm is facing down.
A bench should be wide enough to handle the jobs you normally do. My joiner's bench is 32 in. wide. This is sufficient for most of the chairs, tables or carcases I have built. Bench height is perhaps the most critical dimension. It is one
This is a good height for your bench. If you do a lot of work with benchtop machines, such as a router or a biscuit joiner, you may want the bench slightly higher. Remember this: It's easy to add temporary blocks or battens if you want to raise the working
of work and your height. In a production shop where parts are
that is also very personal. It varies depending on your methods
height of a bench for a particular project, but it's awfully hard to
Rules of Thumb
BY M I C H A E L D U N B A R
Vises are a woodworker's third hand I have watched a lot of frustrated beginning woodworkers attempt to saw a piece of wood while holding it against a workbench with their free hand or their knee. I even saw one diligent guy put a board on a workbench, then sit on the board while he tried to make a cut. Pity that all of them didn't clamp their work in a vise. Vises are indispensable woodworking tools. Through the day, a woodworker has to hold any number of things, such as parts or tools, so that he can work on them. Different styles of vises are made for a variety of different purposes. Thus, the longer you work wood, the more likely you are to own more than one vise. I started with one and now have six. Vises are commonly built into woodworkers' workbenches. A typical joiner's bench has two—a side vise and a tail vise. A side vise is usually mounted along the length of a bench and is generally used for holding boards or parts on their edges. Holding a board for jointing with a handplane is a common job for the side vise. A tail vise—usually mounted on the end of a bench—holds boards or parts flat on the benchtop (see the left photo below). It
is generally used in conjunction with benchdogs. Planing or sanding a board's face and gluing panels are common jobs that involve the tail vise. In my chair-making school's shop, we use two other types of vises on a daily basis. My favorite, the carriage vise, is similar to a machinist's vise but is made to much more exacting tolerances. It was manufactured early this century by the Prentise Vise Co. In the company's catalog, this model is listed as a "woodworker's vise," but it is intended more specifically for carriage makers. The jaws are at chest level (see the right photo on p. 108), making it easier to work in a standing position, which is especially helpful for fine work. The jaws' faces are machined flat so that they do not mar the work, even when it is held very tightly. The screw has very little backlash, so I can tighten and loosen the jaws with a half twist. I have had the Prentise carriage-maker's vise for 27 years. It serves me as a third hand, and without.it, I would feel handicapped. The other type of vise used in our shop is the Record 53E. This model is so well known and so widely used by woodworkers A tail vise is for working wood flat on the bench. Chopping mortises, face-planing or sanding is easy with a tail vise mounted so that the screw is parallel to the bench's length. The vise clamps the wood against a benchdog, the movable square peg at the front end of the new wood.
A side vise is used for working the end or edge of a board. The author copied the twin-screw vise—great for gripping long boards while working the ends—from an antique bench. Side vises are mounted so that their screws are parallel to the width of a bench.
Rules of Thumb
Side vises on the end of a bench. For his Windsor-chair-making class-
es, the author mounted two Record 53E vises on the short end of each bench (left), which allows him to work off the corner of the bench. Working the long edge of a board is easy with tandem-mounted vises.
everywhere that it is the standard add-on cast-iron bench vise. A once-popular type, pattern-maker's vises were made in large numbers and can still be found (though they're expensive). Pattern makers worked with irregular shapes and frequently needed to revolve the work to place it in an advantageous position. Their vises were far more flexible and complicated than those used by other branches of woodworking. Veritas makes a modern version of a pattern-maker's vise called the Tucker Vise.
Use a vise to your advantage
When I visit other shops or watch students at work, I observe two common problems. Many woodworkers use vises that are
inadequate, or they frequently do not use their vises to their best advantage. Whatever type of vise or vises are required in your
work, they should all be high quality and strong. (Weak vices are
spelled differently.) It is also usually a good bet to buy a brand you recognize. You will not be well served by a lightweight or undersized vise. Acquiring a good vise usually means spending the long dollar. However, the investment will pay dividends for as long as you work wood.
Using a vise to its best advantage is a regular part of our classroom instruction. It is easier to work wood if it is securely held by the vise. But avoid working in a way that allows the part to flex. It is usually best to lower the wood you are working on as
far into the vise as possible so that it doesn't project a lot. Try to keep the area you are working as close to the jaws as possible to keep the workpiece rigid.
Smooth operator. This antique Prentise vise (right) has smooth faces that won't mar wood.
It doesn't matter whether the waste or the piece you are keep-
ing gets clamped into the vise—whatever holds better is best. For instance, if you are cutting the waste off the end of a turned spindle, which would be hard to clamp securely because of the turnings, it will be easier to clamp the waste piece in the vise and hold the spindle in your hand as you saw with your other hand.
And if you have to joint pieces too small to run across a jointer, clamp a #7 jointer plane upside down in a vise and push the piece over it. With a little forethought, vises can be adapted to better suit
your needs. In our school, we cannot provide each student with
several types of vises, so we have mounted Record 53E vises in a versatile way that allows them to perform all the jobs we require, such as holding chair seats for planing, turned legs for drilling or
spindles for shaping. Many shops mount a bench vise on the
bench's long edge and set it in from the corner. Ours are located
on the bench's short end and right on the corner, This allows us to use them as a tail vise for planing. A row of dog holes is
aligned with the vise's dog (which is mounted in the outside jaw). And when jointing very long pieces, we can clamp the
wood using two vises on the end of a bench.
New-Fangled Workbench With six pipe clamps and some dressed framing lumber,
you can make an inexpensive bench that's as versatile as a Swiss Army Knife BY
W H I T E
or five years I worked as a cabinetmaker in a shop that used only hand tools for the simple reason that electricity wasn't available that far back in the woods. One lesson that I came away with was the importance of a good workbench—and lots of windows. I now work in a shop that is, if anything, overelectrified, but a functional workbench is still important. Just because you're driving a car instead of a buggy doesn't mean you don't need a good road to get where you're going. On a perfect bench, the various vises and stops would hold any size workpiece in the most convenient position for the job at hand. Traditional workbenches are adequate for clamping smaller pieces, a table leg or frame rail for instance, but most benches can't handle wide boards for edge- and face-planing or frameand-panel assemblies. Recently, I moved my shop and needed to build a new bench. I began by researching traditional American and European designs. I found that although our predecessors had many clever solutions to the problems of holding down a piece of wood, no one bench
D O U G L A S FIR WORKBENCH To minimize costs, the author milled workbench stock from Douglas fir framing lumber, sawing clear sections from the center of 2xlOs and 2xl2s. The bench is fastened with drywall screws and lag bolts. Six pipe clamps in different configurations are used as vises.
Oak blocks span tail-vise clamps. The screw ends of the pipe clamps are screwed to the end of the bench through holes drilled in the clamp faces.
Pipes rest on blocks that turn. Tail-vise pipe clamps are supported by blocks fastened with one screw. To slide a clamp past, turn the block.
Front clamps are easy to adjust. The clamps fit in holes in the bench front and are secured with large washers and speed pins.
planed. Instead, the force of the plane pushes the workpiece into a tapered plan-
ing wedge attached to the far left end of the bench. This is an ancient device, and for handplaning it is far more practical than
any vise. You can flip the board end for end or turn the other edge up in an instant with one hand. You don't even have to put down your plane. To make a shoulder vise when needed, I drilled holes 6 in. on-center along the bench's front rail to mount pipe clamps horizontally. I pair up two clamps with a drop-in vise jaw, which is just a length of -in. square hardwood. The jaw can be as short as 8 in. or longer than 6 ft. I have
several jaws of different lengths.
Sliding height adjustment. Pipe-clamp tailpieces slide on cast-iron pipes held captive in the top and bottom of the bench. A T-shaped Douglas fir planing beam rides on the clamps.
solved all or even most of the problems I had encountered in 25 years of woodworking. Frustrated, I finally decided to design a bench from the ground up. At first I had no success. A design would address one problem but not another, or it would be far too complex. I was about to give up and build a traditional German bench when I came up with a design that incorporates pipe clamps into the bench's top, the front apron and even the legs.
Planing beam slides on pipes On the front of the bench is an adjustable, T-shaped planing beam that runs the full length of the bench. It is supported on both ends by the sliding tailpieces of Pony pipe clamps. The -in. cast-iron pipes on which
the clamps slide are incorporated into the bench's legs. I used Pony clamps throughout this project because they are well made
and slide and lock very smoothly. The planing beam continuously supports the full length of a board standing on edge.
The stock for the planing beam can be as narrow as 2 in. and as wide as 30 in. The planing beam can be set to any position in
seconds. Of all of the bench's features, the
planing beam is the most useful. I use it
dozens of times daily when building a piece of furniture.
You've probably noticed that there is no
front vise to secure the board being
The front vise can be used with the planing beam supporting the workpiece from below. This is useful because some proce-
dures, such as chopping mortises, drive the work downward through the jaws of a conventional vise, scarring the wood.
Traditional tail vise is replaced with pipe clamps On the bench's top, two pipe-clamp bars
are recessed into a l0-in.-wide well, replacing a conventional tail vise and bench
dogs. The clamp-tightening screws project from the right end of the bench, and the movable jaws project in. above the top. Both the fixed and movable jaws have oak faces. This clamp setup makes it easy to
hold down boards for surface-planing because nothing projects above the board's
surface to foul the tool. The top clamp bars have a clamping capacity of just over 7 ft. Blocks of wood support the pipes. Each one is screwed to the frame of the bench
or lengthened, and it could be reversed end for end if you are left-handed.
the joints loosen up, you can retighten everything in a few minutes with a screwdriver. I did this about a month after assembling the bench, and it has stayed solid
right out of the center of the log, and a half or more of the board will be quartersawn
effect, they are preemptive cracks that look a lot better than the ones that would form randomly otherwise. When you install the
work, such as doors and other architectur-
al millwork. The design can be shortened
I built the bench out of Douglas fir instead of hardwood. Douglas fir at its best is a dense, stable wood that machines cleanly and holds fasteners well, important attributes given the way I wanted to assemble the bench. Wide planks—2xl0s and 2xl2s—of Douglas fir framing lumber will often be sawn and knot free, with tight, straight grain. By carefully choosing and ripping these planks, you can get some beautiful material for a lot less than the price of even mediocre furniture woods. Some of the Lift-out MDF panels. The panels, cut in different lengths from MDF scraps, make a durable yet disposable center surface for the bench.
The panels get removed when the tail-vise pipe clamps are in use.
with a drywall screw. The single screw allows each block to swing out of the way of the pipe-clamp tailpieces as they are slid to
accommodate long work. The top pipe clamps can also be used to hold panels in place that have other tools permanently attached, such as a vise or an electric grinder. I have a tilting drillpress vise attached to a square of mediumdensity fiberboard (MDF) that I clamp to the bench for metalworking or for holding
a piece of wood to be carved. I plan to design a drop-in router table for the bench; there's enough space between the pipeclamp bars to fit a small machine. When the top clamps aren't in use, the
well is covered by several sections of -in. MDF that simply drop in and lay on top of the pipes. Because MDF is so inexpensive,
I treat the panels as sacrificial surfaces. I cut into them, screw jigs to them, whack them with a hammer, and when they get too chewed up, I toss them. To save my back, I buy precut MDF meant for shelving; it comes either 12 in. or 16 in. wide. This precut stock is useful for all manner of jigs and prototypes, and I always have a few
lengths around the shop.
Douglas fir makes a solid bench The bench, as I built it, is 8 ft. long and was designed to accommodate fairly large
ever since. Don't overtighten the screws. Excessively crushing the wood under the screw's head ruins the resilience that allows a joint to flex slightly and remain tight. The keyhole slots in the legs and stretcher are functional; as the boards shrink, they allow the wood to flex without cracking. In
lag bolts, drill clearance and pilot holes and go easy on the torque when you tighten them up. The joint will be stronger if you don't overstress the threads in the stretcher's end grain.
trimmed-out wood that isn't good enough for the bench can still be used for other projects such as shelves or sawhorses.
If you start with green lumber, sticker it for a few months to get the moisture content down. To prevent checking, trim the
ends to get a clean surface and then apply duct tape over the end grain. Even if you start with kiln-dried wood, give it a couple of weeks indoors to stabilize before starting to cut. Use the best wood for the frame, benchtop and beam, saving lesser quality stock for the leg assembly.
Screw joinery is fast and strong My method of assembling the bench with
drywall screws and lag screws (and no fitted-and-glued joinery) is unconventional, but I've used this style of construction for years. The finished bench is rock solid,
and the joinery goes quickly.
Most of the screws were counterbored with a -in. drill, sometimes quite deeply, to bring the screw heads in. shy of the
edge being joined. On the 3-in.-wide, edge-jointed benchtop boards, the counterbore is in. deep. The deep bore minimizes the amount of wood under the screw head, which in turn minimizes the loosening of the joint as the stock shrinks. After drilling the counterbore, follow up with a long bit to drill a clearance hole for
the screw shank. Then line up the pieces to be joined and install the screws a couple of
turns to mark the centers, drill pilot holes at the marks in the adjoining piece and assemble the bench. One of the advantages of this type of construction is that if the wood shrinks and
Horizontal clamps run full length. A pair of pipe clamps, running under the benchtop, hold work in the same way as a traditional tail vise.
The pipes used with the clamps cut easily with a hacksaw or a small pipe cutter. For the smoothest operation of the clamps, clean up any burrs along the length of each pipe with a file and then smooth it down with emery paper. This is a messy operation, creating a staining black dust, so do it away from your woodworking area. Wipe down each pipe with a rag and paint thinner when you are done. John White keeps the Fine Woodworking shop running smoothly.
A Workbench That Works A small top without a tail vise has served this master furniture maker for three decades
n the early 1970s, having built most of the frame with 8/4 completed my training in furbirch, and I used 4/4 birch for the niture making, I found myself drawer dividers, the center partiin need of a workbench. I figured tion and the drawer fronts. I fashI'd make one that would be large ioned the side panels with -in.-thick fir plywood, set into enough to hold all of my hand rabbets that were cut into the tools and small enough to move, back edges of the legs and rails. guessing that it would be some Drawer runners—joined with time before I settled down. I wanted an all-purpose bench for tenons into mortises in the drawer dividers—are held to an inside planing, scraping, cutting joints, carving and finishing. Cost was a frame by a screw in the back. The top is 8/4 maple, ripped to 3-in. concern because there was a slew widths that I glued together on of tools and machinery I wanted edge for strength and stability. to buy, so I decided not to use any To make the benchdog holes in fancy or expensive hardwoods in its construction. For the original the top, I cut a series of -in. by -in. dadoes before laminating bench, I chose birch (sturdy and the top. I also cut the same sized cheap) for the top and the frame, dadoes on every third board in a and I used construction-grade position that would line up with fir plywood for the side panels. the dog on the vise, once it was That first version was a little on fastened to the top. The overhang the low side, so I later corrected the problem by cutting down the of the top is such that the dog holes are clear of the base so that original top and adding a new Small but sturdy. This workbench is almost 30 years old, and it's still used daily for all facets of furniture making. they don't become clogged with maple slab over it. sawdust. Also, I needed the overThe relatively small size of the hang for clamping workpieces to the table. The overhang on the bench makes it comfortable to use. Unlike many larger benches, I side above the drawers is smaller so that it doesn't restrict access to can easily reach a workpiece resting on the top from all sides of the tools in the top drawers. The new top is secured to the old the bench. It holds almost all of my hand tools—or at least the ones I use the most—keeping them well within reach. Also, this bench original top (that I cut down to serve as a subtop) from underneath is small enough that it can be moved around the shop when need- with lag screws, and that subtop is secured with lag screws through the top rails of the base cabinet. ed. Loaded up with tools, it's heavy enough to stay in place while This bench functions quite nicely. The vise will not only hold I'm using it. But I can break it down into manageable pieces, if workpieces between its jaws, but it can also hold them between need be, by removing the drawers and the top. I was particularly glad about this feature when I had to set it up in my first apartment the dog on top of the vise and one placed into the benchtop. I in a third-floor attic space where I worked for a while. sometimes set up workpieces, such as panels to be planed, so that they rest against a thinner batten that spans two dogs. With this setIn the construction of the case, I used mortise-and-tenon joints with pins for all of the frame pieces, through- and blind-dovetails up I need to lift my plane on the return stroke to prevent the panel from sliding backward. And sometimes, when planing the ends for the drawers and housed dovetails for the drawer dividers. I
The vise is an
adjustable clamp. A series
Securing the workpiece without clamps. A
holes in the top line up with the
thinner than the workpiece butts
center of the vise for clamping workpieces
of varying lengths.
Out of harm's
way. When it's not needed, this 3-ft. Starrett straightedge lives in a
slot under the
benchdogs in the top to serve as a stop.
Drawers do more than
hold things. In combination with the vise, they also support workpieces such as this large mahogany carcase piece.
How it's used and what it holds This benchtop's small size ( in. by in.) belies its versatility. The author's most-often-used hand tools fit compactly but comfortably in storage under the top. Layout tools, chisels, planes and spokeshaves, saws, rasps, files, scrapers, sanding blocks, hammers and carving tools all have specific homes. There's even a spot for one very essential tool—a clipboard to record billable hours of time spent on jobs in the shop.
or edges of panels or long boards, I use the vise to hold the workpiece and one of the drawers underneath to support it.
Looking back at the number of pieces I've built on this bench and remembering the number of workspaces it has inhabited, I realize how well it has served me all these many years. I'm sometimes asked how I could get by with such a relatively small top and
without a tail vise. I have the additional work surface of a folddown table near the bench that I use to lay out and organize parts of furniture I'm working on. And I honestly haven't felt the need for a tail vise, because dogs and a few clamps do the same job. I
Every tool has its place.
The contents of each drawer are custom-fit
can proudly say that I have never driven a nail into the top to hold
anything in place. There is one thing I would change if I were to make this bench again. The kick space between the bottom rail and the floor is too small, resulting in an occasional pain in my big toe. Also, someday I'd like to replace the fir plywood side panels
with something a bit more attractive, but I don't imagine that will
happen until my daughters finish school.
Phil Lows builds and restores furniture in Beverly, Mass., where he teaches classes on building traditional furniture.
A Bench Built to Last This workbench has a wide top and a sturdy base that provides solid footing and plenty of storage space B Y
D I C K
D O N O U G H
f this workbench played football, I’m certain it would be a lineman. Because, like the guards and tackles found on the gridiron, my bench is big and solid. And I wouldn’t have it any other way. Most of my work involves the fabrication of large case goods— entertainment centers, bookcases and other types of storage furniture. And although much of the machine work gets done using a tablesaw and router, I still do a good deal of work at the bench. So when it was time to replace my older, smallish and somewhat rickety workbench, I opted to make a new one with all the bells and whistles. The bench would provide plenty of size and sturdiness. Sturdiness is the operative word here. Indeed, no matter how aggressive I get with a saw, a handplane or a mallet and chisel, the bench doesn’t wobble. The result is a workbench that has just about everything I need. The supersized top is another important feature. With about 22 sq. ft. of surface area, the top is great for supporting long boards and wide sheet goods. Two end vises, a front vise and a shoulder vise, along with a small army of benchdog holes, make it easy to secure almost any size stock to the bench. My bench is considered left-handed, based on the location of the shoulder vise. If you prefer a right-handed bench, just build the shoulder vise on the right side.
The base creates a sturdy foundation The bench owes much of its sturdiness to the design of the base. Yet its construction is pretty straightforward. It has just five main parts: three support frames and a pair of boxes. Screwing the frames and boxes together creates a single, rock-solid unit that can accept almost any kind of top. And the two boxes provide a ton of space for adding cabinets or drawers. The center and right-side support frames are identical. But to provide additional support for the shoulder vise, the left-side support frame is longer and has an extra leg. I added seven heavyduty levelers—one under each leg of the support frame. To simplify the construction of the base, I made both plywood boxes the same size. They fit snugly between the top rail and the foot of the frames, which adds rigidity to the base. If you include drawers in one of the boxes, as I did, cut the dadoes for the drawer-support cleats, then glue the cleats into the dadoes before the box is assembled. Once the support frames and boxes were put together, I was able to assemble the base without much fuss. The boxes butt against the legs, with the bottom of the boxes simply resting on the narrow lip along the length of the foot. Attaching the boxes to the frames was a matter of driving five wood screws through the inside of the box and into each of the legs. Once the base was built, I moved it to its final location. Next I leveled the top surface using winding sticks and the seven levelers. Then I was ready to build the top right on the base.
A variety of vises and ample storage
Shoulder vise adds clamping options. The lack of a vise screw between the jaw surfaces makes the shoulder vise (above) especially handy when a board must be clamped vertically.
Front vise is nice. Used in conjunction with round benchdogs, the front vise (left) lets the author work comfortably from the end of the bench.
The top is flat and durable The top has three main parts. There’s a center section made from veneered particleboard. Attached to the center section are two Photos, except where noted: Tom Begnal
Drawers galore. The shallow top drawer provides a perfect place for the author to store his favorite chisels.
M AY / J U N E 2 0 01
6-in.-wide edgings—one in front, the other in back—and both made from glued-up solid maple. Start with the center section—To help keep costs under control, I face-glued three pieces of particleboard together—a 5⁄8-in.thick piece sandwiched between two 3⁄4-in.-thick pieces. First, I joined one of the 3⁄4-in.-thick pieces to the 5⁄8-in.-thick piece, making sure all of the edges were flush. Then, I used a 5⁄8-in.dia. core-box bit to cut three 5⁄8-in.-deep grooves across the underside of the 5⁄8-in.-thick particleboard. When the remaining piece of particleboard was added, the groove produced a 5⁄8-in. semicircular hole, which accommodated a threaded rod that helps secure the solid-maple edgings. A workbench top gets a lot of wear and tear, so I used a 3⁄16-in.thick veneer on top. And to make sure any movement stresses would be equal, I also veneered the bottom. To make the veneer, I resawed maple to about a 5⁄16-in. thickness on the bandsaw. I used a thickness planer to bring the material to final thickness. Then I jointed one edge of each piece of veneer and ripped the other edge parallel on the tablesaw. At this point, the veneer was ready to be applied to the particleboard. But faced with having to veneer such a large surface with thick veneer and without a lot of clamps, I used a somewhat unusual gluing-and-clamping technique (see p. 41). Wide edgings accept benchdogs—The wide edgings that run along the front and back of the bench are made of solid maple. That way the benchdogs have plenty of support when in use. I routed the dadoes that create the openings for the rectangularshaped benchdogs before the pieces were glued together. I also wanted benchdogs to work with the front vise. But it was going to be a hassle to chop out all of those square mortises with a chisel. Plus, the particleboard wouldn’t hold up well when the dogs got squeezed. So I opted to use round benchdogs. That way I simply had to bore a hole to accept it. And to reinforce the particleboard, I glued a short length of 3⁄4-in. copper water pipe into the hole. Three lengths of 1⁄2-in.-dia. threaded rod, with a washer and nut on each end, secure the wide, solid-maple edgings to the veneered center section. The rods extend through the “holes” in the particleboard and into through-holes in the edgings. To drill the through-holes, I first cut each piece of edging to
A massive top on a sturdy modular base To help keep costs under control, the top is a hybrid, a mix of solid maple, thick veneer and particleboard. The base construction is surprisingly simple—a pair of plywood boxes sandwiched between three frames—yet the single unit that results is as solid as a ’72 Buick.
Slider, 7⁄16 in. thick by 2 3⁄8 in. wide by 10 in. long
Long rail and foot, 2 1⁄2 in. square by 41 in. long
Boxes are flush with outside edges of legs. Upper jack board, 1 1⁄4 in. thick by 5 3⁄8 in. wide by 18 7⁄8 in. long
Lower jack board is cut from 2-in.thick by 5 3⁄8-in.wide stock.
Runner, 1 3⁄4 in. square by 83 1⁄4 in. long
46 3⁄8 in. 98 3⁄4 in.
31 ⁄4 in.
35 3⁄8 in.
12 3⁄8 in.
31 3⁄4 in.
34 1⁄4 in.
74 1⁄2 in.
25 in. 41 in.
Drawings: Vince Babak
S O U R C E O F S U P P LY WOODCRAFT (800-225-1153) Vises, vise hardware and benchdogs Maple veneer, 3 ⁄16 in. thick, on top and bottom of center section
A complete parts list is available on our web site: www.finewoodworking.com
Center section is particleboard, 2 1⁄8 in. thick by 19 1⁄4 in. wide by 95 3⁄8 in. long. Solid maple edging, 3 1⁄2 in. thick by 6 in. wide by 95 3⁄8 in. long
Glue plywood spline only to end cap.
Groove, 1⁄2 in. deep by 1⁄2 in. wide, for board jack
Right end cap, 1 1⁄4 in. thick by 3 1⁄2 in. wide by 31 1⁄4 in. long, splined and bolted to benchtop
Rout 5⁄8-in.-deep groove for threaded rod before gluing up center section. Groove for drawer runner, 1⁄2 in. wide by 3⁄8 in. deep
5 ⁄16-in. hex bolt mates with barrel nut in center section.
Mounting plate, 1 1⁄8 in. thick by 5 1⁄4 in. wide by 19 in. long
Tenons, 3⁄4 in. thick by 2 5⁄8 in. wide by 1 1⁄2 in. deep
Leg, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 3 5⁄8 in. wide by 29 3⁄4 in. long (including tenons)
Boxes rest on lip created by narrow legs. Boxes are attached to support frames with 2-in. #12 flathead wood screws.
Drawer runner Edging, 3⁄4 in. by 3⁄4 in.
Boxes, 34 1⁄4 in. wide by 22 1⁄4 in. deep (including edging on front) by 26 3⁄4 in. tall, are made from 3⁄4-in. plywood rabbeted at the corners.
Short rail and foot, 2 1⁄2 in. square by 25 in. long
M AY / J U N E 2 0 01
Shoulder vise and end cap Cut notch for rectangular benchdog before assembling the wide edging.
Jaw, 2 3⁄8 in. thick by 3 1⁄2 in. wide by 13 1⁄4 in. long (including 1-in.long tongue Bench screw (see Sources)
Copper water pipe epoxied to center section serves as bushing for round benchdog. Notch for front vise
⁄2-in. threaded rod with washer and nut on each end Plywood spline, ⁄2 in. thick by 1 in. wide, is glued to end cap. 1
Beam, 2 7⁄8 in. thick by 3 1⁄2 in. wide by 28 in. long
Block, 3 1⁄2 in. thick by 12 7⁄8 in. wide by 12 1⁄4 in. long
final length. Then to mark the location of the holes in the edgings, I clamped one piece to the center section. I made a center-point marker by driving a finish nail in the end of a long, 1⁄2-in.-dia. dowel. The nail must be centered in the end. I ran the dowel through the holes in the particleboard and used the nail to mark the center point of the hole in the edging. Once all of the points were marked, I drilled all of the holes through each piece of edging. The threaded rod closest to the left end is longer than the other two rods because it extends all the way through the shoulder-vise parts. I used the same technique to mark the center points on the shoulder-vise parts. I then face-glued the edgings and glued and clamped them to the front and back of the bench. The space under the bench is put to use—Those big boxes in the base provide plenty of storage space. I placed eight drawers in the right-hand box. Plus, to take advantage of the space between the top of the box and the underside of the benchtop, I added a shallow through-drawer that extends from front to back, with a face on each end of the drawer, so it can be accessed from both sides of the workbench.
5 ⁄16-in. hex bolt mates with barrel nut.
End cap, 2 7⁄8 in. thick by 3 1⁄2 in. wide
The left-hand box holds the parts of a project I’m building. The box includes a hinged shelf that pivots up and out of the way when it’s not needed. The frame-and-panel doors keep dust from filling up the box. Board jacks support long stock—The board jacks (one in front and one in back) are handy additions to the bench. When a board is clamped in the front, or shoulder, vise, the jack holds up the unsupported end. To accommodate boards of varying length, the jack is able to slide along the full length of the bench. Power strips bring the juice—Because my bench is several feet from a wall, I added power strips along the front and back edges, making it easier to use power tools at the bench. The bench has been serving me well for several years now. During that time, it has picked up plenty of scratches and dents, but it’s as solid as ever. And I expect it’s going to stay that way for many years to come.
Dick McDonough lives in Flint, Mich., where he’s a full-time finish carpenter and part-time woodworking teacher.
G L U I N G T H I C K V E N E E R T O A L A R G E S U R FAC E Large surfaces, like the top of my bench, are a challenge to veneer because it’s difficult to get good clamping pressure over the entire surface. I have enough clamps for most jobs but nowhere near the number I’d need for my jumbo-sized benchtop. And new clamps don’t come cheap. The answer proved to be a set of 10 shopmade clamping cauls. And because I was able to use mostly scrapwood, the total cost was under $12—less than I’d pay for a single commercial clamp. It’s easy to make these clamps. The top “jaw” is a 24-in. length of 43⁄4-in.-wide mediumdensity fiberboard (MDF) screwed to a 24-in.long 2x3. The bottom jaw is a 24-in.-long 2x4. To prevent the MDF surfaces from ending up glued to the veneer, add a healthy coat of paste wax to each one. The ends of the jaws accept a 9-in.-long, 3⁄8-in.-dia. threaded rod that is fitted with a washer and nut on both ends. To begin veneering, spread a generous coat of yellow glue on the mating surfaces of the veneer and particleboard. A short painter’s roller allows you to spread the glue easily and quickly. When working with a large surface area, it’s important to have a good assembly game-plan worked out because yellow glue can start to tack up in less than 10 minutes. You need to get the glue down and the clamps tightened up without delay. Place the veneer glue-side down on the particleboard. Butt the pieces together, but don’t add glue to the edges or worry about a perfect joint quite yet. Let the veneer overhang the particleboard all around. Then start clamping down the veneer. To help avoid lengthwise buckling, tighten the clamps at one end and work toward the other. Both the top and bottom surfaces of the particleboard must be veneered; if only the top is veneered, it can create uneven stresses that can cause the top to cup. Once both sides have been veneered, true up the edge joints with a router equipped with a 3⁄8-in.-dia. straight bit. Use a long piece of stock as a straightedge and rout a 3⁄16-in.-deep groove centered along the entire length of each joint line. Then use the clamping cauls to glue 3⁄8-in.-wide by 3⁄16-in.-thick inlays into the grooves. This technique results in near-perfect edge joints. Photos, this page: Erika Marks
Clamp the veneer to the particleboard with clamping cauls. No need to have a small fortune in clamps to do this glue-up. Shopmade clamping cauls get the job done for pennies.
INLAYS CONCEAL IMPERFECT VENEER JOINTS
Rout the joint. To clean up any gaps, a router and edge guide are used to cut a shallow groove centered on the long joint.
Add the inlay. Thin strips of cherry fill in the grooves, producing tight joint lines along the full length of the bench.
M AY / J U N E 2 0 01
Mike Dunbar's Workbench Heavy-duty bench has a wide top, knockdown base and large vises
D U N B A R
his is my workbench. Two friends and I each made one like it in the mid-1970s, copying a 200-year-old original we found in the basement of an 18th-century mansion. I prefer it to any other design, for several reasons. The bench is a heavy, solid structure. No matter how hard the work, there is no need to hold down this one with sandbags. And its joints don't wobble when I'm handplaning or sawing. If they do loosen because of seasonal movement, a tweak with a bed-bolt wrench makes them rigid again. The bench's wood vises are very strong. The twin-screw front vise has ample space between the screws, which means I can drop a long, wide part between them. And the jaws are wide enough to hold a 6-ft-long board for edge-jointing without additional support. The bench does not have a tool tray, leaving its entire wide top available not just for woodworking but also for assembly. When I worked by myself as a professional furniture maker, this bench was all I needed. Finally, I am a woodworker, and a bench made entirely of wood has a deep appeal for me. Making this bench is more heavy work than it is hard, although the tail vise is somewhat
BASE AND BENCHTOP
complicated. Many of the parts are so large that joining them borders on timber framing. A second pair of hands comes in handy for some stages on the project.
Some heavy lifting will be required The bench can be made of just about any type of hardwood. Because this is a workbench, practicality governed my choices. In my region, yellow birch is cheaper than maple but isn't available
above 10/4. So I used birch for the 2-in.-thick parts and hard maple
for the thicker ones. If you cannot find 12/4 hardwood, you can glue up your stock. Before cutting any wood, determine what bench height is comfortable for you. When working with hand tools, it is more efficient and easier if you can bring into play all of the larger muscle groups in your body, above all those in your legs and back. Most benches
are too high for me, forcing me to work only with my shoulders
and arms. I am 5 ft. 9 in. and a little short in the leg. My benchtop is 32 in. high. Besides wood, you will need to order two other items:
1229). Mention this project to get the same components I used. The
three screw-and-block sets will run you $195. You can cut your own threads if you have a large tap and die suited for this job (one that's at least in. dia. with 5 tpi or fewer). Antique tap-and-die sets for wood may be found at a flea market or tag sale. The tap would be the most useful of the two, because it would allow you to make the threaded end batten near the tail vise out of one piece of wood. Without it you'll have to join one of
the threaded blocks to the end of the batten. The Beall Tool Co. (800-331-4718; bealltool.com) offers wood-threading kits for making -in.-dia., 5-tpi screws and nuts. It includes a router jig
Timber-frame techniques. Use a circular saw to cut the tenon shoulders on these large beams. The cheeks are then cut on the bandsaw. Get an assistant, if you can find one, to help you support the long, heavy timbers. For the mortises in the legs, first drill out the waste, then square with a
chisel. Afterward, the tenons are pared to fit the mortises.
wooden bench screws and threaded blocks, which you can get from Crystal Creek Mill (P.O. Box 41, DeWitt, NY 13214; 315-446-
and bit and a -in.-dia. tap, which would solve the aforementioned joinery problem. You'll also need 16 bed bolts and a wrench, which you can get from Ball and Ball Hardware Reproductions (800-257-3711).
A knockdown base is easy to move The original bench knocks down completely. This leads me to suspect that it belonged to an interior joiner, what we would call today a finish carpenter. These guys were the elite of the building
tradesmen and were responsible for raised-panel walls, wainscot-
ing, staircases, mantels, moldings and doors. Working on a magnificent Portsmouth, N.H., mansion, a joiner could be on the job site for months. He would move his bench and toolbox right into the house. When finished, he'd put them in a wagon and move them onto the next job site. A bench that knocks
Locate the leg mortises on the plank. First turn everything upside down and level the back legs.
down is still a good idea today because it is easier to move to a
new shop. The legs and stretchers are joined with mortises and tenons held together with bed bolts. The joints can't be at the same height or the bed bolts would bump each other, so offset their elevations. Notice that there are tenons on the tops of the legs, as well, to secure the top to the base. Cut all of the joints at the same time.
Cut the shoulders of these large tenons with a circular saw and then rip the cheeks on the bandsaw. Bore out the mortises with a drill bit and square the corners with a chisel. I used a shoulder plane to fit the tenons.
Bed-bolt basics—Bed bolts are very effective fasteners and, when
tightened, will not allow the slightest wiggle. The bolt has a square head with a large flange and requires a two-step hole. Drill the counterbore for the flange first. The long hole for the bolt goes into the bottom of the mortise, through the length of the tenon and past the location of the nut.
The nut sits in a hole drilled into the back of the rail. Assembling the joint is easy: Tap the mortise and tenon together, hold the nut in place and slide a bed bolt into the hole. A couple of quick turns
End battens support the plywood portion of the benchtop. Each batten is bolted to the thick plank and also to a cleat that supports the plywood and keeps it level with the plank. The plywood is screwed onto the cleat and into a rabbet at the back edge of the plank.
FRONT VISE catches the nut. When all of the fasteners are hand-tight, grab the bed-bolt wrench and finish the job.
The plank is the key to the top The top of the bench is made of two pieces: a 3-in.-thick plank at the front and a thinner plywood panel behind. The front and back legs are different heights as a result. The thick front plank anchors the vises and provides a durable surface for your heaviest and most forceful work. The rear panel will not take the same punishment as the front and does not have to be as thick. Its role is to provide a wide, level surface. On the original bench this was a wide pine board, but I used birch plywood for its stability. The width of the front plank is a variable and can depend on whatever you can find or glue up. A piece of wood this thick is seldom flat as it comes from the lumber dealer and will need to be planed. If your machines are not up to a job this heavy, you may
have to find someone who can do the work for you. I surfaced my 12-in.-wide plank in my planer, because it wouldn't fit on my jointer. Luckily it was straight but just cupped a bit. I took a couple of passes off the domed (heart) side, just to get a flat to work on. Then, I took light passes off the concave side. Because this surface
is not seen, there is no need to flatten it completely. Finally, I flipped the plank again and finished dressing the upper surface. Set the plank aside for several days and let it equalize before flattening it again with a light pass. While you are at it, joint the front edge so that it is straight and square to the upper surface.
This plank requires a few operations before it's ready to drop in-
to place on the substructure. First, lay out the leg mortises in the underside and cut and fit them to the tenons on the top of the front legs. Next, rout the rabbet in the back edge to create a lip that will
support the plywood portion of the top, which will be secured with wood screws. Size and strength. The thick wooden screws are far enough apart to accommodate a wide workpiece, and the jaw is long enough to support a 6-ft. board for edge-jointing.
After angling the sides of the threaded blocks, lay out their recesses. The trapezoidal shape gives mechanical strength to this joint, which is also glued.
Make room for the vises—The front vise is secured to the bench with wood screws threaded through two dovetail-shaped nuts,
Circular saw comes in handy again. Cut the shoulders first, then cut some kerfs through the waste section.
After chopping out the waste, pare the
sides. Use one of the threaded blocks to guide your chisel.
which are set into the plank. Bevel the sides of two of the three threaded blocks (the other one is for the tail-vise assembly). Then
use the blocks to lay out their recesses. Lay out these notches so that the blocks project slightly from the front edge of the benchtop; plane them flush later. Cut the deep notches with a handsaw or circular saw, and clean up the walls with a wide chisel. The top is far too thick for the wood screws to clear it on the bottom side, so you have to cut channels for clearance. Tap the nuts into place temporarily to see where the threaded holes line up
with the bench. Cut the channel edges first, with a straightedge clamped on the plank to guide your circular saw. Then make a lot of kerf cuts through the center and chop out the waste. Now you can glue in the threaded nuts. Leave the tops slightly
proud and plane them flush after the glue is dry. Plane the front edges flush, too. Next, cut out the large notch for the tail vise. A cir-
cular saw will cut through most of the stock, but you will need a handsaw to complete the corner. Clean up the sawcuts with a handplane, keeping everything square (not the easiest task but
very important). Rout the long groove along the notch, and finish it with a sharp chisel. The last task in preparing the front plank is to cut the dog holes. Although you can use any type of dog you prefer, I chose the
clever, low-tech type I found on the original. The dog holes are in. square, and each square dog has a slight taper planed onto
one face. There is a dog for each hole in the bench. Each is tapped into place from below, narrow-side up, and sits flush with the top until it is needed. Tap it with a mallet until it projects slightly above the surface and tightens in place. The dog holes are roughly in. apart, but some are offset to avoid the screws for the front vise.
The plywood section—The bench's end battens are bed-bolted to the thick plank and have support cleats along their inside edges for securing the plywood. The plywood is also screwed into the rabbet on the back edge of the thick plank. With the thick plank in place on the front legs, place the plywood in its rabbet to locate the mortises for the rear legs. Cut these mortises, then attach the
plywood to the plank and the end battens.
A trick for vise handles Each wood screw has a thick hub with lines scribed into it. These
are both for decoration and for laying out the holes for the handles. Drill a 1-in.-dia. hole. You can make the handles out of a piece of dowel with pins in the ends or end caps to keep them from falling out. However, I prefer the old technology used by the original maker. Turn your handles using wood that is still slightly green. You can split some from a firewood pile. Leave the ends in. bigger than the hole in the vise-screw hub. Boil one of the bullet-shaped ends to soften it, and drive it
through the hub with a mallet. The wood will compress as it passes through the hole (some may be sheared away by the hole's edges), then it will spring back on the other side.
Front vise jaw wears a garter The jaw is a piece of 8/4 hardwood. Its width is not critical and can depend on the wood you have on hand. Unlike most period
Cut clearance channels for the vise screws. Tap
the threaded blocks into place temporarily to determine the location of these channels. Remove the blocks before cutting. Define the edges with a circular saw, kerf out the middle, then
chop out the waste.
A garter keeps the vise jaw moving with the
screw. This thin strip is mortised into the jaw and fits into a groove near the screw hub.
TAIL VISE This complex-looking unit is basically a three-sided box that slides back
and forth on the tip of the bench's end batten. One wrinkle: The threaded nut included with the screw set must be joined to the end batten.
benches I have examined, in which the user has to pull the vise jaw backward after loosening the screws, the jaw on this bench has garters that mate with a groove in the screws and keep the jaw
and screws moving together. Drill the two holes in the jaw for the wooden screws. Then cut the slots for the garters. Make the garters out of hardwood. One at a time, place a screw through the jaw and tap the garter into place.
Turn the screws to test the fit of the garters. Before gluing them into place, be sure they aren't rubbing too tightly against the screw.
Tail vise is the tough part VISE END
The tail vise and its associated assembly make for some complicated joinery. A lot is going on at one time as the vise travels. The batten that stiffens the end of the benchtop and holds the front plank and plywood level is threaded for the tail-vise screw. It also acts as one of the guides for the vise. Without a large tap to cut the
Think of the vise as a three-sided box with closed ends. Build up the jaw end (foreground) from thinner stock. An ogee contour decorates the opposite end piece. The top, side and bottom are joined to the ends with large dovetails.
Slide the assembled tail vise into place to locate the holes for the vise screw. This
measurement determines where the vise screw will pass through the end of the tail vise and where it will enter the jaw end (at right).
threads in the batten, I had to find a way to join one of the threaded blocks to it. I settled on a version of a scarf joint that provides
Cut the mortise for the garter and tap it into place. You cannot avoid cutting into the dovetails when you make this mortise. Drill
The vise itself is a three-sided box with closed ends. The jaw end is a 4-in.-square piece of hardwood. I glued up mine in a sandwich from thinner stock, which made it easier to create the tongue that
benchtop. This hole should fit between the dovetails.
some mechanical support and plenty of glue surface.
protrudes from this block. A hole in the inside surface of the jaw receives the end of the vise screw. The other end piece is 8/4 and has a clearance hole drilled through it for the screw. The ogee contour on this piece is more decorative than functional.
and square the dog hole in the jaw the same way as those in the
Use bed bolts to secure the end batten to the thick part of the benchtop. Make the small retainer bracket through which the narrow guide strip passes and screw it into place on the end batten.
The vise may work somewhat stiffly at first but will eventually wear in so that it moves smoothly and without effort. Waxing the moving surfaces will help the action.
The top and side pieces of this box are in. thick and joined to the jaw with large half-blind dovetails. The bottom is in. thick and joined the same way. There also is a guide strip on the bottom,
I completed my bench by finishing it with several coats of boiled linseed oil thinned with a little turpentine. Let the wood absorb as much oil as possible before wiping off the excess.
Make all of the parts for the tail vise, then test their fit and action before glue-up.
Mike Dunbar is a contributing editor. He and his wife, Sue, run a Windsor chair-making school in Hampton, N.H.
in. thick and also dovetailed to the jaw and end pieces.
Installing a Cast-Iron Vise I
t’s hard to imagine working in a shop that lacks a good bench-mounted vise. After all, woodworkers come from the factory with just two hands, and we need both of them to use most tools. So it usually takes some help to keep a workpiece fixed firmly in place. The cast-iron style of vise has long been a staple in woodworkers’ shops, and for good reason. A cast-iron vise that’s well maintained can last several generations, and a workpiece locked in its grip won’t easily budge. A cast-iron vise has another plus: It generally installs without much fuss. But
that doesn’t mean the procedure is foolproof. To minimize the fussiness factor, there are a few worthwhile points to keep in mind—including a little preinstallation planning.
Where to put it At first glance, a workbench seems to offer a number of places to locate a vise. But a few spots can be eliminated quickly. Any vise centered on the front, back or end of a bench is sure to be in your way, so the vise almost always ends up installed near a corner to make it as unobtrusive as possible. Your options narrow even further when
you consider the bench location, its design and you—or more specifically, your handedness. Bench location and design—When a bench is positioned well away from the walls, allowing all-around access, the vise can be installed adjacent to any of the corners. But if the bench butts against a wall, both corners of that side of the bench are eliminated as options. If the bench has to go in a corner, the options become fewer. So it’s best not to finalize the vise location until you’ve considered where the bench is going to go.
Determine the best location Before installing a vise, consider where on the benchtop it’s going to work best for you. Right-handers generally prefer the front vise on the left end of the benchtop, with the end vise on the right, near the front corner. Reverse the locations if you’re a southpaw. Typical vise positions for left-handed woodworkers
Align the benchdog holes with the endvise dog.
Typical vise positions for right-handed woodworkers
END VISE Used with a benchdog, an end vise allows a longer board to be clamped quickly face-down on the bench for planing, scraping or sanding.
FRONT VISE If you’re going to mount only one vise, a front vise offers the most useful clamping options. A board clamped horizontally in a front vise is perfectly positioned for edge-planing. Clamp it vertically, and the end of the board can be planed or sawed easily.
Photos: Michael Pekovich
There’s more to it than sinking a few lag screws
T O M
B E G N A L
Most cast-iron vises have a metal dog built into the front jaw. When the vise dog is used with a benchdog, the vise offers additional clamping advantages. Keep in mind, though, that the holes for the benchdog must be in line with the vise dog. So before you settle on a vise location, make sure the benchdog you use can be placed into all of the holes without interfering with the vise, the bench legs or anything else under the top. Front or end vise?—A vise can be mounted to the front or end of a bench. Because each location has its advantages, many
MOUNTING THE VISE
Figure out the filler-block thickness. With both the vise and benchtop upside down to make the job easier, measure the distance from the benchtop to the top edge of the vise jaws and then add 1⁄2 in. to 3⁄4 in. Jaws should be 1⁄2 in. to 3⁄4 in. below the work surface.
Drawings: Melanie Powell
Attach the filler block, then the vise, using lag screws. You might think that about does it, but to get the most out of the vise, you should cover the metal jaws and edge of the table next.
ADDING WOOD FACES TO THE VISE
Measure, mark and cut out the mortise. On many vises, the face of the back jaw isn’t square to the benchtop. To make sure the mortise ends up deep enough, measure the depth from the thickest part of the jaw. Use a drill bit to remove most of the waste stock before using a router to clean out the waste that remains.
benchtop’s design. The procedure outlined here covers the most common installation, one where the back jaw of the vise simply butts against the edge of a top A long face. A mortise in the back face accepts the back that’s about 11⁄2 in. thick. jaw. The face extends the full length of the benchtop, which Cast-iron vises, especially will make it easier to clamp long boards. large ones, are heavy and awkward to hold. So try to work with the benchtop turned upside down, as shown here. If benches include both front and end vises. If flipping the top isn’t an option, you can a bench is limited to having just one vise, make the vise easier to handle by removit’s best to install it as a front vise, because ing the front jaw along with the screw and most of us naturally gravitate toward the guide bars. front of the bench. Think right or left—More than anything else, your handedness determines the best vise location. Right-handers usually like a front vise on the left of the bench. That way, when crosscutting a board with a handsaw, the cutoff end can be held by the left hand. When the front vise is installed on the left, you’ll want the end vise added to the right, near the front corner. Reverse the locations if you’re a lefty.
How to mount it There are several ways to install a cast-iron vise; your best option depends on the
Include a filler block—Ideally, when the vise is installed, the top edge of the jaws should be 1⁄2 in. to 3⁄4 in. below the top of the bench. The extra space allows room for the wood face, added later, to cover the top of the jaw. Also, on some vises, the dog extends almost 1⁄2 in. above the jaws, even when the dog is fully lowered. Unless the jaws are well below the benchtop, the dog will always stick above the work surface. To get that extra space, you’re likely to need a wood filler block between the underside of the benchtop and the mounting bracket portion of the vise. The block
should be wide and long enough to cover the bracket and thick enough to produce the intended spacing. Install the filler block and vise—Before securing the block to the underside of the top, drill and counterbore it for four lag screws. Position the block on the benchtop and drill the pilot holes. Add glue, then slip the lag screws into the holes and thread them home. Now position the vise on the block, with the back jaw firmly against the edge of the bench. Then drill the pilot holes and add the lag screws. If you’ve been working with the benchtop upside down, now’s the time to flip it right-side up. Make the faces—A workpiece secured in the vise is less likely to dent if the cast-iron jaws have wood faces. The faces can be installed several ways. A quick method is simply to screw a rectangular piece of hardwood stock to the jaws of the vise. Most jaws have predrilled holes, making the job an easy one. I prefer to mortise the back face to accept the back jaw. Also, I like to extend the back face the full length of the bench. Effectively then, the back face becomes part of the edge of the benchtop. So when a long board is clamped on edge in the vise, the
Attach the back face to the edge of the benchtop. To fill in the gap between the back face and the back jaw of the vise, add a couple of strips of epoxy putty to the mortise just before applying the face to the bench (left). After coating the jaw with paste wax, attach the face with a few wood screws driven into counterbored holes (right).
Plane the top edge of the face. A sharp handplane is all it takes to get the face flush with the top of the bench.
board remains in contact with the back face the full length of the bench. That makes it easier to clamp the end of the board to the benchtop. To create the mortise, first mark its length, width and depth on the back of the back face. When measuring the depth, keep in mind that most jaws taper in thickness, meaning the back jaw usually isn’t square to the benchtop. So to make sure the jaw can fit fully into the mortise, measure the depth dimension at the bottom of the jaw at its thickest point. Once the mortise has been marked, use a drill press and a Forstner bit to remove most of the waste. Clean up the rest with a router.
front face cants toward the back face. That’s actually a plus because it helps the vise grip more tightly along the full width of the jaws. But if there’s too much cant, it can be reduced quickly by handplaning a bevel on the entire inside surface of the front face. For the final step, add a finish to the two faces, preferably one that matches the finish on the original benchtop.
Mount the faces—At this point, there’s just one more detail to attend to before the back face can be attached. Because the back jaw is tapered, it doesn’t fit fully against the mortise. As a result, there’s a gap that widens as it nears the top of the jaw. Thus, the jaw loses some support provided by the back face. To fill in the gap, use a bit of epoxy in putty form. You can find this stuff at most hardware or home-improvement stores. To prevent the epoxy from sticking to the jaw, add a heavy coat of paste wax to the area of the jaw that meets the epoxy.
Next, attach the back face, using the vise to clamp one end. The top edge of the face should stand proud of the benchtop by 1 ⁄16 in. Now add a bar clamp to the other end of the face. Secure the face with screws driven into counterbored holes, and add wood plugs to the holes. The front face is just rectangular stock that’s attached by driving screws through holes in the front jaw. Because the front jaw has a taper, like the back jaw, the
Tom Begnal is an associate editor.
Add the front face. Like the back jaw of the vise, the front jaw is tapered. To minimize the effect of the taper, you can bevel the outside surface of the front face slightly. Then attach the face by driving two screws through predrilled holes in the jaw.
The Workbench An illustrated guide to an essential woodworking tool B Y
G R A H A M
B L A C K B U R N
n some parts of the world, woodworkers use the floor as their work surface. In Japan, it’s a narrow beam. But in the West, woodworkers traditionally have used a substantial workbench. In fact, before tablesaws and routers became for most woodworkers their right and left hands, the
workbench was the most important tool of the craft. While it may no longer be the first tool a woodworker encounters in the shop, the workbench nevertheless remains at the heart of woodworking. A closer appreciation of its uses and strengths can do much to improve your woodworking experience, so here’s a look at the development of the workbench, its major variations and the many practical fixtures associated with its use.
Great moments in workbench history ROMAN BENCH
Mortises for planing stops and board supports
Enclosed adjustable tail stop Benchdog holes Planing stops
The prime purpose of the workbench is to facilitate the flattening and smoothing of stock, typically by planing. So it is no surprise that some of the earliest benches were used by the Romans 2,000 years ago, because it was the Romans who first made use of the metal-bodied plane. The Roman bench was little more than a long board supported by splayed legs and fitted with stops to prevent a board from being pushed off the bench during planing. This bench remained popular for more than four centuries after the demise of the Roman Empire and in some areas persists even today. The drawing is based on a photograph of a bench found in Saalburg, Germany, 250 B.C.
Movable benchdog Wedging notch
Double-screwed face vise
After the Middle Ages, with the development of more sophisticated forms of furniture, benches grew larger and began to feature additional holding devices. By the 17th century, vises had become common in Northern Europe. German and Scandinavian benches, in particular, were fitted with vises very similar to the large wooden tail and face vises that were common on British benches until the introduction of metal vises. The drawing is based on one by Loffelholz, 1505.
Tool rack Iron holdfast
18TH-CENTURY FRENCH BENCH One of the more distinctive varieties, the commonly used French bench was basically a heavy table that featured a tool rack, bench stops, side hooks and holdfasts to secure the work; vises were a rarity. Holes for holdfasts Bench stop Side hook (used with holdfasts)
Drawings: Graham Blackburn
TOOLS & SHOPS 2002
Workbench history (continued) Guide rod
18TH-CENTURY BRITISH BENCH In contrast to French benches and to most other European types, British benches from the 18th century relied heavily on a long face vise installed at the left end of the bench. This long vise frequently had a single screw and a guide rod to help keep it parallel, but sometimes it possessed two screws arranged so that the vise face could be angled for nonparallel stock. A stop and a holdfast also were common, but support for long boards held in the vise, in the form of apron pegs or a deadman, was distinctly British. This British-style bench emigrated to America with the early Colonists.
Face vise Apron Holes for peg supports
Large top Benchdog holes
SHAKER BENCH Among the first distinctly American benches were those built by the Shakers, a religious sect famous for its simple but well-built furniture. Shaker benches typically were massive and without tool trays, and because the Shakers valued order and neatness, their benches featured a base that was fully enclosed for storage. The Shakers also were fond of leg vises that could be kept parallel, unlike the garterless face vises previously common on workbenches. Because the cupboards and drawers in the base made the use of a bored apron impossible, the Shakers often used a sliding deadman to provide support for long workpieces.
Leg vise Sliding deadman
Heavy tail vise
Enclosed base with storage Tool trough Wooden tail vise
19TH-CENTURY SCHOOL BENCH The workbenches we use today owe much to the school bench that was common in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The essential features of this bench, whether single or double (like the one illustrated), are a large work surface, usually with a trough or a tool well, both end and face vises (increasingly of the metal variety) and a system of benchdog holes in the top used for clamping workpieces.
Metal face vise with adjustable stop
CONTEMPORARY BENCHES Though there are countless variations, today’s workbenches generally are based on either a cabinetmaker’s bench or a Scandinavian-style bench.
Holdfast collar Ramped tool well
CABINETMAKER’S BENCH Although many woodworkers prefer to build their own benches, the commercially made cabinetmaker’s bench has become the standard. Consisting of a heavy-duty, laminated top, usually with a tool well, the cabinetmaker’s bench is fitted with a benchdog system and a provision for holdfasts. Although the vises may have heavy wooden jaws, their screws are invariably metal, thus combining the best of both old and new.
Balanced twin-screw tail vise Two rows of benchdog holes
S CA N D I N AV I A N B E N C H A bench style popular with many woodworkers, the Scandinavian bench is fitted with either a standard tail vise or a balanced vise that can hold workpieces between benchdogs on both edges of the top, as shown. The Scandinavian bench is characterized by a dogleg face vise, considered by those who use it to be superior to the standard face vise because there are no screws to get in the way of the workpiece.
Dogleg vise requires freestanding deadman support.
TOOLS & SHOPS 2002
Vises Most contemporary benches are fitted with vises. While there are many varieties, certain things remain true for all vises. If the workpiece is to be held securely without being damaged, the jaws should be wooden or wood lined, clean, aligned and parallel. Benchdog Workpiece
FACE VISES A face vise is used for holding workpieces during planing. It works best if the inside faces of the jaws are flush with the front of the bench and if the tops of both jaws are flush with the surface of the bench. Although there will be occasions when you want to secure odd shapes (which can be done easily with purpose-made auxiliary jaws), the jaws should close perfectly parallel to each other so that they will hold even a thin sheet of paper firmly. Metal vises may need to be reset on the bench to meet these conditions, and they also may need to have their wood facings replaced. Wooden-jaw vises can be made flush more easily. But before altering the jaws, examine the way your particular vise works and how it is attached to the bench. Pay special attention to making sure the guide arms run smoothly with minimal play. Older wooden vises may need their guide arms resecured to the jaws and their guide blocks adjusted. Wooden screws depend on well-fitting garters and properly positioned threaded blocks. Providing they are properly aligned, newer vises with metal screws and guide arms have fewer problems and may need nothing more than occasional cleaning and lubrication.
Clamp work here.
Metal vise with built-in stop
Some metal vises have built-in adjustable stops that can be used to clamp work between a benchdog and a stop in the benchtop. Vises that don’t have adjustable stops can be fitted with a wooden stop jaw that will perform the same function or that can be custom-cut to hold other shapes. Jaws for oddshaped work
Carpeted jaws for finished work You may want to make various auxiliary jaws, such as carpeted jaws to hold finished work or jaws to hold round and odd-shaped pieces.
Do not clamp work here.
Double guide arms
Metal vise with shopmade wooden stop jaw
A tail vise holds a workpiece at the front of the bench. Newer tail vises that ride on a steel plate fixed to the bench can be adjusted so that the top and front of the vise remain flush with the top and front of the bench. Older tail vises ride on rails attached beneath the benchtop. Neither kind is designed to hold anything by the tail of the vise; doing so might misalign the vise. However, doublescrewed end vises or end vises with a single screw and widely spaced guide arms can hold work against the end of the bench and, if they are as wide as the bench, can be fitted with benchdogs. A tail vise also can be used to clamp workpieces between a benchdog fixed in the benchtop and a dog fixed in the vise itself.
Bench accessories A bench with vises, even when everything is in top condition and perfectly adjusted, is still only half the asset it might be—unless it’s furnished with a variety of devices, such as benchdogs, holdfasts and bench hooks Simplest: nailed to bench
A bench stop is designed to prevent the workpiece from being pushed off the bench. In its simplest form, it may be a small piece of scrap clamped or tacked anywhere on the bench. An integral stop, whether a simple wooden stop held in place and at the right height by friction, wedge or a simple screw, or one of the variously designed factory-made metal stops, is more convenient and often functions as the last stop in a line of benchdogs.
Adjustable: may be wedged or screwed
Wooden dog, with wooden spring Manufactured: metal, height adjusted by integral screw
BENCHDOGS Metal dogs may last longer and fit better, but wooden dogs are easier to make and pose less of a threat to both tools and finished work surfaces. Side dogs also can be extremely useful for holding stock against the front apron.
HOLDFAS T S
The most common device for securing small workpieces to the bench is the bench hook. This can be made in a variety of ways and may function as a simple sawing support, a sawing guide when kerfed exactly at 90°, 45° or any other simple or compound angle, or as a convenient end-grain shooting block.
Simple angled iron in bored hole
Flat bar in sleeve
Cut kerfs for accurate mitering.
Fully adjustable in flush collar
A holdfast remains one of the most versatile pieces of equipment you can own. There are various modern forms available, but the simplest L-shaped iron bar inserted in any conveniently bored hole in the benchtop is efficient. Simply knock the top of the holdfast to secure the workpiece, and hit the back of the holdfast to release the workpiece. A holdfast’s two main advantages are its ability to hold odd-shaped, flat and rectangular pieces, and the fact that it can be positioned anywhere on the bench. Don’t agonize over where to bore the first hole—you inevitably will need to bore another hole somewhere else. A particularly useful place is near a vise so that the vise and holdfast can be used together in a variety of ways. Older benches typically were bored in various places along the length.
Provide dust groove. Cut larger groove for holding round work.
Use dowels and glue rather than screw or nail hooks.
Use a narrow pair to support long pieces.
Use as a shooting block to trim end grain accurately.
TOOLS & SHOPS 2002
Ready-made hardware simplifies end-vise construction B Y
J O N
knew that when I eventually got around to building my dream workbench, it would have to meet a few basic requirements. It would have to be sturdy enough to last a few lifetimes. It would have to have storage underneath. And it would have to have good front and end vises so that I wouldn’t have to do a lot to get a workpiece held securely. In 1998, I finally built my bench. And I’m pleased to say that after five years of heavy work, it has fulfilled my expectations, and then some. It’s rock solid and has plenty of useful storage, thanks to 15 drawers and an area of open space between the base and the top. Building such a large workbench can be an intimidating task, but it’s actually basic woodworking. The only parts of the bench that call for anything other than straightforward biscuit and mortiseand-tenon joinery is the end vise. Whether you decide to build this bench using the foldout plans or add the end vise to a bench you already have, this article walks you through the process.
Vises, benchdogs and a board jack help anchor workpieces The front and end vises, along with benchdogs and a board jack, offer plenty of clamping options.
L E P P O
In the front of the bench I had planned to use a typical cast-iron vise with wood jaws until I ran across an Internet ad for a used patternmaker’s vise, and I couldn’t resist the temptation to buy. The vise, built in the 1930s by the Emmert Manufacturing Co., allows me to clamp a workpiece in almost any position. Patternmakers favor this type of vise because it adjusts in several planes, making it possible to hold work of almost any shape. Like me, you’ll occasionally see a used Emmert vise offered for sale on the Internet. Also, you can sometimes find them at vintage tool dealers or, more rarely, at flea markets. Expect to pay upwards of $500 for one in good condition. My vise is one of the larger ones Emmert produced. Modern reproductions of the vise are available in mostly smaller sizes, generally about 15 in. long. Some of these are fairly inexpensive, about $300, and the quality is decent. Higher-quality ones can cost more than $1,000. A sliding board jack helps support long, wide stock, with the front end of the stock held in the Emmert vise. The board jack is adapted directly from one I found in The Workbench Book by Scott Landis (The Taunton Press, 1987), modified only slightly to fit my Photos: Tom Begnal
Anatomy of a sturdy bench The base of this bench, modeled after the one master woodworker Robert Whitley built for his bench, consists of five frame-and-panel assemblies—two end frames, a back frame and two horizontal frames—bolted together with carriage bolts. And while I wouldn’t exactly call this a knockdown bench, it can be disassembled. I joined the panel frames with a double row of #20 biscuits, mostly because of speed and convenience. The base carcase sees mostly compression loads on vertical grain members rather than racking forces, which would stress the biscuit joints. A purist would have used mortises and tenons here. But I’ve had no trouble using biscuits in this kind of application. The top is made from hard-maple laminations face-glued together. Each end of the bench has a long tenon. Later, when a pair of caps is made, each tenon fits into a mortise in the corresponding cap pieces. I used a circular saw to cut the tenons. With a straightedge clamped to the benchtop to guide the saw, I made several crosscut kerfs and chiseled away the waste. Both the long and short end caps are mortised to accept the tenons on each end of the bench. To allow the top to move, the end caps aren’t glued in place. Instead, each one is held in place with a pair of bolts. One of the bolt holes on each end cap is slotted so that it can move with the top. Once I had the end caps mounted, I flattened the entire benchtop using handplanes and winding sticks. Mounting an Emmert vise is relatively simple, although they are often heavy (mine is about 85 lbs.). The vise itself mounts on a large hinge that’s mortised into the top face of the benchtop and also the front face of the front apron. To allow clearance for the vise screw, a channel is cut into the underside of the apron and the benchtop.
Main top, 2 3⁄8 in. thick by 96 1⁄2 in. long, including 1-in.-long tenons
Long end cap, 3 1⁄4 in. thick by 4 in. wide by 33 3⁄8 in. long
31 3⁄4 in. 6 1⁄2 in.
Back apron, 1 5⁄8 in. thick by 4 in. wide by 94 1⁄2 in. long
17 5⁄8 in.
Short end cap, 3 3⁄8 in. thick by 4 in. wide by 28 1⁄2 in. long
All bolts are 3⁄8 in. dia.
Front apron, 1 5⁄8 in. thick by 4 in. wide by 80 1⁄8 in. long
Back rails, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 1⁄2 in. wide by 51 in. long
Board-jack upper runner, 3⁄8 in. thick by 1 11⁄16 in. wide by 10 1⁄4 in. long
Filler block, 1 5⁄8 in. square 5 in.
Horizontal supports, 1 1⁄4 in. thick by 3 1⁄4 in. wide
Clearance for guide plate
Back dividers, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 1⁄2 in. wide by 15 1⁄2 in. long
Cleat, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 2 in. wide by 16 5⁄8 in. long
Back stiles, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 5 1⁄4 in. wide by 31 1⁄2 in. long
Board-jack track, 1 1⁄2 in. thick by 2 in. wide by 61 1⁄2 in. long
End panel mortise, 3⁄4 in. wide by 1⁄2 in. deep by 9 1⁄4 in. long
Back panels, 3⁄4 in. thick by 14 7⁄8 in. wide by 16 3⁄8 in. long
Mounting cleats, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 2 in. wide by 3 in. long Plywood drawer-case dividers, 1 1⁄2 in. thick by 21 in. wide by 24 in. long, including 1⁄2-in. solid-wood edging
Upper end rails, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 in. wide by 21 in. long
Board-jack face, 7⁄8 in. thick by 7 5⁄8 in. wide by 22 in. long
Horizontal plywood panels, 1 ⁄2 in. thick
Each board-jack elbow is made from a block measuring 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 2 1⁄4 in. wide by 6 in. long.
24 1⁄4 in.
Horizontal frames, 24 in. wide by 61 1⁄2 in. long, are made from 1 3⁄4-in.-thick by 4 1⁄4-in.wide stock. Plywood drawer-case ends, 3⁄4 in. thick by 21 in. wide by 24 in. long, including 1 ⁄2-in. solid-wood edging
33 7⁄8 in.
14 3⁄4 in.
Board-jack lower runner, 1 1⁄4 in. thick by 1 5⁄8 in. wide by 10 1⁄4 in. long
End dividers, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 1⁄2 in. wide by 21 in. long End panels, 3⁄4 in. thick by 9 1⁄8 in. wide by 21 7⁄8 in. long Lower end rails, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 1⁄2 in. wide by 21 in. long
End stiles, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 1⁄2 in. wide by 31 1⁄2 in. long
DOVETAILING THE END CAPS AND FRONT OF THE VISE
END-VISE CONSTRUCTION Benchtop
Upper guide plate
Core is screwed to the vise.
Main plate Bolt passes through the core and threads into the upper guide plate.
The main plate is mounted to the edge of the benchtop with wood screws and is the only vise part that doesn’t move. All of the other wood and steel vise parts simply slide back and forth along the main plate. End, 2 7⁄8 in. thick by 4 13⁄16 in. wide by 6 3⁄8 in. long
Lower guide plate
Upper guide plate
Top, 1 3⁄16 in. thick by 3 in. wide by 18 1⁄8 in. long
Core, 3 in. thick by 3 1⁄8 in. wide by 19 3⁄4 in. long
Splines, ⁄4 in. thick by 1⁄2 in. wide 1
Dog-hole block, 1 11⁄16 in. thick by 4 13⁄16 in. wide by 19 5⁄8 in. long, including 3⁄4-in. long tenons
Lower guide plate
Cut the dovetails. Use a fine-toothed backsaw to cut the sides of the dovetails.
Mark the pin locations on the outside and inside ends. With the end cap clamped in a vise, the front piece is used as a template to mark the pin locations.
the hardware on hand before making the vise. Some of the dimensions are taken directly off the steel parts. The main plate is screwed to the edge of the benchtop. All of the other parts, effectively working as one component, simply slide along the main plate. One end of the long screw is attached to the outside end of the vise, while the other end is threaded into the nut on the main plate. As the screw is turned, it threads in or out of the fixed nut, and in the process the vise is carried along for the ride. The top and bottom guide plates connect the vise and the main plate while allowing the vise to slide. The secret here is the single lengthwise groove near one edge of each guide plate. The grooves in the guide plates simply slide over the main plate, held apart by the wooden core. Core prevents a sloppy fit—The core maintains the correct distance between the top and bottom guide plates. To make the core, start by measuring between the top and bottom guide plates while the two parts are assembled to the main
Cut the pins. Use a Forstner bit to remove most of the waste material from the pin ends. A chisel takes care of any waste that remains.
plate. Add 1⁄64 in. or so for clearance, then rip the core to width. Now clamp the two guide plates to the core and try sliding the core along the main plate. If the fit is too loose, remove the plates, then run the core through a thickness planer, but make the cut an especially thin one. Repeat as needed. If the fit is too tight, add shim stock between the core and a guide plate. Cut the core to length and drill a clearance hole for the vise screw in one end. Then hollow out the center of the core using a Forstner bit, and clean up what remains with a chisel. Now use the top guide plate to mark the locations of the mounting holes on each end of the vise. The end of the plate should be flush with the drilled end of the core. To provide a little clearance between the core and the main plate, the slot in the guide plate should extend past the edge of the core by no more than about 1⁄32 in. Once marked, use a drill press to bore the holes. Cut and assemble the end-vise parts—After cutting the front, end, top, jaw and dog-hole block to size, it’s time to tackle the
A vise with good moves Front, 1 11⁄16 in. thick by 4 13⁄16 in. wide by 22 7⁄8 in. long, including 2 3⁄8-in.-long dovetails
bench. The bottom track screws to the bottom frame, capturing the board jack. An occasional application of paste wax to the tracks keeps the jack sliding smoothly.
End vise adds versatility I originally considered a commercially made twin-screw end vise, but in the end the extra versatility that a traditional vise offers has made the effort worthwhile. Whether you build my bench from the ground up or not, adding an end vise to a work-
Jaw, 2 7⁄8 in. thick by 4 13⁄16 in. wide by 7 3⁄8 in. long
bench will make it much more user-friendly. Building the end vise is also the trickiest part of the process. The end-vise hardware consists of four parts (the vise hardware is available from Woodcraft—800-225-1153): a main plate that includes a cylindrical nut; a long screw with a flanged bracket and handle collar; a top guide plate with a lengthwise groove and a pair of threaded bolt holes; and a bottom guide plate with a corresponding groove and a pair of countersunk through-holes. A pair of bolts is also included. By the way, it’s important to have
The jaws on an Emmert patternmaker’s vise adjust in three planes, a feature that can prove useful when clamping odd-shaped parts. The jaws rotate 360° (left), pivot 90° (center) and taper (right).
ASSEMBLING THE VISE
Begin gluing the vise parts. Glue the end, the jaw, the dog-hole block and the top. You’ll need several clamps to squeeze the four parts together.
MAKING THE CORE
THE CORE CONNECTS THE VISE TO THE HARDWARE Core Cavity for vise screw 14 3⁄16 in.
Hole for screw
Add the front piece. Apply glue to the tails on the front piece and the pins on the end and jaw, then use a mallet to tap the front into place.
The core provides a means to secure the vise hardware. The core is made from a glued-up block of wood. After drilling out the cavity, use a chisel to clean up any waste that remains.
2 1⁄2 in.
The cavity in the core must be long enough to allow the vise to be placed over the fixed nut on the main plate.
Cavity for vise screw Guide plate
2 5⁄8 in.
Size the core to fit precisely between the upper and lower guide plates.
3 1⁄8 in.
Mounting the core. With the upper guide plate temporarily placed on the core to serve as a spacer, slip the core and plate into the vise cavity (top). Then attach the core to the vise by driving four screws through the core and into the doghole block (bottom).
I N S TA L L I N G T H E E N D V I S E Secure the main plate. Position the top edge of the plate slightly above the bottom edge of the groove in the top.
Slide the top plate onto the main plate. When properly located, the top guide plate should slide smoothly along the main plate without interference.
Mount the vise. With the cylindrical nut on the main plate roughly aligned with the open space at the back end of the core cavity, slip the vise onto the guide plate. Then thread the screw into the nut. Bolt the guide plates. After slipping the lower guide plate onto the bottom edge of the main plate, add the two bolts that thread into tapped holes in the upper guide plate.
double dovetails that join the front to the end and the jaw. Double dovetails simply are small dovetails cut between larger ones (see the top photos on p. 54). They require a lot of chopping by hand, even after hogging out much of the waste with Forstner bits. Plus, it takes special care to avoid breaking the pins at the narrow end. Mark the tails on each end of the front, then use a backsaw to remove a good part of the waste. Finish the work with a chisel. Now mark the pin profile. I clamped the jaw on end in the Emmert vise and used a chisel to mark most of the pin profile, reaching places my marking knife couldn’t. Remove the pin waste using the drill press. You can do this with Forstner bits and then finish with a chisel. Repeat the steps to cut the pins on the end piece. The dog-hole block has three tenons on each end that fit into mortises cut into the end and the jaw. Cut the dog holes first, then use a router to expand the top end slightly, creating a small step. The top piece has a spline groove on three edges. Cut matching grooves in the end, the jaw and the dog-hole block. After dry-fitting all of the parts to make sure everything goes together okay, glue and clamp the end, the jaw, the top and the doghole block. Then glue the front in place. Mount the vise—The entire vise hangs on the main plate that mounts at the notch in the right end of the top. But, before the vise can be mounted, you need to cut a groove in the edge of the top to provide clearance for the upper guide plate. A router and an edge guide, with the router operated horizontally, can be used to create most of the groove. A chisel is used to extend the groove to the corner of the notch. Before the main plate can be mounted, a shallow hole must be drilled in the edge of the benchtop to provide clearance for the bolt head on the back of the plate. Finally, glue the cleat in place. The top edge of the main plate must be parallel to the benchtop, and the front edge of the plate must be flush with the front of the end cap. It also must be located a distance from the benchtop that’s equal to the thickness of the top plus the thickness of the top guide plate, minus the depth of the groove in the guide plate. Once everything is lined up, drive a couple of screws to secure the main plate in place. The remaining screws will be installed after the vise has been test-fitted. Next, add the core. Temporarily place the top guide plate on the core and slide the two parts into the vise. While squeezing the plate between the core and the underside of the top, drive four screws through the back of the core and into the dog-hole block. Once the core has been installed, remove the plate. Now drill a hole in the jaw and slip the screw through the hole and into the core. A pair of screws driven through the flange secure the screw to the vise. Next, with the top guide plate resting on the main plate, slip the vise over the guide plate. Position the vise so that the cylindrical nut ends up in the opening between the end of the screw and the back of the core. To complete the vise assembly, insert the two bolts supplied with the hardware through holes drilled earlier in the core. Snug up each bolt with a few turns of an adjustable wrench. The wood handles are made from maple dowels, with ends made from hardwood balls that are available from a number of woodworking mail-order outfits.
Jon Leppo is an amateur woodworker in Denver.
The Essential Workbench
Front vise jaw, 3 in. thick by 6 in. wide by 18 in. long; inside face beveled 1⁄8 in. top to bottom
Round dog holes, 3⁄4 in. dia., are aligned with dog holes in front vise jaw.
Square dog holes, made to fit metal dogs, tilting 3° toward end vise and 6 in. o.c., are aligned with dogs in end vise.
Front apron, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 6 in. wide by 75 in. long
Workhorse bench combines the best of the old and the new B Y
L O N
S C H L E I N I N G
his latest attempt to design a woodworker’s bench is built on the foundation of the dozens that have graced the pages of this publication, starting with Tage Frid’s in the fall of 1976 (FWW #4). His includes a built-in tool tray, a shoulder vise on the left, and a tail vise on the right, with a single row of dog holes along the front apron—much different from the bench seen here. Frid’s bench is a classic northern-European design that traces its roots back centuries before the introduction of electricity. Frid’s bench and Frank Klausz’s very similar design a few years later (FWW #53) have influenced modern bench builders for decades. Several Fine Woodworking editors and I recently collaborated on designing an essential workbench for today’s woodworker, one that is straightforward to build without compromising performance. This bench was designed to be a tool—more workhorse than showpiece. We did not include traditional components simply for history’s sake, and we took advantage of modern innovations. We also wanted this bench to be a project that most woodworkers could build using tools found in an average small shop: tablesaw, portable planer, crosscut saw, router, drill press, and hand tools. The
Roundover on trestle members and vise jaws, 2 1⁄8-in. radius
Dowels, 7⁄16 in. dia., chamfered on tip
ANATOMY OF A WORKBENCH
Stretchers, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 4 in. wide by 50 5⁄8 in. long overall (includes an extra 1⁄16 in. on each tenon for trimming after wedging)
This bench consists of (and construction proceeds in this order): a trestle base joined with mortiseand-tenons; a thick top laminated from boards set on edge; and front and end vises, both with wood jaws.
Tenons, 1 in. thick by 3 1⁄4 in. wide by 3 1⁄16 in. long
Drawings: Bob La Pointe
78 1⁄2 in.
27 3⁄4 in. 2 1⁄2 in.
34 1⁄2 in.
Top slab, 2 ⁄2 in. thick by 26 in. wide by 73 3⁄8 in. long overall
51 in. Tongue, 3⁄4 in. thick by 11⁄16 in. long
28 in. Slot
End caps, 1 3⁄4 in. thick by 6 in. wide by 27 3⁄4 in. long, are glued to the top at the front and barrel-bolted at the center and rear.
Wedges, 5° 1
⁄2 in. Top dovetail is centered on slot.
Trestle top member, 3 in. thick by 3 in. wide by 25 3⁄4 in. long
Upper tenons, 1 1⁄2 in. thick by 2 1⁄4 in. wide by 3 1⁄16 in. long (includes an extra 1⁄16 in. for trimming after wedging)
End vise jaw, 3 in. thick by 6 5⁄8 in. wide by 27 3⁄4 in. long, are beveled 1⁄8 in. top to bottom on the inside face.
SOURCES OF SUPPLY PREMADE BENCHTOP SLABS Grizzly Industrial 800-523-4777; www.grizzly.com
Trestle legs, 3 in. thick by 3 in. wide by 31 1⁄16 in. long, including tenons
Lee Valley Tools 800-871-8158; www.leevalley.com Woodcraft 800-225-1153; www.woodcraft.com QUICK-RELEASE FRONT VISE Woodcraft
Lower tenons, 1 1⁄2 in. thick by 2 1⁄4 in. wide by 2 1⁄2 in. long
VERITAS TWIN-SCREW VISE Lee Valley Tools STEEL BENCHDOGS (SQUARE) Highland Hardware 800-241-6748; www.tools-for-woodworking.com
Trestle feet, 3 1⁄2 in. thick by 3 1⁄2 in. wide by 28 in. long
ROUND BENCHDOGS Lee Valley Tools
TOOLS & SHOPS 2004
BASE A S S E M B LY
BLIND MORTISE-AND-TENONS ARE PINNED FOR STRENGTH
The deep mortiseand-tenon joints are either draw-pinned or wedged to ensure decades of rigidity. First, assemble the trestles, then add the long stretchers to complete the base.
The feet are pinned to the legs. Start by drilling the dowel holes in the feet, dry-fitting the joints, and transferring (left) the dowel-hole locations to the tenons. Then use a center punch (center) to offset those locations slightly on the tenons, creating the draw effect. Last, apply glue to all surfaces, assemble the joint, and drive home the dowels (right).
only heavy-duty tool I used was a 3-hp tablesaw. Ripping lots of 8/4 maple puts a strain on even a large saw, so use a clean, sharp blade.
A durable workbench requires beefy parts Avid woodworkers themselves, FWW editors regularly visit shops across the country, and they see a wide array of workbench configurations. Like all woodworkers, they know what they like and don’t like. In the end we all compromised a bit, but we reached a solid consensus. My own involvement arose from having spent the last year researching and writing a book on workbenches (look for it in the fall of 2004 from The Taunton Press). I was commissioned to finalize this design, write the article, and build the bench. A thick, solid top—We decided on an overall size of 28 in. wide by 6 ft. long. Add a few inches for vise jaws, and it’s a nice, big top.
The editors thought 2 in. in top thickness would be plenty, with extra thickness at the edges, but I made this top 21⁄2 in. thick because it wasn’t much more difficult to mill and laminate thicker pieces. However, if you start with a premade bench slab, the standard 13⁄4-in. thickness offers plenty of mass and solidity for serious handtool use, especially after adding the thicker apron and end caps. Gluing up the slab allowed me to machine the square dog holes before the pieces were assembled. Round dog holes might be a better option for a premade slab because square ones are best cut while the top slab is in pieces. Heavy, rigid base—I wanted the benchtop and base to be nicely proportioned. Many benches I’ve seen look like top-heavy slabs on spindly legs. Also, it was important that the bench not rack or skid across the floor under heavy handplaning. A thick trestle base,
A jig makes easy work of mortises There are 16 mortises (and tenons) in the base but only two different sizes. Make two mortising jigs to speed up layout and guide the chisels. The jig is made from three blocks glued and screwed together, with a fence attached on each side to hug the workpiece.
Locate and lay out the mortises. With the jig, this job should go quickly.
Drill out most of the waste. The layout lines will guide you. For the blind mortises, set the drill press’s depth stop.
Chop out the rest with chisels. Remove most of the material with a 1⁄2-in. chisel before switching to a wider one. The jig will guide the chisels precisely.
THROUGH-TENONS ARE WEDGED
Wedge the top members and stretchers. The slots in the tenons are angled 5° to match the wedge angle. A hole is drilled at the base of each slot to prevent splitting. Apply glue to all surfaces, including the wedges and slots; assemble the joint; and drive home the wedges (above), using a block of wood to protect them from direct blows. Last, connect the two trestles with the upper and lower stretchers (below), wedging their tenons in place.
Photos: Asa Christiana
joined with pinned or wedged mortise-and-tenons, guarantees stability. I laminated 8/4 lumber to make these thick members (and the top slab) because 8/4 is readily available in most regions. Splitting the stretchers, two high and two low, leaves a perfect opening for a future cabinet with drawers. The traditional single, wide stretcher would have saved some time, but it also would have blocked this natural storage area. Innovative vises—Hundreds of woodworkers probably would say they could not get through a day without a conventional tail vise, which is designed primarily for clamping things flat on the benchtop between dogs. Others would say the same for a shoulder vise, which offers the capability of clamping workpieces between its jaws without interference from guide bars or screws. The Veritas Twin-Screw Vise incorporates some of the capabilities of both types, allowing long boards or large panels to be clamped with benchdogs as well as clamping an upright board up to 15 in. wide for operations such as dovetailing. The two screws are connected with a chain, preventing the jaws from racking no matter where a workpiece is located or which row of dog holes is used. I’ve always loved the look and performance of thick wooden jaws on a front vise but found it tedious to crank the long screw in and out constantly. I was tempted to install a cast-iron, quick-action Record-style vise, until I found a German-made quick-action vise screw and guide bars at Woodcraft. That allowed me to design a wooden front jaw to match the one I made for the Veritas end vise
TOOLS & SHOPS 2004
MAKE UP THE TOP SLAB IN SECTIONS
The benchtop is made of 8/4 maple, set on edge. Make the top in sections narrow enough to fit through the thickness planer.
Joint and plane the pieces. Run them through the planer on edge to ensure uniformity.
Milling benchdog holes Square benchdog
Cut the holes for the square benchdogs with a dado blade before glue-up. The notches for the dog faces can be routed or chopped out with a chisel.
Glue up the top. The base makes a level Use cauls to keep the slab flat. Wrap glue-up platform, but protect it from them with clear tape for easy cleanup. Snug drips. Use a notched card to spread glue. them down first, then clamp across the width.
Notch for dog face
Dog hole is angled 3° toward the end vise.
Dado the dog holes. Use a crosscut sled with a wedge against the fence to cut the slots at a 3° angle. A square pin sets the distance between dog slots.
and still have quick action. However, a cast-iron vise also would have been fine (see FWW #158, pp. 56-59, for proper installation), and a patternmaker’s vise is an interesting option. Both square and round benchdogs—The debates over round vs. square and wood vs. metal will go on as long as folks work wood. All dogs have advantages, but I prefer square, steel ones. However, lots of accessories are designed to fit into 3⁄4-in. round holes, so I incorporated both types into the bench. For the end vise, I milled square dog holes to fit specific steel dogs. But I can make wood ones if I choose, fitting them to the holes for the metal dogs. I ran two rows of 3⁄4-in. round dog holes for the front vise. This gives me the option of using round dogs as well as hold-downs and holdfasts, which use 3⁄4-in. holes. The round dog holes also provide the option of locating and securing jigs with 3⁄4-in. dowel pins. No tool tray—I like tool trays, but many woodworkers think they are only good for collecting debris. Although this design lacks one, a tool tray could be attached easily to the back of the benchtop. Keep in mind that the large space between the stretchers will house a small chest of drawers for protected storage close at hand.
Build the base first Wedge between fence and workpiece is angled 3°.
Square pin Tablesaw sled
TOP VIEW OF SLED
It’s more glamorous to build the top than the base. But if you build the base first, you can use it for gluing up the top slab. Then, when the top is ready, you can set it on the base to finish installing the vises. Wedged mortise-and-tenons join the legs and stretchers, creating strong resistance to racking; pegged mortise-and-tenons join legs to feet. Laminating two layers of 8/4 material (each 13⁄4 in. thick after surfacing) creates the right thickness for the base members. Mill the legs and top crossmembers down to 3 in. square but leave the feet at 31⁄2 in. square. Leave the stretchers the full 13⁄4 in. in thickness and rip them 3⁄8 in. oversize in width to allow them to move. When a wide plank is ripped into narrower pieces, tension in it is released, resulting in boards that bow one way or the other. Let the stretcher stock sit for two days, straighten and rip it to rough width, then run it through a
Flatten the slab. A five-board section of the top slab is narrow enough to fit through a benchtop planer.
Now glue three sections into one big slab. Place a try square across the dog holes and use a long bar clamp diagonally to correct any misalignment. Again, use lots of clamps and cauls to keep the sections level.
portable planer on edge to clean each edge and bring the pieces to final width. If there’s any fitting to be done, it’s easier to do it on the tenons, so cut the mortises first, using a four-sided guide block to help with the chisel work. Then cut the tenons on the tablesaw, using a dado set.
the stretchers in place. Put glue in the mortises and on the tenons as well as on the wedges and in the wedge slots. At every step of the way, measure diagonally to make sure everything stays square, and sight across the trestle tops to be sure the assembly doesn’t twist as you clamp it. Your eye will pick up minute variations.
Cutting the thumbnail profile—For the next task, cutting a large thumbnail profile on the feet, it will be worth your time to install a sharp new blade on the bandsaw. Before cutting the curve, I used a tablesaw and a crosscut sled to cut the small step at the top of the profile. After the bandsaw cut, the smoothing went quickly using a rasp and some files, followed by sandpaper.
Build the top
Assembling the base—Start with the two trestle assemblies; it’s critical that they be flat and square. After the dowels have been driven home and the glue has set, dry-fit and then glue and wedge
The boards for the top are plainsawn 8/4 stock set on edge and laminated face to face. The top’s finished thickness is 21⁄2 in., but you should expect some bowing when you rip the boards from wider stock, so rip the boards for the slab just under 3 in. wide. Once the strips have stabilized for a day or two, joint them straight on one edge, rip them on the tablesaw to about 23⁄4 in., and then plane them on edge to about 25⁄8 in. This leaves the pieces 1⁄8 in. oversize to allow for finish planing after each section is glued up. Cut the slots for the square dogs now, while the pieces are separate.
TRIM THE ENDS OF THE TOP IN T WO STEPS
Use the simple two-fence jig shown. Rout deep slots in both sides of the slab, then use a jigsaw to cut off the waste, leaving square shoulders and a tongue that will fit into the end caps.
TOOLS & SHOPS 2004
I N S TA L L THE VISES, APRON, AND END CAPS Because of the halfblind dovetails, the end caps and front apron must be fitted and attached to the bench one at a time, from right to left, as are the vises.
Cut the right-hand set of half-blind dovetails. First, cut the tails in the front apron, and then clamp the front apron in place with the right-hand end cap behind it to transfer the layout of the dovetails.
Most woodworkers have a portable surface planer capable of planing a 12-in.-wide board. So glue up and mill the 26-in. top slab in three sections of five boards, each able to fit through the planer and easier to handle than the full slab. Clamping with cauls is a two-step process. First, align the boards by applying clamp pressure to the cauls. After the boards are in line, clamp them together horizontally. Aside from straight cauls, the other key to success is a flat gluing surface. The top crossmembers on the base form the perfect platform to prevent the top from twisting during glue-up. A damp (not wet) toothbrush makes short work of cleaning the glue out of the dog holes as long as this is done immediately after the slab is clamped up. Once the glue has set for an hour or so, remove the cauls and scrape off the excess glue. Let each slab cure overnight before moving on to the next one. Plane the sections before gluing up the entire slab—If the cauls have been placed correctly, the glued slab sections should be flat with no twist. Remove any leftover glue from the top surfaces. Then, with the top surface of the slabs down on the planer bed, run them through, taking light cuts until the bottom surface is clean. Turn the slabs top-surface-up and run them through again, taking light cuts until the top surface is clean. Turn them over once more and plane the underside until you reach the 21⁄2-in. thickness. Gluing together the slabs is a lot like gluing up the individual sections. Again, use the top crossmembers on the base and lots of cauls to keep the pieces aligned. Then it’s simple to close the last of the glue joints. However, check the dog-hole locations with a square to be sure they all will be the same distance from the end vise. A neat trick for trimming the slab to length—Not many of us own a saw capable of accurately crosscutting a very heavy slab almost 21⁄2 ft. wide and more than 6 ft. long. For this project, a simple
Attach the large vise nuts to the back of the end cap. Also, finish cutting and fitting the dovetails.
router jig will allow you, in one operation, both to trim each end accurately and to create some necessary joinery (see the bottom photos on p. 43). By cutting deep dadoes on the top and bottom of the slab, a tongue is formed, which fits into a slot milled into the end cap. Cut the remaining 3⁄4-in. tongue to length with a jigsaw (not an important glue surface so not a critical cut). Cut the mating slots in the end caps using a dado set on the tablesaw. Install the end caps and front apron—The end caps cover the end grain of the top slab and help keep the slab flat. The righthand end cap also serves as the rear jaw for the end vise. The front apron beefs up the thickness at this critical work area and serves as the rear jaw for the front vise. I not only needed a strong mechanical joint holding the front apron to the end caps, but I also wanted the areas that act as vise jaws to remain flat, with no end grain protruding as it would if I used through-dovetails or finger joints at the corners. Half-blind dovetails seemed to be the perfect solution, oriented as shown in the drawing on p. 39. After cutting the joinery but before gluing the end caps and front rail in place, use a drill press to bore the holes for the vise hardware. Mount the end caps with cross-barrel bolts. The Veritas vise includes four of these; use two for each end cap. Apply glue only along the front 3 in. or 4 in. of the tongue and the groove. This limits wood movement of the slab toward the back of the bench. The front apron is attached to the slab with glue only (and help from the half-blind dovetails).
Mount the vises and attach the top Both vises come with thorough instructions, making the hardware straightforward to mount. The twin-screw vise attaches to the bench rather simply, with its two large screws passing through large nuts attached to the inner face of the end cap. It’s critical that holes in the front and rear jaws align perfectly, so drill them at the
Now for the front vise. Start by attaching the mounting bracket under the benchtop. The blocking under the bracket will increase the clamping capacity.
Locate the clearance holes in the front apron. Clamp the front apron accurately in place and tap a brad-point drill bit through the holes in the hardware to transfer their locations. Drill the holes in the front apron and front vise jaw at the same time.
same time. The length of the chain determines the distance between holes, so careful layout is in order. The vertical location of the holes is determined by adding 11⁄2 in. to the thickness of the top slab to allow the large vise nuts to clear the underside of the benchtop. Mounting the front-vise hardware and the large wood jaw is even more straightforward. First, the mounting bracket must be bolted to the underside of the benchtop. I used 5⁄16-in. lag screws. Next, the vise screw and guide bars are run through the bracket to locate their clearance holes in the front rail. Last, make the large wood jaw and bolt it to the vise hardware. Somewhere along the way, the front jaws for both vises must receive their large thumbnail profile, identical to the one on the trestle feet. Once you have all of the hardware and vises in place, mill a 1⁄8-in. bevel on each of the outside jaws to accommodate flex in the hardware as the jaws tighten, which helps them maintain good clamping pressure at the top. Now you can attach the top to the base. Two lag bolts along the centerline of the bench are plenty for attaching the benchtop to the trestle base.
Attach the front-vise hardware to the front jaw. Use the vise hardware to clamp the front jaw in its proper position before drilling for the attachment screws. Last, cut the half-blind dovetails on the left-hand end cap and attach it.
Flatten the top and finish the bench Do the final flattening after the top has been mounted to the base and all of the vises are in place. If your glue-ups went well, all you will have to do is some scraping and sanding. I didn’t want a slick finish, as beautiful as it might be. Clamps, hold-downs, and vises depend on friction to hold parts securely. The traditional finish for a benchtop is linseed oil thinned with turpentine, which seals the wood enough to make glue removal pretty easy but doesn’t make the surface more slippery than it is naturally. However, I wiped on a thinned varnish for greater protection. To make sure moisture absorption is even on all sides, it’s important to coat the top and underside of the bench equally.
Lon Schleining is a contributing editor.
Assemble the hardware for the twin-screw end vise. Clips join the chain at the proper length. Again, use the vise hardware to clamp the jaw in position before drilling for the attachment screws. TOOLS & SHOPS 2004
A Benchtop Bench For routing and handwork, this minibench raises the action to a comfortable height
43 ⁄4 in.
Dog holes, ⁄ in. dia., spaced 21 ⁄ 2 in. on center 34
33 ⁄4 in.
13 ⁄4 in.
13 ⁄4 in. 121 ⁄ 2 in.
11 ⁄ 2 in. 33 ⁄4 in.
17⁄ 8 in.
51 ⁄ 2 in. 41 ⁄4 in. 2 in.
Leg, 11 ⁄ 8 in. thick by 25 ⁄ 8 in. wide by 8 in. long, including 11 ⁄4-in.long tenons
Stretcher, 1 1 ⁄ 8 in. thick by 3 in. wide by 18 3 ⁄4 in. long, including 1 ⁄4-in.-long tenons 11 ⁄ 2 in.
31 ⁄4 in.
E L E VAT E D B E N C H S AV E S YO U R B AC K This benchtop bench elevates a workpiece several inches above a regular workbench, so it is more comfortable to do such tasks as cutting, carving, and routing.
Photos: Tom Begnal; drawings: Stephen Hutchings
J E F F
M I L L E R
oodworking benches are designed to place stock for the trestle base. I chose a mortise-and-tenon a workpiece at a height that’s ideal for handjoint to connect the legs to the aprons and feet, but half-lap joints would work well, too. Cut mortises in the planing. But the perfect height for planing aprons and feet for the legs, then cut shallow mortises often is too low for other common bench tasks. For centered on the inside faces of the legs to locate example, when routing, carving, cutting dovetails, or doing layout, I frequently have found myself bent over and solidify the bolted joints with the stretchat an uncomfortable angle so that I could see clearly ers. Cut and fit the tenons on the legs and the stretchers. The stretcher tenons will not be and work effectively. When performing these tasks, glued, so it’s especially important that they fit I like to have a workpiece positioned 6 in. to 10 in. above my waist level. without any slop. Now is a good time to drill the 3⁄ 8-in.-dia. bolt holes To bring a workpiece to my finewoodworking.com centered on the legs. ideal height range, I made a small The trestle base is workbench that mounts quickly Visit our Web site to see the author screwed to the top through to my regular bench. When extra demonstrate the benchtop bench. three countersunk holes height is needed, the minibench effectively raises the worksurface to my comfort zone. in the bottom of each apron. Elongate the The bench is easy to move, stores nicely under my center and rear holes to allow for the exbigger bench, and includes a vise that provides plenty pansion and contraction of the top (see of holding force. I made the bench out of maple, but the left drawing on the facing page). To any hard, dense wood will work.
Trestle design is simple yet strong I wanted the benchtop bench to be as sturdy as my regular bench. I settled on a trestle-table design, which ensured a solid bench and simplified construction. Begin by making the top. It can be sized to suit individual needs, but as a general rule, keep the top small enough to be moved without back strain. Joint and edge-glue the stock, then use a handplane and scraper to level and smooth the surfaces. Cut the piece to width and length. Next, mill the
TRESTLE DESIGN MAKES F O R A S T U R DY B E N C H BAS E A S S E M B LY The trestles and stretchers are assembled using mortise-andtenon construction, giving the benchtop bench solid footing. Apron Stretcher Hex nut Leg
Access hole drilled from the inside face houses the hex nut. Foot Bolt, 3 ⁄4 in. dia. by 4 in. long
Hardware Sources VENEER-PRESS SCREW BENCH PUP Lee Valley Tools 800-871-8158 www.leevalley.com Woodcraft 800-225-1153 www.woodcraft.com
Tenon, 1 ⁄ 2 in. thick by 2 in. wide by 1 1 ⁄4 in. long
Glue up the trestles, then attach the stretchers. A long bolt connects the end of each stretcher to the trestles. Note the access hole in the stretcher.
glue up the trestles, spread glue in the mortises and very lightly on the tenons, push the parts together, then clamp up. Check for square and adjust, if necessary. The stretchers need to be drilled for the bolts that will hold the base together. Use the bolt holes in the trestle legs as drill guides. Dry-assemble the base and clamp it together, but leave access to the bolt holes. Be sure to drill to depth straight; use a self-centering dowel jig, if you need to. Mark the locations for the hex-nut access holes on the inside faces of the stretchers. Drill with a 114⁄ -in.-dia. Forstner bit to within 3⁄16 in. of the outside face of each stretcher. The hex nuts and washers go into these holes.
Vise adds versatility The front vise makes it easy to clamp a workpiece either to the front of the bench or on top of it. While I wanted the vise to be simple and easy to make, I also needed it to accept wide boards for dovetailing carcases. As it turned out, a couple of veneer-press screws satisfied both requirements. Mill the vise jaw and the bench face to their designated thicknesses, then cut them to the same width and length. Mark the locations for the veneer-press-screw holes on the inside of the bench face. Clamp the vise jaw and bench face together and drill through the bench face into the jaw with a 1⁄8-in.-dia. drill bit. This hole helps align the hole for the veneer-press nut with the one for the screw. Check the dimensions of the veneer-press
screws. I used a (roughly) 5⁄ 8-in.-dia. screw, with the outside of the veneer-press nut measuring about 1 in. dia., although it tapered slightly. Drill the hole for the screw in the vise jaw, and the hole for the nut in the bench face. The end plate that comes with each screw will not be used. You can remove the plate simply by loosening the mounting screw. Enlarge the hole for the veneer-press nut, concentrating on the end of the hole nearest the benchtop. Tap the nut into place to check your progress. (The paint on the nut will rub off when it is tapped in place, leaving a clear picture of the areas that need relief.) You can remove the nut by threading the veneer-press screw into place and then tapping the end of the screw (not the handle) with a mallet. Once the nut fits, trace the outline of the flange onto the inside of the bench face. Rout away enough wood to allow the nut, and the screws that will attach it to the face, to sit flush with or slightly below the surface. Screw the nuts into place. Clamp the bench face into position so that the top edge is flush with the benchtop, and screw the two outermost screws into place (drill and countersink pilot holes first). Turn over the benchtop and check where the veneer-press screw will come through the face. Depending on the size of your bench, you may have to rout a channel on the underside of the benchtop for the veneer-press screw. Mark exactly where the channel will be, then remove the bench face to rout
VISE A S S E M B LY Before attaching the bench face to the benchtop, drill the holes for the veneer-press screws and install the hardware. The screws will close the vise jaw, but you’ll have to pull it open manually. Screws mount the bench face to the top.
Inset the veneer-press nuts into the back of the bench face. Trace the flange profile (above) and rout a recess to set the nut flush with the stock. Secure with screws (below).
Flange on the nut is flush with the surface (see the photos at right). Bench face
Wood spacer, 3 ⁄ 8 in. thick by 1 3 ⁄4 in. square
Veneer-press nut mounts from the back side of the face.
the channel. Reattach the face, and try to thread the vise screw into place. Remove more wood as necessary. The veneer-press-screw handles will need more clearance to operate easily. Glue wooden spacers, roughly 3⁄ 8 in. thick by 13⁄4 in. square, over the veneer-pressscrew holes. Run the bit you used to drill these holes through the spacers from inside the jaw. The vise jaw will not open automatically when you loosen the veneerpress screws. You can pull it open manually, or refine the vise with two modified 5⁄ 8-in. drill-bit stop collars or shaft collars. The bore of the collars might have to be enlarged to fit on the veneer-press screw. A machine shop can do this for you, or you can file it by hand.
Benchdogs boost performance The addition of Veritas Bench Pups allows me to hold a workpiece on top of the bench. Lay out the positions for holes in the benchtop and the vise jaw, being careful to avoid the area over the veneer-press screws and the apron of the base. Bore 3⁄4-in.-dia. holes and insert the Bench Pups. The benchtop holes are best drilled on the drill press, with the bench face removed. Reattach the face when everything is positioned properly and works smoothly. Apply glue to the mating surfaces, then add the screws. Finally, mount the base to the top by driving screws through the holes in the aprons. ▫ Jeff Miller runs a custom furniture shop in Chicago, where he also offers woodworking classes (www.furnituremaking.com).
Attach the base. Mount the top to the base by driving three screws through holes (two slotted, one round) in each apron. MARCH/APRIL 2005
Plywood Bench Build this versatile workbench in a weekend for under $250 B Y
C E C I L
B R A E D E N
Overhang determined by vise size.
19 1 ⁄2 in. 321 ⁄2 in.
91 ⁄2 in.
231 ⁄2 in.
54 7⁄8 in.
BENCHTOP DETAIL MDF, ⁄ in. thick 34
Solid edging, ⁄ in. thick
Center apron slat, 31 ⁄2 in. wide by 54 7⁄8 in. long
Pocket hole for attaching top
Plywood, 3⁄ 4 in. thick
Outer apron slat, 31 ⁄2 in. wide by 47 7⁄8 in. long
had wanted to build a sturdy workbench for some time but was put off by the cost and complexity of a traditional hardwood bench. I knew that such benches derive much of their strength and rigidity from the mortises and tenons that join the framework, and I wondered if there was a way to combine this joinery with the inherent strength, rigidity, and dimensional accuracy of plywood. The design I created has a base of laminated sections of plywood and a top of plywood and medium-density fiberboard (MDF). An advantage of this design is that the piece can be built without a planer or jointer, perfect for someone just getting started in woodworking. For under $250 including a vise, I have a bench with the rigidity I desired without breaking the bank.
Upper center leg slat, 31 ⁄2 in. wide by 19 1 ⁄2 in. long
Outer leg slat, 31 ⁄2 in. wide by 321 ⁄2 in. long
Design the bench, create a cut plan, and begin This method of construction can be adapted to almost any size and type of bench: You could even construct just the base and purchase a ready-made hardwood top. My bench is 33 in. wide by 72 in. long by 34 in. tall, a comfortable height for me to work at. It is also 1⁄ 8 in. lower than my tablesaw, allowing me to use the bench as an auxiliary outfeed table. The cut plan I used (see p. 56) allows you to create a bench with legs up to 36 in. long, giving a bench height of 371⁄ 2 in. All base components—legs, aprons, and stretchers—are laminations made from 39⁄16-in.-wide slats of 3⁄4-in.-thick plywood. Set the tablesaw’s fence and rip all the strips without changing the setting. You always Photos: Mark Schofield; drawings: Chuck Lockhart
Stretcher, same dimensions as apron Deck screw, 3 in. long
Lower center leg slat, 31 ⁄2 in. wide by 6 in. long
The aprons and legs are made from laminated strips of 3⁄4-in. birch plywood. The tenons and mortises are created during the lamination process, eliminating the need to cut joinery later.
TOOLS & SHOPS 2006
MAKE THE MOST O F YO U R P LY WO O D If you decide to build a bench that is the same size as mine, or one that is slightly taller, use these cut plans. I used 21 ⁄2 sheets of 4x8 birch plywood and a sheet of MDF from my local home center. Have your plywood seller make the first and second cuts as shown to ease handling the material. Other materials needed are 2-, 21 ⁄2-, and 3-in.-long deck screws, and a quart of fresh PVA woodworking glue. I’ve used both Titebond II and III, but particularly in hot, dry conditions, glues with extended open times make alignment of the laminations easier.
OUTER LEG SLATS
UPPER CENTER LEG SLATS
OUTER APRON/STRETCHER SLATS Waste used for assembly jigs.
OUTER APRON/STRETCHER SLATS
221 ⁄2 in.
CENTER APRON/STRETCHER SLATS
OUTER LEG SLATS
231 ⁄2 in.
BENCHTOP The top consists of a layer of 3⁄4-in. plywood topped with 3⁄4-in. MDF.
OUTER LEG SLATS
OUTER LEG SLATS
LOWER CENTER LEG SLATS
The two optional shelves come out of a half sheet of 3⁄4-in.-thick plywood.
SPACERS FOR LEG GLUE-UPS
will get some tearout when you cut plywood: This can be minimized with a zero-clearance insert on the tablesaw, but in any case rip with the show side of the plywood up. If you do get some tearout, lightly sand away any splinters and keep the tearout side inward when assembling the components. The last step before laminating the components is to drill pocket holes every 6 in. on one side of the two outer apron pieces to attach the top with pocket screws. Or you can use the battens described on p. 58.
Glue-up requires quick work, attention to detail LOWER SHELF
Even with glue that has a moderate amount of open time, you must work quickly, so do a dry run first and have all components in order. I apply the glue to all mating surfaces with a disposable brush that has the bristles trimmed, but a roller would work. Glue the laminates on a flat surface protected by waxed paper.
A SIMPLE JIG AIDS A P RO N A S S E M B LY When gluing the stretchers and aprons, use a jig to align the center slat at the proper offset to create the tenon.
31 ⁄2 in.
Construct the aprons and stretchers. These parts consist of a center strip of plywood that includes the two tenons, and two shorter outer strips that form the shoulders of the tenon. Have multiple clamps ready for use.
Assemble and glue stretchers and aprons—Make sure all like pieces are trimmed to exactly the same length. Draw a line 31⁄ 2 in. from both ends of the longer center-slat pieces, and mark the ends of both sides with an “X” to indicate non-glue areas. If you are using pocket holes on the aprons, make sure the holes are facing outward and upward. Glue the three pieces of each component together, being careful not to get any glue on the tenon ends. Turn the assembly on edge so that the plies are facing up and insert one end in the apron jig (see drawing, top right). As you apply clamping pressure, keep the slats aligned and pushed against the jig to maintain the 31⁄ 2-in. tenon and even cheeks. When the glue is dry, run both exposed-ply sides of each component through the tablesaw to clean them up. Next, make the legs—Prior to assembly, make the spacer blocks (see photos, p. 58) and wrap about 5 in. of each with clear tape. Used to create the lower mortise on each leg, the spacer is driven out after the leg has dried. Tape prevents glue from sticking to the spacer. The leg stack consists of two outside slats, the lower center piece, the spacer, the upper center piece, and two more outside slats. Locate the upper and lower mortise areas and mark both mating surfaces so that you will remember not to apply glue there. A simple L-shaped jig helps to lay up the legs accurately. Glue the slats together, remembering to in-
sert the spacer. After assembly, turn the stack so that the spacer is sticking up. Using both sides of the jig, keep the ends and edges of each slat in perfect alignment and the center slats pressed tightly against the spacer as you apply clamping pressure. Apply two small clamps to both outside pairs of slats that form the upper mortise. After the glue has set, make cleanup cuts on the tablesaw. Use sandpaper to slightly chamfer the bottom edges of the finished legs to prevent splintering of the outer veneer if the bench is dragged across the floor.
Assemble the frame sides, then join them with plywood panels Start by dry-fitting the tenon on each end of a stretcher into its respective mortise. If a tenon extends beyond the leg, trim it flush or slightly recessed. Lay a leg on a flat surface protected with waxed paper. Apply glue to the mortise-and-tenon, then insert the tenon and clamp lightly. Use a carpenter’s square to bring the stretcher and leg to exactly 90°, and tighten the clamp. Remove the excess glue with a damp cloth, put the joint aside to set, and assemble the second leg and stretcher. Once the glue has set, remove the clamps and lay the leg/stretcher down with the inside facing up. Drill four countersunk pilot holes at least 21⁄ 2 in. deep into each joint and drive in waxed 3-in. deck screws. Reinforcing the joints in this manner may not be
Once you spread the glue you’ll have to work q u i c k l y, s o do a dr y run first and have all the components i n o r d e r.
TOOLS & SHOPS 2006
GLUING THE LEGS
Clamping the leg. When the sections have been glued together, turn the assembly upward and apply the clamps. Waxed paper protects the work surface. When the glue has dried, knock out the taped spacer block with a mallet and a thin piece of wood to reveal the mortise.
Leg assembly. Insert a taped spacer block to hold open the lower mortise. An L-shaped jig keeps the sections aligned. Use a generous amount of glue, but don’t apply glue to those areas that face the spacer block.
necessary, but it is very cheap insurance that the joints will hold forever. Stand the assembly on the floor with the stretcher pointing up. Place waxed paper under the apron mortise; apply glue to the mortise and insert an apron tenon, being sure the pocket holes are oriented properly. Check for 90º and clamp the apron with a bar clamp. When the joint is dry, reinforce it with screws and then attach the other leg in the same manner. The benchtop should rest on the aprons, not the legs, so if the top of a leg is higher than the apron tenon, trim it flush. Sand the exposed joints on the legs to remove glue residue. If you are not using pocket screws to attach the top, prepare a couple of 2-in.-square battens with countersunk holes in two directions. Clamp the battens flush with the top inside edge of the aprons and attach them with 3-in. deck screws. Stand the front and rear assemblies on their legs on a level floor, and cut two pieces of plywood to fit between the stretchers and aprons and to the desired width of the frame. These sides will serve as the end stretchers. There will be space to install an end vise above the side of the bench if desired. Chamfer the edges of the sides. Drill countersunk holes every 3 in., 13⁄4 in. in from both edges to locate the screws in the center ply of the legs. Clamp the sides in place with the edges flush with the outside edges of the legs. Be sure to check that the frame is square by measuring the diagonal between opposite corners; adjust until the
Clean up the edges. After the legs, aprons, and stretchers have been assembled, run both edges past a sawblade to clean up glue residue and leave them at the final 31⁄2-in. width. Cut the first edges with the fence at 39⁄16 in., and the opposite edges at 31⁄2 in.
distances are even, then tighten the clamps. Now drill pilot holes 11⁄ 2 in. deep through the previously drilled countersunk holes, and drive 21⁄ 2-in. deck screws. Next, add two plywood shelves, the lower one attached to the front and rear stretchers with 2-in. screws, and the upper one screwed to battens attached with 3-in. screws through the end stretchers into the legs. Because the shelves, sides, and top are screwed on, the whole bench can be disassembled for moving.
Make and attach the top If you are making your own top, lay the layers upside down, making sure one end of the assembly is flush, and screw them together using countersunk screws that will not go through the top layer. Cut the other sides flush using a circular saw and straightedge or the tablesaw. Ask a friend to help place the top on the frame and position as desired. Mark the corners of the legs on the underside of the top. Then turn the top over and mark the holes for the vise(s) on the bottom side so that you can drill small holes through. You may have to add a spacer block to bring the vise jaws level with the top. Turn the top back over and use a spade bit to drill recesses for the bolt heads at each of the small holes. Then drill for the bolts and attach the vise. At this point you can attach the top: Place it on the bench frame and secure it with the pocket holes or battens. To protect the soft edge of the MDF top, I screwed a solid wood edging around the entire benchtop, leaving a gap for the vise. Drill holes for bench-dogs (if desired), and you are done. If you plan to use this bench primarily for glue-ups or finishing, a good choice would be to laminate the top; otherwise, apply a clear finish or just leave it natural. Cecil Braeden is a woodworker near Anacortes, Wash.
ASSEMBLING THE BASE Begin with the frame sides. Insert the stretcher and apron into the leg, making sure they meet at exactly 90° (1). Reinforce the joints with four 3-in. deck screws. With the side frame resting on the floor, add the second leg (2). Finally, add the plywood end stretchers (3). Clamp them in place, check the base for squareness, then attach with screws.
3 TOOLS & SHOPS 2006
for a Workbench
Keep hand tools close at hand but out of harm’s way B Y
t’s exasperating when I can’t find a tool. Usually I know it’s in a pile somewhere, or on a shelf, or over there where I think I saw it last… Well, all that frustration is behind me now. After 27 years as a professional woodworker, I finally have a real tool chest. When the editors and I designed “The Essential Workbench” featured in Tools & Shops, Winter 2003/2004 (FWW #167, pp. 38-45), we deliberately positioned the stretchers to accommodate a tool cabinet as large as 24 in. deep by 44 in. wide by 16 in. tall. The idea was to follow up the bench article with this article on how to build a complementary tool cabinet.
L O N
S C H L E I N I N G
As with all of my projects, I first drew the cabinet full scale in three views, including all the construction details I could think of.
Two boxes are easier to build and move I like the look of mitered corners and made that basic decision early on. Then I realized I wasn’t very comfortable mitering an edge on a plywood panel nearly 4 ft. wide by only about 2 ft. long, so I decided to break the cabinet into two separate boxes. This makes the parts smaller and easier to handle, especially on the tablesaw. I also like the idea that if you have to break down your bench to move your shop, the two boxes will be manageable.
The workbench is maple, with walnut wedges in the trestle joinery. I like the visual contrast between these two woods, so I chose maple plywood for the carcases, and solid walnut for the drawer fronts. To make sure the carcases would stand up to heavy use, I splined the miter joints and glued a full 3⁄4-in.-thick panel into a rabbet in the back of each carcase. On the front and back edges of each box, I glued solid edge-banding to cover the plywood edges and splines. I measured the heights of the tools I wanted to keep in the cabinet and discovered I needed more small drawers than large ones. I standardized the drawer Photos: Asa Christiana
BUILD T WO OF THESE The fact that this is a shop cabinet influenced many of the construction choices. Two separate boxes are easier to make than one big one. Plywood cabinets are joined with miters and splines and dressed up with solid-wood edge-banding and drawer fronts. Plywood drawer boxes get quick box joints, applied fronts, and commercial slides.
Back panel, 3⁄4-in. plywood, 21 1 ⁄4 in. wide by 151 ⁄4 in. tall
⁄ -in. plywood
Mitered corner joint Edge-banding, ⁄ in. thick by ⁄ in. wide
Rabbet, 3⁄8 in. deep by 3⁄4 in. wide Screws attach drawer front. Box joint Groove, 1 ⁄4 in. deep by 1 ⁄4 in. wide, 1 ⁄4 in. from bottom edge
Drawer bottom, ⁄ -in. plywood, 21 1 ⁄2 in. deep by 19 in. wide 14
Groove, 1 ⁄8 in. thick by 3⁄8 in. deep Heavy-duty, full-extension drawer slide Spline, 1 ⁄8-in. plywood, 5⁄8 in. wide
Drawer side, 1 ⁄ 2-in. plywood, 22 in. long
Screw temporarily holds drawer front.
Drawer front, ⁄ -in. plywood, 19 1/2 in. long
Applied drawer front, 3⁄4-in.-thick hardwood
Inset brass ring pull
Gap for drawer slides, 1 ⁄2 in. Drawer depth, 22 in.
31 ⁄4 in.
61 ⁄2 in.
F RO N T V I E W Drawings: Bob La Pointe
Rabbet for back panel, 3⁄8 in. deep by 3⁄4 in. wide
241 ⁄4 in.
SIDE VIEW TOOLS & SHOPS 2006
Cabinet boxes M I T E R E D P LY WO O D MAKES FOR QUICK C O N S T RU C T I O N
1 ⁄4 in. from inside corner
The joinery is cut on the tablesaw, and packing tape draws the joints together tightly. For a utility cabinet like this, it is quicker to apply edge-banding after assembly.
⁄ -in. plywood
Spline, 1 ⁄8-in. plywood (less than 1 ⁄8 in. thick), 5⁄8 in. wide
Grooves, ⁄ in. thick by ⁄ in. deep
Miter the edges of the panels. Angle the sawblade just beyond 45° to ensure tight corners. Sneak up on the final width, and then cut the rest of the parts to size.
sizes as much as I could so that I could make several parts of the same size. Your tools differ from mine, so size the drawers accordingly. One sheet of 3⁄4-in. maple plywood is plenty for the carcases. I used three 5x5 sheets of Baltic-birch plywood for the drawers, one 1⁄ 2 in. thick for the drawer sides and two 1⁄4 in. thick for the bottoms. Heavy-duty, ball-bearing drawer slides offer smooth action and full extension, so they were an easy choice. I used Accuride 3832 slides rated at 100 lb., which should be plenty strong, even when I pull out a drawer slightly to help support a wide board or panel held on edge in the front vise. For drawer pulls, I chose inset brass ring pulls, which match the brass benchdogs and won’t catch on cords.
Miter and spline the cabinet parts Some folks might prefer to edge-band the plywood before cutting the miters and assembling the boxes, but I chose to do the
edging afterward. This let me cut rabbets and spline slots all the way through on the tablesaw, because the front and back edges would be covered later. Also, the long miters had to be perfect only at their outermost edges. The first step is to cut all the carcase pieces about 1 in. oversize, making sure the pieces are perfectly square. Next, mark the edges that get the miter cuts and rabbets: It is awfully easy to miter or rabbet the wrong edges. Angle the tablesaw blade just a bit beyond 45° to ensure that the outside, visible edges will be tight. If you cut four small sample pieces, you can use tape to wrap them into a box to check your miter angles. Use very flat plywood for all of the cabinet parts; if it is bowed it might lift off the saw’s table near the blade and the miters won’t be accurate. Last, cut the rabbets for the backs. Splines reinforce the miters—I used 1⁄ 8-in. plywood for the spline material, as
Slot the edges for splines. Angle the sawblade at exactly 45° and locate the grooves toward the fat corner of the edge.
it fits loosely into a single blade kerf. A loose fit, with glue, is enough to provide some insurance for the miter joints. If the fit is too tight, the splines will bind when inserted in the already-assembled box (see photo, facing page). Angle the tablesaw blade at exactly 45° for the spline cuts. When ripping the spline material to width, leave plenty of clearance in the slots.
Packing tape will be your clamps. For these large boxes, it is easiest to tape up pairs of panels at a time. To close the joints, pull on the tape as you apply it.
Tape is a great clamp for mitered boxes You will insert the splines from the front and back after the boxes have been taped up, so cut the spline stock into halves lengthwise. A benefit of inserting the splines this way is that they force the excess glue into the center of the joint instead of out the front and back. I assemble mitered boxes with stranded packing tape. Normally, I lay down the pieces in a line, outside face up, and run continuous strips of tape across all four sides, leaving a 4-in. or 5-in. tab at the end. When glue is applied and the pieces are wrapped up into a box, the tape puts firm, equalized pressure at the joints. In this case, however, I found the pieces too large to handle all at once, so I taped two panels at a time and assembled the box from there. While the glue is wet, insert the splines and the back panels, which will square up the assemblies.
Two pairs of panels make a box. After spreading glue on the miters, stand up the panel assemblies and draw the last two joints together with more tape (above). Apply glue to the spline stock and insert pieces roughly halfway into the joint (left), working from both ends. Nail and glue the back panel into its rabbet, and trim the splines flush.
Edge-band the cases Because you will apply the banding after these utility cabinets have been assembled, the easiest method is to make the edgebanding exactly as wide as the plywood is thick. It’s not hard to apply it perfectly aligned with the edges. Use the surface planer to bring the banding down to a final thickness of 1⁄4 in. Take some pressure off yourself by making extra pieces. I used a nail gun to apply
Apply thin banding cut to exact width, using your fingers to align it. Dry-fit each piece first to fit the mitered ends. A 23-ga. micro-pinner leaves almost invisible holes. TOOLS & SHOPS 2006
Drawer boxes A L E S S O N I N BOX J O I N T S Made quickly on the tablesaw using a dado blade and crosscut jig, these finger joints create quick and sturdy drawer boxes. The drawer slides require an exact 1 ⁄2-in. gap on each side, so build a test drawer to dial in the final dimensions. Start the 1 ⁄2-in.-wide fingers at the top edge and let them fall randomly at the bottom.
SIZING THE FINGERS Jig
the edge-banding, using my fingertips to align it flush with the sides as I glued each piece. A 23-ga. micro-pinner leaves almost invisible holes. Clamps or strips of masking tape can replace the nails, but you will need lots of them. Work your way around the edges of the cabinets, fitting and mitering each piece as you attach it.
Size the drawers carefully In keeping with the practical nature of this project, I chose box-jointed (also called finger-jointed) drawer boxes with applied fronts. Box joints are strong, attractive, and easy to cut using a sled on the tablesaw. (For more information on cutting these joints, see photos, above, and FWW #148 pp. 60-63). The applied drawer fronts go on after the boxes are in place, making the fitting process much easier. In order for the drawer
Blade height equals thickness of drawer sides + 1 ⁄16 in.
The ends of each piece are identical. For the first cut, butt the top edge of the workpiece against the key.
slides to work properly, it’s important to have exactly 1⁄ 2 in. of space on either side of the drawer box. That’s one reason to build the cabinet boxes first. Then, when cutting the drawer box joints, you must realize that raising or lowering the dado blade on the tablesaw will affect the size of the finished drawer box. Once you have set the blade height correctly, don’t move it. I run the box-joint fingers 1⁄16 in. extralong so that I can sand them flush after the drawer box is glued up. This means cutting the box parts 1⁄ 8 in. longer than I need them and carefully adjusting the blade height 1⁄16 in. above the thickness of the parts.
erence. After attaching the drawer slides to the drawer boxes, align and mount the other half of the slides inside the cases. To align the slides front to back, use a scrap of material equal to the thickness of the drawer fronts plus the recommended offset. To align the slides top to bottom, use a spacer panel placed under the slides, inside the cases, to be sure they are installed uniformly. Initially, I installed the slides with only two screws. I got all the drawers installed and adjusted so that they worked properly, and then I inserted the rest of the screws.
Install the drawer slides
Now comes the fun part: installing the solid-wood drawer fronts. The challenge is to have as fine and even a gap as possible around each drawer front, while allowing for some shrinking and swelling with
Because these heavy-duty slides can be mounted anywhere on the drawer side, I was able to place them at the center and work from centerlines, which is my pref-
Applied drawer fronts are easier to fit
Make the second cut. To cut the second notch, just place the first notch on the key. The final notch on this drawer will be partial.
Locating the mating side. Flip the first side, put its first notch on the key, and clamp it. Butt the mating side against the first side (above). Cut the first notch on the mating side (right). The dado blade should just clear the first side.
changes in humidity. First, cut the drawer fronts to length and width so that they all fit together into the opening, with no gaps. With all of them in place, mark a centerline for the finger pulls, remove the fronts, and mortise for the pulls. All of the mortising is done easily on the drill press, with just a bit of chisel work afterward. The mortises for these pulls allow a neat trick for attaching the fronts. Drill a clearance hole in the recess, through which you can loosely insert a pan-head screw. Now you can fit the drawer fronts one at a time,
with the pan-head screws allowing some adjustment in all directions as you take light trimming cuts from the edges. Once the fronts are in position, drive some screws into them from inside the drawer boxes to lock them in place. Then remove the pan-head screws and install the finger pulls.
Finishing up For these cabinets I applied the same finish I used on the bench: a few coats of varnish thinned about 50% with turpen-
tine, applied with a rag and rubbed off before it dried. Last, I added a few thin cleats to the bottoms of the boxes, to keep them in place on the lower stretchers of the workbench. Now everything is in its place. Sure, I can’t remember which drawer my mortising chisel is in, but I know it’s in there somewhere. Lon Schleining makes furniture and stairs in Long Beach, Calif., and teaches woodworking throughout the United States.
I N S TA L L T H E D R AW E R S The drawer fronts are fit and applied after the slides and boxes are in place, making it easier to achieve fine, uniform gaps and a neat appearance.
H A R D WA R E SOURCES ACCURIDE FULL EXTENSION BOX DRAWER SLIDE Series 3832 www.rockler.com LEE VALLEY 11⁄2-IN. ROUND RING PULL Product #00L01.01 www.leevalley.com
A trick for installing slides. Working off the centerlines of the drawers and slides, Schleining uses a spacer panel to set the distance between the slides and the cabinet bottom. A small block sets the distance from the front edge.
Fit and attach the drawer fronts. Drill a slightly oversize hole in the round mortise for a pan-head screw. Use credit cards to set the gaps, and use the screw to lock the drawer front in place. Then screw the front permanently from the inside, remove the temporary screw, and install the pull. TOOLS & SHOPS 2006
Editors get a feel for each bench Fine Woodworking’s editors evaluated a bench’s appearance and how well the vises worked. They also brought in their tools and gave each bench a good workout. As they planed, sawed, and chopped, they noted the sturdiness and rigidity of each bench, and how comfortable they found the working height.
Photos, except where noted: Mark Schofield; this page (top): Michael Pekovich
COPYRIGHT 2006 by The Taunton Press, Inc. Copying and distribution of this article is not permitted.
Workbenches The best are rock solid, dead flat, and a joy to use B Y
M A R K
t the heart of any woodworking shop is a solid workbench, but there has long been a debate over whether it’s better to build your bench or buy it. Then there is the conundrum that you need a bench in order to build a bench. And if you think you can make a bench for a fraction of the cost of buying one, you may want to rerun the numbers: Remember that you can’t buy 12/4 maple in bulk like a manufacturer can, and even if you handpick your boards, you’ll have to cut away some knots, swirly grain, or checking. Add in the cost of some high-quality hardware and you’ll find the savings melting away fast. However, buying a workbench is rather like shopping for shoes: A single brand can have numerous models; the pros and cons of different features are not obvious without trying them out; and one size definitely doesn’t fit all.
S C H O F I E L D
To help simplify the process of buying a bench, Fine Woodworking decided to test some models head-tohead. Because personal preference plays such a large role when selecting a workbench, rather than use a single author, we decided to let all the editors have their say. Sure enough, opinions varied widely on some benches, but overall there was a consensus on the winners. If you are in the market for a workbench, this survey should help you pick one that suits you.
How the benches were selected and tested We chose benches approximately 6 ft. long by 2 ft. wide, with both a front and a tail vise, that were robust enough to stand up to the rigors of planing, chopping, and sawing by hand. Eight manufacturers or retailers supplied benches that met these criteria. Nearly all of them make or sell benches of different sizes and with other features than the ones we tested, so if you like the brand but not the bench, check their Web sites for alternatives. For the more subjective part of the test, the editors recorded how stable the bench felt, how well the vises worked, and how easy the dogs were to use. They also noted the general appearance of each bench; the quality of the finish; and the utility of any storage shelves, cabinets, or tool trays. When we were done, John White, our shop manager, moved in with his straightedge, feeler gauges, combination square, and scales to objectively measure each bench. Workbenches vary enormously. You really do have a wide choice when it comes to price, quality, and configuration. More than any other tool in your shop, a good workbench should last you a lifetime, so choose wisely. Mark Schofield is the managing editor.
www.F i neWoodwor k i n g.com
TOOLS & SHOPS 2007
COPYRIGHT 2006 by The Taunton Press, Inc. Copying and distribution of this article is not permitted.
Hoffman & Hammer
rder one of these benches and you’re unlikely to see its identiLength: 84 in. cal twin: Like a bespoke suit from Width: 24 in. Savile Row, each product is custom built to fit the owner’s needs and Height: 38 in. desires. The owner can specify a Weight: 281 lb. top up to 8 ft. 4 in. long and 24 in. Wood: Maple wide, with or without a tool tray, Editors’ score: 8.5 and any height. The tail vise can be positioned at either end, or you can specify a twin-screw tail vise at one or both ends with a double row of dog holes. We ordered a traditional style of bench that was higher than most. Not surprisingly, 6-ft. 3-in. Rodney Diaz, an associate art director, loved the height, but a surprising number of sub-6-ft. editors also found this height more relaxing to work at. Both vises earned high marks for their German hardware and their beautiful handles, which come complete with rubber O-rings to stop the turned cherry knobs from banging against the metal. The 50/50 boiled linseed oil and turpentine satin finish achieved the right balance of protecting the wood and being renewable. This bench felt like it had been designed and built by a woodworker, and I think we’d all love to be able to boast that we’d made it ourselves. I suspect that this reason as well as the quality and the features made it our choice as best overall. Price: $1,800
One nice vise. The tail vise’s stiffness can be adjusted using a pair of bolts. The vise handles, with their black rubber O-rings to protect the turned cherry knobs from hitting the metal, earned unanimous praise.
he smallest, lightest, and cheapest of the benches we looked at, Length: 71 in. Hoffman & Hammer’s medium bench Width: 22 in. could have been overshadowed by the heavyweight competition, but Height: 34 in. it stood its ground and earned the Weight: 162 lb. best-value award. The front vise in Wood: European beech particular had very little racking. Editors’ score: 5.6 The main criticism was the lightness of the bench, particularly the base, which made the bench unstable when pushed from front to back (end-to-end planing pressure was no problem). A solution would be to install a tool cabinet in the base, although the elevated stretchers don’t leave much room. The dogs and vises were small but worked smoothly, although the tail vise gradually increased in height as it was extended. This would be an ideal choice for someone looking for an economical, well-made workbench but without the physical mass. Price: $800
Solid vise. The front vise displayed almost no racking when the workpiece was clamped at one end.
Dog vs. drawer. When a dog is deployed in the central holes of the bench, it prevents the drawer from opening.
Photo, facing page (bottom left): Rodney Diaz
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GB 16-43 V/3S/4R
8 8 A 0 2 . 01
ike Mercedes-Benz cars, Diefenbach benches have long been Length: 63 in. symbols of German engineering Width: 243 ⁄8 in. prowess. A few years ago, however, Mercedes cars began being recalled Height: 351 ⁄2 in. for design faults and the marque Weight: 271.5 lb. slipped down the rankings in customWood: European beech er satisfaction. Based on the bench Editors’ score: 7.6 we looked at, Diefenbach’s halo may also have slipped. There were several examples of poor quality control: Only two of the four screw holes for attaching the top to the base were aligned properly, and the threaded rod on the front vise had to be bent slightly to fit it into its hole in the bench. The spring clips on all four metal dogs were so poorly riveted that they wouldn’t fit into the holes, although after being pounded on an anvil and then filed, they worked fine. Examples of poor design include the protrusion of the fingerjointed end into the front vise area. Because the dog holes were spaced wider than the end vise’s travel, there was a 3 ⁄4-in. dead zone when clamping certain length workpieces (the Laguna bench also had this problem; see p. 62). In other respects, this was a great workbench with stout legs and a thick top, giving a very solid feel. The vises were, as associate art director Kelly Dunton put it, “nicely massive,” and the anti-racking wheels on both vises were a standout feature. Price: $1,600
Vise stays parallel. By spinning the metal wheel until the distance between it and the vise jaw is slightly smaller than the thickness of the workpiece, the piece can be clamped securely without racking or twisting. www.F i neWoodwor k i n g.com
ditor Matt Berger’s comment, “When I think of a workbench Length: 741 ⁄2 in. this is it,” was typical of the initial Width: 24 in. favorable views of this workbench. The shelves and lockable cupboard Height: 333 ⁄4 in. under the bench were welcome, as Weight: 242 lb. was the nonmarring felt on the jaws Wood: European beech of the tail vise. When planing and Editors’ score: 6.1 sawing, the bench was rigid and stable, but extended use exposed some problems. Most editors found the low 333⁄4 in. height backbreaking, and the dog holes were too close to the front of the bench to grip wide boards securely. When combined with the loose dogs and the poorly aligned top of the front vise, this bench left editors disappointed, a reaction reflected in its sixth-place ranking. Price: $1,100
Dog gone. Because the dogs were too loose, they slipped down when positioned about 1 ⁄ 2 in. or less above the surface.
Front vise too low. The top of the front vise is about 1 ⁄8 in. below the benchtop. TOOLS & SHOPS 2007
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7 - F T. WO R K B E N C H
his bench certainly looked different from all the rest. Instead of Length: 84 in. being made from large chunks Width: 243 ⁄4 in. of beech or maple, Grizzly’s bench is made from thousands of strips Height: 341 ⁄4 in. of birch, most no larger than 3 ⁄4 in. Weight: 299.5 lb. sq., laminated together. The top was Wood: Birch relatively flat, and this method of Editors’ score: 4.4 construction should, in theory, make it the most stable of all the benches. That’s where the good news ends: Despite being the heaviest bench, when given a jolt it wobbled several times from end to end, probably due to the small stretchers and the undersize nuts and bolts that attach them to the legs. The front vise racked alarmingly, while the tail vise climbed 1 ⁄8 in. when tightened. When combined with the fact that the dogs leaned backward under pressure in their oversize holes, the effect was to raise the workpiece into the air. The other trouble spot is the massive drawer in the base. Heavy even when empty, it is difficult to open when storing anything but bulky, light objects.
he largest of the benches we tested, the Laguna also was the Length: 891 ⁄2 in. shortest. The overall appearance was Width: 261 ⁄2 in. pleasing and the bench had good stability, but on closer inspection Height: 33 in. the construction and the vises left Weight: 242.5 lb. something to be desired. The top was Wood: European beech visibly wavy and dished 0.030 in. Editors’ score: 6.5 in several places including the critical right-front corner near the tail vise, suggesting the top had been poorly wide-belt sanded. Also, the top of the trestle base protrudes beyond the front of the top, interfering when edge-planing a long board. The dogs and dog holes got mixed reviews. Some editors described the fit as just right, while others found the dogs’ flat spot too small to locate without a second glance. With some modest redesign and better quality control, this could become a much better bench.
Unsteady workpieces. A combination of slop in the tail vise and dogs that angle backward under pressure causes the workpiece to rise off the bench when clamped.
Good and bad dogs. The Laguna dogs slid in and out of the holes with the right amount of resistance, but editors disliked the small flat spot.
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0 5 A 01. 01
he Sjoberg only just missed the best-overall award. Initial comLength: 761 ⁄2 in. ments were “handsome,” “beautiful,” Width: 235 ⁄8 in. “massive,” and “well made,” and closer inspection revealed a number Height: 351 ⁄2 in. of unique and useful features: The Weight: 279 lb. front vise can be switched to the Wood: European beech opposite side of the bench and the Editors’ score: 8.3 bench rotated 180° for left-handed use; square vise runners almost eliminated racking despite the nearly 2-ft. width of each vise; the legs are flush with the top and fitted with dog holes to allow wide boards to be supported when edge-planing. A heavy bench, the top is 3 in. thick with a 4-in.-thick apron, giving it a very sturdy feel. Uniquely, the front vise was also fitted with a pair of dog holes, which, combined with the holes running the length of the front and back sides, gives great clamping flexibility. The dogs were round with a large, flat clamping spot, but a little stiff and hard to remove when low in the hole. The only other complaint was the slightly rough and low-luster oil-finished surface, a minor blemish on an otherwise excellent bench. Price: $1,500
Edge-plane wide pieces. The legs are flush with the sides of the benchtop and contain dog holes so they can support long boards. www.F i neWoodwor k i n g.com
pinions differed sharply on this bench, with nearly half the ediLength: 723 ⁄4 in. tors picking it as best value while Width: 26 in. others considered it overpriced. The most debated feature was the twinHeight: 35 in. screw tail vise—a Veritas exclusive. Weight: 187 lb. Proponents cited its lack of racking Wood: Maple and ability to clamp a 151 ⁄2-in.-wide Editors’ score: 6.8 board between the guides, and proclaimed it the best end vise on any bench. Skeptics called it weird, stiff, and jerky. The vise arrived unable to turn using one handle. Shop manager John White spent a few hours trying to tune it up and eventually reached a compromise between operating and not being too slack. The troubleshooting details in the manual suggest that our experience is not unique. The center tool tray impressed some editors, but the design may be responsible for the bench being dished by 0.016 in. around the center. The dogs come with slip-on plastic tool protectors, but these prevented the dogs from being lowered less than an inch above the bench and must be removed when planing thinner stock. Finally, the shiny wipe-clean finish attracted some editors, but others wondered how it would look after a few years of use with no easy way to renew it. More than any other bench, this is probably one to try before you buy; you’ll love it or leave it. Price: $995
Wide clamping ability. The large distance between the guides in the tail vise allow wide boards to be clamped securely. TOOLS & SHOPS 2007
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Making Sense of Vises A user’s guide to the heart of the workbench B y
G a r r e t t
good bench vise is nearly as useful as a shop apprentice. On my bench I have a front vise and a large tail vise—I call them my right- and left-hand men. It’s hard to imagine woodworking without them; they hold my work firmly so that I can concentrate fully on powering and controlling the tool I’m using. In general, you’ll find vises at two locations on a woodworker’s bench: one on the long side of the bench, typically at the left-hand corner for right-handed woodworkers, and another on the short side at the opposite end.
H a c k
The first, known variously as a side vise or front vise, matches the mental picture that most people have of a vise, with a movable jaw capturing work between it and the edge of the bench. The second, called an end vise or tail vise, can clamp work like a front vise, but is more often used to hold boards flat on the bench, pinched between a pin or dog in the vise and another in one of the many holes along the benchtop. Together, these two vises can
End vise It typically occupies the left-front corner of the bench and is used to hold stock upright for sawing or for working edges.
Usually found at the end of the bench, opposite the front vise, it is used with benchdogs to hold work flat for tasks like surface planing or chopping mortises.
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Front vises meet all of a woodworker’s basic needs when it comes to holding work firmly and within reach.
Up front: a vise to clamp work vertically or on edge A front vise, typically found on the bench’s left-front corner, is ideal when you need to clamp a board to plane an edge, hold a chair leg while shaping it, or hold a board upright for sawing dovetails. The most common design is quite simple: a jaw of wood, or cast iron lined with wood, that moves with a single screw and a T-handle. The rest of the vise is mortised into the front edge of the bench. Mine opens about 10 in. and has about 4 in. of depth. Many of the front vises on the market are fairly easy to fit to a benchtop. Look for one that has a large screw with well-cut Acme threads. These are the same square threads found on good clamps; they can smoothly deliver lots of force over a long life. To hold long boards, wide panels, or doors securely on edge in a front vise, you need the added support of the deep front apron of the bench. Properly installed, the fixed half of the vise should be mortised into the bench so that the movable jaw clamps against the apron. This creates a great deal of stability, making it possible to
Hold work vertically for sawing dovetails or planing end grain. A scrap piece of similar thickness, clamped in the opposite side of the vise, prevents the vise from racking.
Hold wide workpieces on edge. The vise screw prevents a wide piece from going all the way through the vise (right). A clamp seated in a dog hole provides extra support (above).
F I NE w oo d w o r k i n g
COPYRIGHT 2007 by The Taunton Press, Inc. Copying and distribution of this article is not permitted.
clamp most boards on edge with no other support. For very long boards, just put one end in the front vise and rest the other on a short board clamped in the tail or end vise, much like a board jack on traditional benches. you can clamp a large tabletop vertically against the front edge of a bench, one end held in the front vise and the other held by a bar clamp across the bench. A problem can arise, though, when clamping on just one side of the vise, such as when holding just the end of a much larger piece, clamping pieces vertically for laying out or sawing dovetails, or holding tapered or oddly shaped pieces. when one side of the jaw is applying all the pressure—or trying to—it is very hard on the screw and any alignment rods, and can even distort them. One solution is to slip a block as thick as the workpiece into the other side
TYP ES OF FRONT VISE CAst iron The most popular front vise is cast iron. A steel rod or two keep the jaw aligned. Some also have a quick-action release for faster jaw adjustments.
WoodEn-JAWEd A wooden-jawed vise operates like its cast-iron cousin. The movable jaw is typically made from the same material as the bench. Some models offer quick-release.
ArM visE An arm vise works well on wide boards. There are no screws or rods in the way. But the right-angled arm limits clamping force, which reduces the ability to clamp long boards horizontally.
Secure long boards on edge. A block clamped in the tail vise supports the opposite end.
Build it yourself. Many companies sell the hardware for these vises. Look for a large screw with square-cut threads.
PAttErnMAKEr’s visE Steady a wide panel. A sawhorse provides support underneath, with the opposite end clamped to the bench apron. www.finewoodworking.com
A patternmaker’s vise can hold oddly shaped work at any angle. The vise body can pivot up and over the bench until the jaws are parallel to the benchtop. The jaws also can rotate 360º and angle toward one another for holding tapered work. M Ay / J u n e 2 0 0 7
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An end vise holds work flat. Aligned with a row of dog holes, this vise has a wide capacity. It can hold smaller work and pieces nearly as large as the benchtop. It’s ideal for smoothing a tabletop.
A secure grip for cross-grain work. The end vise allows you to clamp a panel across its width for tasks such as planing a bevel on the end.
F I NE w oo d w o r k i n g
For chopping, a spacer keeps the work off the vise jaw. The pounding could damage the vise. The best support is on the benchtop itself, right over a leg.
An end vise also handles awkward shapes. Pieces like this curved table apron can be held securely for scraping or other tasks. Photos: Steve Scott; drawings: John Hartman
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TYPES OF END VISE
of the jaw (use a wedge for odd shapes). This keeps the jaws parallel so you can apply all the pressure you need. Some bench manufacturers equip their front vises with a threaded stop that does the same job.
CAst iron Same vise, different location. The cast-iron front vise also works well as an end vise —a smart solution if you have room or money for only one vise.
At the end: a vise to hold work flat At the other end of the bench, you typically will find one of two distinct types of vises, known as end vises or tail vises. Their main purpose is to hold work flat on the surface of the bench. A traditional tail vise, with one row of dog holes along the front edge of the bench and several more in the movable jaw, allows you to hold work flat over nearly the entire length of the bench. This is ideal for holding long boards to smooth a face, bead one edge, or hold a leg while chopping a mortise. you can also clamp across the grain to bevel a panel end or shape the skirt of a chest side. Be careful to apply only modest pressure to hold the work, or you will bow it up. The tail vise is also great for holding long or odd pieces at any angle—there are no screws in the way and the hefty construction tends to prevent racking on odd shapes. Also, it can hold a workpiece at right angles to the bench edge, ideal for planing an end-grain edge, shooting a miter on a molding, or paring a tenon shoulder. One drawback with this vise is that the large movable jaw can sag. A misaligned jaw makes it difficult to hold work flat on the benchtop. Avoid chopping or pounding over the movable jaw; it isn’t as solid as the benchtop itself. Support the work as much as possible over the bench, with the least amount of jaw open. I keep small, square blocks handy to shim my work toward the bench or protect it from the dogs. I shouldn’t have to say this, but never sit on your tail vise. Another type of end vise—The other popular type of end vise looks and works like a front vise, except that the movable jaw is mounted to, and set parallel with, the end of the bench. If I had to outfit a bench with just one vise, it would be this type (see drawing, top right). My small traveling bench has an old front vise mounted on one end in line with a row of dog holes. Some end vises of this type have a jaw that spans the entire width of the bench. equipped with a dog on each end of the jaw, and paired with a double row of dog holes down the front and back of the bench, this is a great system for holding wide parts flat on the benchtop. Several ready-made benches are built this way. Lee Valley also sells the necessary hardware for making the vise yourself. •
tAiL visE The traditional end vise. The movable jaw is a thick section of the bench’s front edge, about 18 in. long. Dog holes hold work flat on the surface. The jaws also can hold work at an angle.
The guts. Tail-vise hardware comes with instructions for making the wood components.
FULL WidtH A modern variation spans the width of the bench. With two rows of dog holes, the wide jaw of this vise is ideal for holding wider panels.
tWin-sCrEW A twin-screw model can clamp wide stock vertically. A chain connects the two screws to prevent racking.
Garrett Hack, a professional furniture maker and woodworking instructor, is a contributing editor. www.finewoodworking.com
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